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Jögi, Rain
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Publications (10 of 28) Show all publications
Svanes, C., Koplin, J., Skulstad, S. M., Johannessen, A., Bertelsen, R. J., Benediktsdottir, B., . . . Gomez Real, F. (2017). Father's environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the Respiratory Health In Northern Europe study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 46(1), 235-245.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Father's environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the Respiratory Health In Northern Europe study
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 1, 235-245 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Whereas it is generally accepted that maternal environment plays a key role in child health, emerging evidence suggests that paternal environment before conception also impacts child health. We aimed to investigate the association between children's asthma risk and parental smoking and welding exposures prior to conception.

METHODS:

In a longitudinal, multi-country study, parents of 24 168 offspring aged 2-51 years provided information on their life-course smoking habits, occupational exposure to welding and metal fumes, and offspring's asthma before/after age 10 years and hay fever. Logistic regressions investigated the relevant associations controlled for age, study centre, parental characteristics (age, asthma, education) and clustering by family.

RESULTS:

Non-allergic early-onset asthma (asthma without hay fever, present in 5.8%) was more common in the offspring with fathers who smoked before conception {odds ratio [OR] = 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-2.41]}, whereas mothers' smoking before conception did not predict offspring asthma. The risk was highest if father started smoking before age 15 years [3.24 (1.67-6.27)], even if he stopped more than 5 years before conception [2.68 (1.17-6.13)]. Fathers' pre-conception welding was independently associated with non-allergic asthma in his offspring [1.80 (1.29-2.50)]. There was no effect if the father started welding or smoking after birth. The associations were consistent across countries.

CONCLUSIONS:

Environmental exposures in young men appear to influence the respiratory health of their offspring born many years later. Influences during susceptible stages of spermatocyte development might be important and needs further investigation in humans. We hypothesize that protecting young men from harmful exposures may lead to improved respiratory health in future generations.

National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311300 (URN)10.1093/ije/dyw151 (DOI)000402724100034 ()27565179 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung FoundationSwedish Asthma and Allergy Association
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Christensen, S. H., Timm, S., Janson, C., Benediktsdóttir, B., Forsberg, B., Holm, M., . . . Schlünssen, V. (2016). A clear urban-rural gradient of allergic rhinitis in a population-based study in Northern Europe. European clinical respiratory journal, 3, Article ID 33463.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A clear urban-rural gradient of allergic rhinitis in a population-based study in Northern Europe
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2016 (English)In: European clinical respiratory journal, ISSN 2001-8525, Vol. 3, 33463Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The protective effect of farm upbringing on allergic rhinitis is well known, but how upbringing in other environments influences the development of allergic rhinitis is scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between place of upbringing and pet keeping in childhood and allergic rhinitis and nasal symptoms in adulthood.

METHODS: The population-based Respiratory Health in Northern Europe study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, and Estonia born in 1945-1973. This paper analyses 13,376 participants of the third study wave. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb, and inner city. Pets in the home at birth and during childhood were recorded. Data were analysed using adjusted logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Livestock farm upbringing predicted less adult allergic rhinitis [odds ratio (OR) 0.68, 0.54-0.85] and nasal symptoms (OR 0.82, 0.68-0.99) than city upbringing, and an urban-rural gradient with decreasing risk per level of urbanisation was observed (OR 0.92, 0.88-0.94). Pets in the home at birth (OR 0.78, 0.68-0.88) and during childhood (OR 0.83, 0.74-0.93) were associated with less subsequent allergic rhinitis. Pet keeping did not explain the protective effect of place of upbringing.

CONCLUSION: Risk of allergic rhinitis and nasal symptoms in adulthood was inversely associated with the level of urbanisation during upbringing. Pets at birth decreased the risk further, but did not explain the urban-rural gradient. Persistent beneficial effects of microbial diversity in early life might be an explanation for the findings.

Keyword
allergic rhinitis, microbial diversity, microbial exposure, nasal symptoms, pets, place of upbringing
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311293 (URN)10.3402/ecrj.v3.33463 (DOI)000392701600001 ()27890047 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung FoundationForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Asthma and Allergy Association
Note

The two last authors contributed equally.

Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2017-03-30Bibliographically approved
Schioler, L., Ruth, M., Jogi, R., Gislason, T., Storaas, T., Janson, C., . . . Hellgren, J. (2015). Nocturnal GERD - a risk factor for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis: the RHINE study. Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 70(6), 697-702.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nocturnal GERD - a risk factor for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis: the RHINE study
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2015 (English)In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 70, no 6, 697-702 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundIt has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a risk factor for developing rhinitis/rhinosinusitis, but data are lacking. This is a prospective 10-year follow-up study of a large multicenter cohort from Northern Europe, evaluating the relationship between nocturnal GERD and noninfectious rhinitis (NIR). MethodsThe study comprised 5417 subjects born between 1945 and 1973, who answered a questionnaire in 1999-2001 and again in 2010-2012. Noninfectious rhinitis was defined as having nasal obstruction, secretion, and/or sneezing without having the common cold. Odds ratios for developing NIR in relation to age, gender, BMI, smoking, asthma, and nocturnal GERD were calculated. ResultsDuring the 10-year observation period, 1034 subjects (19.1%) developed NIR. Subjects reporting nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux in both 1999 and 2010 had more NIR in 2010 (2.8% vs 1.2%, P<0.001). There was a significant dose-response relationship between the number of reflux episodes/week in 1999 and the risk of having NIR in 2010, P=0.02. In the multiple regression adjusted for age, gender, BMI, tobacco smoke, and asthma, those with nocturnal GERD in 1999 (3 episodes of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux symptoms per week) had an OR of 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5, P=0.03) to develop NIR in 2010. Smoking was associated both with an increased risk of developing NIR (30.7% vs 24.0%, P<0.001) and with the development of nocturnal GERD. ConclusionThis large, population-based, 10-year study indicates that nocturnal GERD was a risk factor for noninfectious rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. GERD should therefore be considered in patients with rhinitis of known and unknown origin.

Keyword
gastroesophageal reflux disease, multicenter, noninfectious rhinitis, population, upper airway inflammation
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-256805 (URN)10.1111/all.12615 (DOI)000355245600011 ()25808429 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-29 Created: 2015-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Svanes, O., Skorge, T. D., Johannessen, A., Bertelsen, R. J., Bratveit, M., Forsberg, B., . . . Svanes, C. (2015). Respiratory Health in Cleaners in Northern Europe: Is Susceptibility Established in Early Life?. PLoS ONE, 10(7), Article ID e0131959.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Respiratory Health in Cleaners in Northern Europe: Is Susceptibility Established in Early Life?
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, e0131959Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rationale There is some evidence that maternal smoking increases susceptibility to personal smoking's detrimental effects. One might question whether early life disadvantage might influence susceptibility to occupational exposure. Objectives In this cross-sectional study we investigated respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as related to working as a cleaner in Northern European populations, and whether early life factors influenced susceptibility to occupational cleaning's unhealthy effects. Methods The RHINE III questionnaire study assessed occupational cleaning in 13,499 participants. Associations with respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported COPD were analysed with multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for sex, age, smoking, educational level, parent's educational level, BMI and participating centre. Interaction of occupational cleaning with early life disadvantage (maternal smoking, severe respiratory infection < 5 years, born during winter months, maternal age at birth > 35 years) was investigated. Main Results Among 2138 ever-cleaners the risks of wheeze (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), adult-onset asthma (1.5 [1.2-1.8]) and self-reported COPD (1.7 [1.3-2.2]) were increased. The risk increased with years in occupational cleaning (adult-onset asthma: <= 1 year 0.9 [0.7-1.3]; 1-4 years 1.5 [1.1-2.0]; >= 4 years 1.6 [1.2-2.1]). The association of wheeze with cleaning activity >= 4 years was significantly stronger for those with early life disadvantage than in those without (1.8 [1.5-2.3] vs. 1.3 [0.96-1.8]; pinteraction 0.035). Conclusions Occupational cleaners had increased risk of asthma and self-reported COPD. Respiratory symptom risk was particularly increased in persons with factors suggestive of early life disadvantage. We hypothesize that early life disadvantage may increase airway vulnerability to harmful exposure from cleaning agents later in life.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260628 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0131959 (DOI)000358193100016 ()26168149 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Asthma and Allergy AssociationSwedish Heart Lung Foundation
Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Amaral, A. F. S., Ramasamy, A., Castro-Giner, F., Minelli, C., Accordini, S., Sorheim, I.-C., . . . Jarvis, D. L. (2014). Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Thorax, 69(6), 558-564.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey
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2014 (English)In: Thorax, ISSN 0040-6376, E-ISSN 1468-3296, Vol. 69, no 6, 558-564 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (beta=-0.08, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (beta for interaction=-0.75, 95% CI - 1.16 to -0.33, p=4x10(-4)), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide.

