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Waluszewski, Alexandra
Publications (10 of 108) Show all publications
Håkansson, H. & Waluszewski, A. (2018). Heaviness, space and journey - innovation opportunities and restrictions. The IMP Journal, 12(2), 258-275
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heaviness, space and journey - innovation opportunities and restrictions
2018 (English)In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 258-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that if the authors want to understand the role of heaviness, space and journey in innovation, the authors have to start with the interaction itself, that is the exchange process taking place between economic actors. Three major aspects will be considered: the first is that heaviness, space and journey imply restrictions, the second is that these aspects can be positively utilised in innovation processes, and the third is their joint importance to contemporary policy. All innovation processes must bypass and build on existing investments in social and material resources, related across time and space.

Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation is a basic IMP observation: exchange has a content. Exchange is captured as an interaction process that creates specific imprints on material and social resources involved - across firm boundaries, and across time and space. The methodology is a consequence of the research question and the theoretical point of departure and is based on three earlier IMP studies, where heaviness has been measured in different ways. The authors utilize two earlier presented case studies to focus on the heaviness, space and journey dimensions.

Findings: Three main aspects are discussed: the first aspect concerns the need for utilisation of others heaviness in order for the innovation to gain heaviness in itself. The second aspect concerns the consequences that the search for heaviness has for the creation of an innovation space. The third aspect concerns the innovation journey; the specific interaction patterns between significant actors as well as places hosting heavy using, producing and developing activities created through interactions over time.

Research limitations/implications: In order to change or to establish a new economic exchange interface, there is an urgent need to be aware of and utilise heaviness, to find out in what way existing investments made in related interfaces can be taken advantage of. In order to do that, there is a need for a better understanding of the function of heaviness, spatial and journey aspects included.

Practical implications: In contemporary policy, certain heaviness is recognised, however, only in a non-business developing setting. The first conclusion is that heaviness of established producing and using settings is a policy blind spot. This implies that analytical policy approaches are not equipped for recognitions or of estimations of heaviness, nor as a hindrance or as a possibility in producing and using settings. The second conclusion is that the policy definition of the role of place implies neglecting the innovation space. The third conclusion is that there is a need for policy to recognise the innovation journey and its consequences.

Social implications: If the policy is expected to have regional effects, policy analysis has to start out from the established heaviness of the region and consider how it can be taken advantage of.

Originality/value: The paper draws attention to an aspect neglected in policy attempts to boost innovation, that the mobilising support has to come from actors representing heavy producing and using networks - and that these already have space and journey characteristics. A peripheral actor can come up with a suggestion for change - but it cannot alone mobilise the resources necessary for an innovation to get a space and journey in relation to established resource constellations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018
Keywords
Innovation, Policy, Space, Heaviness, Journey
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362858 (URN)10.1108/IMP-05-2017-0017 (DOI)000441394000004 ()
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2018-10-11Bibliographically approved
Eklinder-Frick, J. O., Perna, A. & Waluszewski, A. (2018). Innovation in a globalized world: Proximity-focused policy and border-crossing innovation projects. The IMP Journal, 12(2), 237-257
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation in a globalized world: Proximity-focused policy and border-crossing innovation projects
2018 (English)In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 237-257Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Previous IMP research has shown that innovation benefits tend to gravitate across organisational, company and legal borders. However, OECD and EU policy assume that innovation investments will create benefits in close spatial relation to where these were made. The overall purpose of this paper is to consider how opportunities and obstacles of innovation appear from the perspective of: a national policy actor, its regional mediators and a policy supported and research-based firm engaged in innovation. A specific interest is directed to what interactive aspects that are considered by these actors; in the using, producing and developing settings.

Design/methodology/approach: Influenced by the research question and theoretical point of departure the authors investigate what type of interfaces our focal actors recognise in the using, producing and developing settings. A total of 41 face-to-face and phone interviews focusing on each actor's approach were conducted; 23 interviews in order to investigate the policy side of innovation attempts, while 18 interviews have been performed in order to understand a single business actor's innovation approach.

Findings: The study shows that both the national policy agency and the regional policy mediators primarily operate within a developing setting, and furthermore, applies a rather peculiar interpretation of proximity. As long as the developing setting of the innovation journey is in focus, with the task to transfer academic knowledge advances to commercial actors, the proximity aspect is rather easy to fulfil. However, as soon as the producing and using settings of the innovation is taken into consideration, the innovation, if it survives, will gravitate to a producing setting where it can contribute to investments in place.

Originality/value: The study investigates the opportunities and obstacles of innovation; the spatial aspects included, and how these are considered by: a national policy agency, a regional mediator and a policy-supported innovating firm, in order to juxtapose the policy doctrine with the experience of the business actors such policy wishes to support.