National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-228552 (URN)10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204574 (DOI)000337269600009 ()
Available from: 2014-07-17 Created: 2014-07-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Timm, S., Svanes, C., Janson, C., Sigsgaard, T., Johannessen, A., Gislason, T., . . . Schlunssen, V. (2014). Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe. European Journal of Epidemiology, 29(6), 429-437.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 29, no 6, 429-437 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation. Objective Place of upbringing was used as a proxy for the level and diversity of microbial stimulation to investigate the effects on the prevalence of IBD in adulthood. Methods Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) III is a postal follow-up questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) cohorts established in 1989-1992. The study population was 10,864 subjects born 1945-1971 in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia, who responded to questionnaires in 2000-2002 and 2010-2012. Data were analysed in logistic and Cox regression models taking age, sex, smoking and body mass index into consideration. Results Being born and raised on a livestock farm the first 5 years of life was associated with a lower risk of IBD compared to city living in logistic (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.94) and Cox regression models (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.98). Random-effect meta-analysis did not identify geographical difference in this association. Furthermore, there was a significant trend comparing livestock farm living, village and city living (p < 0.01). Sub-analyses showed that the protective effect was only present among subjects born after 1952 (OR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.11; 0.61). Conclusion This study suggests a protective effect from livestock farm living in early childhood on the occurrence of IBD in adulthood, however only among subjects born after 1952. We speculate that lower microbial diversity is an explanation for the findings.

Keyword
Inflammatory bowel disease, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Microbial exposure, Rural/urban environments, Hygiene hypothesis
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-229460 (URN)10.1007/s10654-014-9922-3 (DOI)000338325000006 ()
Available from: 2014-08-07 Created: 2014-08-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Sahlberg, B., Gunnbjörnsdottir, M., Soon, A., Jõgi, R., Gislason, T., Wieslander, G., . . . Norbäck, D. (2013). Airborne molds and bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), plasticizers and formaldehyde in dwellings in three North European cities in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS). Science of the Total Environment, 444, 433-440.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Airborne molds and bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), plasticizers and formaldehyde in dwellings in three North European cities in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS)
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2013 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 444, 433-440 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are few studies on associations between airborne microbial exposure, formaldehyde, plasticizers in dwellings and the symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS). As a follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II), indoor measurements were performed in homes in three North European cities. The aim was to examine whether volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin (MVOCs), and airborne levels of bacteria, molds, formaldehyde, and two plasticizers in dwellings were associated with the prevalence of SBS, and to study associations between MVOCs and reports on dampness and mold.The study included homes from three centers included in ECRHS II. A total of 159 adults (57% females) participated (19% from Reykjavik, 40% from Uppsala, and 41% from Tartu). A random sample and additional homes with a history of dampness were included. Exposure measurements were performed in the 159 homes of the participants. MVOCs were analyzed by GCMS with selective ion monitoring (SIM). Symptoms were reported in a standardized questionnaire. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression.In total 30.8% reported any SBS (20% mucosal, 10% general, and 8% dermal symptoms) and 41% of the homes had a history of dampness and molds There were positive associations between any SBS and levels of 2-pentanol (P=0.002), 2-hexanone (P=0.0002), 2-pentylfuran (P=0.009), 1-octen-3-ol (P=0.002), formaldehyde (P=0.05), and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (Texanol) (P=0.05). 1-octen-3-ol (P=0.009) and 3-methylfuran (P=0.002) were associated with mucosal symptoms. In dwellings with dampness and molds, the levels of total bacteria (P=0.02), total mold (P=0.04), viable mold (P=0.02), 3-methylfuran (P=0.008) and ethyl-isobutyrate (P=0.02) were higher.In conclusion, some MVOCs like 1-octen-3-ol, formaldehyde and the plasticizer Texanol, may be a risk factor for sick building syndrome. Moreover, concentrations of airborne molds, bacteria and some other MVOCs were slightly higher in homes with reported dampness and mold.