National Category
Business Administration Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-360580 (URN)10.1108/IMP-05-2017-0021 (DOI)000441394000003 ()
Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
Perna, A. & Waluszewski, A. (2018). The Interplay Between Innovation and Accounting: The Border-Crossing Q-Linea Project and Its Within-Border Accounting. In: Martin Carlsson-Wall, Håkan Håkansson, Kalle Kraus, Johnny Lind and Torkel Strömsten (Ed.), Accounting, Innovation and Inter-Organisational Relationships: (pp. 12-28). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Interplay Between Innovation and Accounting: The Border-Crossing Q-Linea Project and Its Within-Border Accounting
2018 (English)In: Accounting, Innovation and Inter-Organisational Relationships / [ed] Martin Carlsson-Wall, Håkan Håkansson, Kalle Kraus, Johnny Lind and Torkel Strömsten, New York: Routledge, 2018, p. 12-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2018
National Category
Business Administration Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347611 (URN)9781138082618 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-08-10
Waluszewski, A., Baraldi, E. & Perna, A. (2017). The role of policy in innovation: the challenging distribution of social, material and monetary benefits. The IMP Journal, 11(1), 51-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of policy in innovation: the challenging distribution of social, material and monetary benefits
2017 (English)In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 51-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - Contemporary innovation policy investments rests on the assumption that the main problematic interface is the one between the non-business developing setting and a rather friction-free producer and user setting. Given a business landscape characterized by interdependencies, any innovation attempt will be faced with complex interfaces also within and among all these settings. The purpose of this paper is to shed light over this issue through the investigation of the interface between policy and a specific innovation journey. The attention is directed to the creation and distribution of social-material values; and the translation of these values into a monetary dimension. Design/methodology/approach - To fulfill this aim the authors utilize an empirical study on the commercialization of university research results in the field of solar power technology, based on the ARA model as a conceptual and methodological foundation, with a focus on the establishment of resource combinations, activity links and actor bonds in the involved developing, producing and using settings. In order to pin-point the creation of social-material values and the establishment of a monetary dimension the authors used a model adapted from H dagger kansson and Olsen (2015). Findings - From a national policy perspective, the transnational nature of innovation processes and the connectedness of resources across different, often far-away places, entail a loss of control on the socialmaterial and monetary benefits of innovation; even more so if the policy of one country stands against that of another country. Still, not only policy but also representatives for academic research and business seem to consider the transnational aspect as an exception. Research limitations/implications - Due to that the embedding in the user setting did not occur as expected; with the Swedish focal firm as main interface, but from a Chinese firm that the authors did not have access to, the main focus is on the developing and the producing setting, while the embedding in the user setting is covered through indirect information. Practical implications - The role that established production structures have for the embedding of innovations into producing and using settings seems to be neglected in policy circles -although these have a strong impact on the creation of social-material value and a monetary flow. Social implications - See practical implication. Originality/value - The paper underlines the impact of interfaces with established production structures for the creation of social-material value and monetary flow -and for transnational dimension of the innovation journey.

National Category
Economics and Business Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315279 (URN)10.1108/IMP-10-2015-0058 (DOI)000396648300004 ()
Available from: 2017-02-13 Created: 2017-02-13 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
Eklund, M. & Waluszewski, A. (2017). Two rebelling approaches but only one embraced by policy: On the different policy advices of NIS and IMP. The IMP Journal, 11(3), 417-430
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two rebelling approaches but only one embraced by policy: On the different policy advices of NIS and IMP
2017 (English)In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 417-430Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is twofold, first, to shed light on the different patterns in which international marketing and purchasing (IMP) and national innovation system (NIS) were embedded into the Swedish policy context, where the first approach must be regarded as a relative failure and the second a success, second, to compare their analytical lenses and policy implications through the study of a number of seminal texts of the two approaches.

Design/methodology/approach – First, a Swedish case is selected since it provides an example of a policy context where both approaches have been considered and used as sources of inspiration for the design of policy measures. Second, the authors study a selection of the seminal texts of the two approaches in order to identify their basic theoretical assumptions. The emphasis here lies on how the schools view the importance of relations between companies, how they perceive the innovation process, their attitude towards the neoclassical market model and the explicit and implicit implications of their theoretical assumptions for policy.

Findings – IMP and its notion of the heterogeneity of resources can provide a much more context grounded analysis than is possible within the NIS/Lundvall framework. However, it requires deep contextual knowledge of individual companies, industries and national and international settings to understand the value of these resources. IMP is “tied to the ground” and radically critical of the atomistic abstractions characterising the neoclassical market view. NIS, on the other hand, requires contextual knowledge on a more superficial level and can co-exist with neoclassical economics.

Research limitations/implications – While the authors mainly focus on IMP and NIS, which date back to the 1980s, a later wave of concepts from the 1990s and onwards involve clusters (Porter, 1990), and triple helix (Etzkowitz and Leidesdorff, 1998). However, these latecomers share with NIS the ability to co-exist with neoclassical economics.

Practical implications – IMP requires high demands on any policy maker that would adopt it, in terms of acquiring deep contextual knowledge and giving up established views on how the economy works

Originality/value – The paper reveal that while both IMP and NIS like to present themselves as rebels radically departing from neoclassical economics and the linear model, NIS can still co-exist with neoclassical economics. Furthermore, IMP places high demands on any policy maker that would adopt it, in terms of acquiring deep contextual knowledge and giving up established views on how the economy works. NIS, on the other hand, requires contextual knowledge on a more superficial level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
Policy, Innovation, IMP, NIS
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331350 (URN)10.1108/IMP-04-2016-0005 (DOI)000418500200005 ()
Funder
EU, European Research Council
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Milanesi, M., Guercini, S. & Waluszewski, A. (2016). A black swan in the district? An IMP perspetive on immigrant entrepreneurship and changes in industrial districts.. The IMP Journal, 10(2), 243-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A black swan in the district? An IMP perspetive on immigrant entrepreneurship and changes in industrial districts.
2016 (English)In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 243-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changes of the Italian textile district of Prato, considered an exemplary case of the industrial district (ID) model, using a business network perspective. The "Black Swan" metaphor is used to address the changes in the Prato textile district in order to understand whether such changes have been an unexpected and unpredictable phenomenon, or they can be explain with a different theoretical tool-box, namely, that developed by the industrial network approach. Design/methodology/approach - The paper utilizes already published studies on the changes of the textile/fashion companies located to the Prato area. Both studies that have been carried out within an ID approach and those carried out with an Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) point of departure are considered in the research. Both types of studies were utilized to identify empirical observed changes of the producer, respectively user setting that the Prato located companies was related to, including identification of changes affecting both the local setting and the larger network it was related to. Findings - The utilization of the IMP model proposes a learning ground that exceed the local context and open ups of investigations of opportunities and threats stemming from interactions across spatial borders. Analysed from an interactive point of view, in the specific context of Prato, the exploitation of the opportunities given by establishing relationship between natives and migrants actors goes through the creation of interactions among actors representing specific resource combinations and activity structures - within and outside the local community. Originality/value - The paper concerns how the same research object - the changes of the Prato district - appears from another perspective different from the ID theory, namely, the industrial network approach developed by scholars of the IMP Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Interaction, Immigrant entrepreneurship, Industrial district, Industrial network approach
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293446 (URN)10.1108/IMP-09-2015-0050 (DOI)000388976300004 ()
Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Baraldi, E., Ciabuschi, F., Leach, R., Morel, C. M. & Waluszewski, A. (2016). Exploring the obstacles to implementing economic mechanisms to stimulate antibiotic research and development: a mulit-actor and system-level analysis. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 42, 451-486
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the obstacles to implementing economic mechanisms to stimulate antibiotic research and development: a mulit-actor and system-level analysis
Show others...
2016 (English)In: American Journal of Law & Medicine, ISSN 0098-8588, Vol. 42, p. 451-486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This Article examines the potential stakeholder-related obstacles hindering the implementation of mechanisms to re-ignite the development of novel antibiotics. Proposed economic models and incentives to drive such development include: Public Funding of Research and Development (R&D), Tax Incentives, Milestone Prizes, End Payments, Intellectual Property (IP) and Exclusivity Extensions, Pricing and Reimbursement Incentives, Product Development Partnerships (PDPs), and the Options Market for Antibiotics model. Drawing on personal experience and understanding of the antibiotic field, as well as stakeholder consultation and numerous expert meetings within the DRIVE-AB project and Uppsala Health Summit 2015, the Authors identify obstacles attributable to the following actors: Universities and Research Institutes, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Large Pharmaceutical Companies, Marketing Approval Regulators, Payors, Healthcare Providers, National Healthcare Authorities, Patients, and Supranational Institutions. The analysis also proposes a characterization and ranking of the difficulty associated with implementing the reviewed mechanisms. Public Funding of R&D, Pricing and Reimbursement Incentives, and PDPs are mechanisms expected to meet highly systemic barriers (i.e., obstacles across the entire antibiotic value chain), imposing greater implementation challenges in that they require convincing and involving several motivationally diverse actors in order to have much effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boston: Boston University School of Law, 2016
National Category
Social Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Business Studies; Engineering Science with specialization in industrial engineering and management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301113 (URN)10.1177/0098858816658276 (DOI)000380962100009 ()
Funder
EU, European Research Council
Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-18 Last updated: 2018-08-17
Waluszewski, A. (2016). Marketization of European Higher Education Through Policy (1ed.). In: Michael A Peters (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory: (pp. 1-5). Singapore: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marketization of European Higher Education Through Policy