Keyword
Dampness, Dwelling, Indoor environment, Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs), Mold, Sick building syndrome (SBS)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-194852 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.114 (DOI)000316240200048 ()
Available from: 2013-02-20 Created: 2013-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Lillienberg, L., Andersson, E., Janson, C., Dahlman-Hoglund, A., Forsberg, B., Holm, M., . . . Toren, K. (2013). Occupational Exposure and New-onset Asthma in a Population-based Study in Northern Europe (RHINE). Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 57(4), 482-492.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational Exposure and New-onset Asthma in a Population-based Study in Northern Europe (RHINE)
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2013 (English)In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 57, no 4, 482-492 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a large population-based study among adults in northern Europe the relation between occupational exposure and new-onset asthma was studied. The study comprised 13 284 subjects born between 1945 and 1973, who answered a questionnaire 19891992 and again 19992001. Asthma was defined as Asthma diagnosed by a physician with reported year of diagnose. Hazard ratios (HR), for new-onset adult asthma during 19802000, were calculated using a modified job-exposure matrix as well as high-risk occupations in Cox regression models. The analyses were made separately for men and women and were also stratified for atopy. During the observation period there were 429 subjects with new-onset asthma with an asthma incidence of 1.3 cases per 1000 person-years for men and 2.4 for women. A significant increase in new-onset asthma was seen for men exposed to plant-associated antigens (HR 3.6; 95% CI [confidence interval] 1.49.0), epoxy (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.34.5), diisocyanates (HR 2.1; 95% CI 1.23.7) and accidental peak exposures to irritants (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.34.7). Both men and women exposed to cleaning agents had an increased asthma risk. When stratifying for atopy an increased asthma risk were seen in non-atopic men exposed to acrylates (HR 3.3; 95% CI 1.47.5), epoxy compounds (HR 3.6; 95% CI 1.67.9), diisocyanates and accidental peak exposures to irritants (HR 3.0; 95% CI 1.27.2). Population attributable risk for occupational asthma was 14% for men and 7% for women. This population-based study showed that men exposed to epoxy, diisocyanates and acrylates had an increased risk of new-onset asthma. Non-atopics seemed to be at higher risk than atopics, except for exposure to high molecular weight agents. Increased asthma risks among cleaners, spray painters, plumbers, and hairdressers were confirmed.

Keyword
Atopics and non-atopics, high molecular weight agent, high-risk occupations, irritating agents, job-exposure matrix, low molecualr weight agent, occupational asthma, population attributable risk
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-200660 (URN)10.1093/annhyg/mes083 (DOI)000318066000006 ()
Available from: 2013-06-03 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Accordini, S., Corsico, A. G., Braggion, M., Gerbase, M. W., Gislason, D., Gulsvik, A., . . . de Marco, R. (2013). The Cost of Persistent Asthma in Europe: An International Population-Based Study in Adults. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 160(1), 93-101.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Cost of Persistent Asthma in Europe: An International Population-Based Study in Adults
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2013 (English)In: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 160, no 1, 93-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: This study is aimed at providing a real-world evaluation of the economic cost of persistent asthma among European adults according to the degree of disease control [as defined by the 2006 Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines]. Methods: A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study was carried out on 462 patients aged 30-54 years with persistent asthma (according to the 2002 GINA definition), who were identified in general population samples from 11 European countries and examined in clinical settings in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II between 1999 and 2002. The cost estimates were computed from the societal perspective following the bottom-up approach on the basis of rates, wages and prices in 2004 (obtained at the national level from official sources), and were then converted to the 2010 values. Results: The mean total cost per patient was EUR 1,583 and was largely driven by indirect costs (i.e. lost working days and days with limited, not work-related activities 62.5%). The expected total cost in the population aged 30-54 years of the 11 European countries was EUR 4.3 billion (EUR 19.3 billion when extended to the whole European population aged from 15 to 64 years). The mean total cost per patient ranged from EUR 509 (controlled asthma) to EUR 2,281 (uncontrolled disease). Chronic cough or phlegm and having a high BMI significantly increased the individual total cost. Conclusions: Among European adults, the cost of persistent asthma drastically increases as disease control decreases. Therefore, substantial cost savings could be obtained through the proper management of adult patients in Europe.

Keyword
Asthma, Cost of illness, Disease control
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-189119 (URN)10.1159/000338998 (DOI)000311487100012 ()
Available from: 2013-01-04 Created: 2012-12-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Holm, M., Kim, J.-L., Lillienberg, L., Storaas, T., Jögi, R., Svanes, C., . . . Torén, K. (2012). Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis: impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 16(4), 553-557.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis: impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study
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2012 (English)In: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, ISSN 1027-3719, E-ISSN 1815-7920, Vol. 16, no 4, 553-557 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking habits and exposure to welding fumes in a general population sample.

METHODS: Subjects from Northern Europe born between 1945 and 1971 who participated in Stage 1 (1989-1994) of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were mailed a respiratory questionnaire in 1999-2001 (the RHINE study); 15 909 answered the questionnaire and gave complete data on smoking. CB was defined as chronic productive cough of at least 3 months a year for 2 consecutive years. The questionnaire comprised an item about age when CB started and items about exposure to welding fumes. The incidence of CB was retrospectively assessed for the observation period 1980-2001.

RESULTS: CB had a prevalence of 5.4%, and was associated with current smoking and welding exposure. The incidence rate of CB was 1.9 per 1000 person-years, and was increased in relation to welding exposure (low exposure HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8; high exposure HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.7) and in relation to smoking (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.5).

CONCLUSION: Smoking and occupational exposure to welding fumes are both associated with an increased risk of CB.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169407 (URN)10.5588/ijtld.11.0288 (DOI)000302336300023 ()22325166 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-02-28 Created: 2012-02-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
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