2016 (English)In: Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory / [ed] Michael A Peters, Singapore: Springer, 2016, 1, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: Springer, 2016 Edition: 1
Series
ISBN 978-981-287-532-7
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301116 (URN)10.1007/978-981-287-532-7_482-1 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-18 Last updated: 2016-10-26
Håkansson, H. & Waluszewski, A. (2016). “Methodomania”? On the methodological and theoretical challenges of IMP business research“. The IMP Journal, 10(3), 443-463
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Methodomania”? On the methodological and theoretical challenges of IMP business research“
2016 (English)In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 443-463Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - Behind the simple connotation "business exchange" a complex empirical phenomenon can be observed, including using, producing and developing activities, taking place in different contexts, influenced by ideas stemming from both practice and mainstream economic thinking. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methodological challenges of research on business exchange in general and of IMP research in particular. Furthermore, to discuss how the authors can avoid the contemporary "methodomania" trend, where the researchers' focus is directed toward accounting for which rules were followed. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on a methodological distinction made by Peter Galison (1997) in his investigation of the interdependence among research approach, methodology, and research object in microphysics. Studies based on: "image," allows data in its original form, and "logic," requires the translation of original data and therefore relies "fundamentally on statistical demonstrations." This distinction is utilized to investigate what is specific with business exchange as a research object, and how IMP researchers have dealt with the methodological challenges it presents. Furthermore, the paper considers these different methodological approaches in relation to theory and understanding of the research object. Findings - The main conclusion is the huge importance the image-based methodology has had for the development of the IMP network approach. From the very start the IMP project has been focused on the production of a large set of, in Galison's terminology, "hard facts" about the existence, substance and importance of interaction and the relationships it is creating. This image-based methodology has been utilized in the development of a set of imaging instruments, each with an ability to picture the content and consequences of business exchange. Research limitations/implications - Two methodological challenges which are specific for business research are identified. One is that "images" in terms of personal accounts on the organizing of production and use of economic resources are marbled with ideas, stemming from a mix of theories, textbooks and practice on how to do this. The second is that established theories create a "logic" in terms of the combination of "assumptions" and established " accounting principles" that produce a number of outputs interpreted as primary data and objective accounts of the characteristics of the production and use of economic resources. Practical implications - IMP's image-based methodology and the development of specific imaging instruments can increase the exactness in the pictures of the content and consequences of business interaction, and also, catch the range of its substance. Considering this circumstance could be a way to avoid " methodomania" and to breed awareness of the relationship among research object, methodology, and research approach. Social implications - IMP's image-based methodology can increase the awareness that the logic-based model of business exchange has been ascribed an advisory role in terms of how companies should act in order to survive and prosper: as sellers and buyers in relation to each other, and also in relation to others. Originality/value - First, the paper underlines that image-based methodologies can be used to produce "hard facts" about the existence, substance, and importance of business interaction. Second, the paper shows how the methodology of mainstream economics tends to be "the elephant in the room," both in approaches resting on "image" and "logic." It addresses the importance of making the elephant visible and investigates what is happening in its shadow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Methodology, Quantiative, Qualitative, Image, Business exchange, Business relationships
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-306197 (URN)10.1108/IMP-01-2016-0001 (DOI)000388976600005 ()
Available from: 2016-10-26 Created: 2016-10-26 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Waluszewski, A. (2016). What's "knowledge management" when resources are unknowable and deals negotiated?. The IMP Journal, 10(1), 107-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What's "knowledge management" when resources are unknowable and deals negotiated?
2016 (English)In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 107-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the management of the use of knowledge in interfaces stretching across company and organizational borders, including the negotiated monetary dimension.

Design/methodology/approach - The research approach is the IMP framework on resource interaction (Hakansson and Waluszewski, 2002), and the distinction among heterogeneous economic resources and a homogeneous monetary dimension, (Hakansson and Olsen, 2015; Perna et al., 2015). A case study on use of science based knowledge in business is utilized.

Findings - The management regime behind the creation of a user setting including a substantial monetary flow is can be characterized as "managing collective entities" (Hakansson, Bakken, Olsen, 2013) and it is argued that the knowledge management regime assumes away the most important process related to use of knowledge.

Research limitations/implications - The paper stress the theoretical need for approaching managment in general and managing use of knowledge in particular as an interactive issue.

Practical implications - The paper stress the practical need for approaching managment in general and managing use of knowledge in particular as an interactive issue.

Originality/value - The paper questions the knowledge management regime, which has a strong influence on public policy.

National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-283098 (URN)10.1108/IMP-07-2015-0037 (DOI)000388975700005 ()
Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
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