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Almqvist, J., Orpwood, G., Lundqvist, E. & Lidar, M. (2019). Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss standardized tests in biology, physics and chemistry with a special focus on their content validity. In the article we describe and discuss three different tensions between the Swedish curricula and standardized tests in science: (1) Curricular intentions and assessment choices, (2) The ‘knowledge requirements’ specified in the curriculum and the marking scheme used in the assessment and (3) The intention of the evaluation system and its actual result. These tensions have consequences for the validity of the tests. Hence, it is necessary to regard these tests as only one of many resources teachers can use in their teaching and assessment practices

Keywords
validity; standardized tests; science education
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293743 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-05-15 Created: 2016-05-15 Last updated: 2019-04-16
Almqvist, J., Orpwood, G., Lundqvist, E. & Lidar, M. (2019). Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss standardized tests in biology, physics and chemistry with a special focus on their content validity. In the article we describe and discuss three different tensions between the Swedish curricula and standardized tests in science: (1) Curricular intentions and assessment choices, (2) The ‘knowledge requirements’ specified in the curriculum and the marking scheme used in the assessment and (3) The intention of the evaluation system and its actual result. These tensions have consequences for the validity of the tests. Hence, it is necessary to regard these tests as only one of many resources teachers can use in their teaching and assessment practices.

Publisher
p. 21
Keywords
validity, standardized tests, science education
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381714 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5769
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-16Bibliographically approved
Lundqvist, E. & Lidar, M. (2019). Functional coordination between present teaching and policy reform in Swedish science education. In: : . Paper presented at The 5th pragmatism colloquium on education and transaction 0ctober 8-9th 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional coordination between present teaching and policy reform in Swedish science education
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Major policy changes make teachers reconsider how they teach. In Sweden, a new curriculum, a grading system, and national tests were introduced in science education in Year 6 (Y6) for the 2012/2013 academic year. After two years the national tests were made voluntary, and they ended the following year. In this longitudinal interview study we investigate what implications these reforms had for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in science education. Interviews with 10 teachers over four subsequent years were analysed by applying Dewey’s notion of habits in order to explore how teachers coordinate between their teaching habits and new policies. The result show that teachers work to adjust their teaching practices in order to; make teaching transparent, deal with the experience of increased levels of stress, develop professionally in collective practices, and reconsider the teaching content and methods. Most strikingly, almost all the teachers accepted the reforms as a positive element in their professional work. In the last round of interviews, it was evident that, after the tests were taken away, teachers downplayed the significance of the national tests as a factor that changed their teaching and changed what they consider as good science education.

National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394677 (URN)
Conference
The 5th pragmatism colloquium on education and transaction 0ctober 8-9th 2019
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-09
Larsson, J., Airey, J., Danielsson, A. & Lundqvist, E. (2018). A Fragmented Training Environment: Discourse Models in the Talk of Physics Teacher Educators. Research in science education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Fragmented Training Environment: Discourse Models in the Talk of Physics Teacher Educators
2018 (English)In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article reports the results of an empirical study exploring the discourses of physics teacher educators. We ask how the expressed understandings of a physics teacher education programme in the talk of teacher educators potentially support the identity construction of new teachers. Nine teacher educators from different sections of a physics teacher programme in Sweden were interviewed. The concept of discourse models was used to operationalise how the discourses of the teacher education programme potentially enable the performance of different physics teacher identities. The analysis resulted in the construction of four discourse models that could be seen to be both enabling and limiting the kinds of identity performances trainee physics teachers can enact. Knowledge of the models thus potentially empowers trainee physics teachers to understand the different goals of their educational programme and from there make informed choices about their own particular approach to becoming a professional physics teacher. We also suggest that for teacher educators, knowledge of the discourse models could facilitate making conscious, informed decisions about their own teaching practice.

Keywords
Teacher education, Physics, Discourse, Identity
National Category
Educational Sciences Physical Sciences Gender Studies
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-370078 (URN)10.1007/s11165-018-9793-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Ligozat, F., Lundqvist, E. & Amade-Escot, C. (2018). Analysing the continuity of teaching and learning in classroom actions: When the joint action framework in didactics meets the pragmatist approach to classroom discourses. European Educational Research Journal (online), 17(1), 147-169
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing the continuity of teaching and learning in classroom actions: When the joint action framework in didactics meets the pragmatist approach to classroom discourses
2018 (English)In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 147-169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One strand of comparative didactics aims at discussing the relationships between the theoretical constructions developed within subject didactics and how these can contribute to research about teaching and learning. This article explores the relationships between categories for analysing joint actions of teacher and students (didactic contract, milieu, mesogenesis, topogenesis, chronogenesis) and categories used in the pragmatist approach of classroom discourse analysis (practical epistemology and epistemological moves). We combine both frameworks to feature different types of breaches in the didactic contract and the building of continuity in teaching and learning actions for dealing with these breaches. Analyses are carried out through examples of classroom events in science education and physical education. We argue that these frameworks, when elaborated on and compared, enable us to characterise both generic and specific dimensions of teaching and learning in different subjects.

Keywords
Comparative didactics, joint action, didactic contract, didactic milieu, practical epistemology, epistemological moves, science education, physical education
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-386339 (URN)10.1177/1474904117701923 (DOI)000418959000009 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5023
Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Ryder, J., Lidar, M., Lundqvist, E. & Östman, L. (2018). Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: Science teachers’ experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden. International Journal of Science Education, 40(5), 538-563
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: Science teachers’ experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 538-563Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in implementing' reform practices.

National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311216 (URN)10.1080/09500693.2018.1435921 (DOI)000428300600004 ()
Projects
Grades and national tests in year 6: potential influence on Science teaching
Funder
Swedish Research Council, UVK 2012-5769
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2018-06-20Bibliographically approved
Lundqvist, E. & Sund, P. (2018). Selective traditions in group discussions: Teachers’ views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 13(2), 353-370
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective traditions in group discussions: Teachers’ views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic
2018 (English)In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 353-370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers.

In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we

asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as “good” science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers’ views.

The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national

tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (Year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider.

The findings show that ‘resistance’ to including SSI is not just an issue for individual

teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge and thereby make assessment easier.

Keywords
science education ∙ content ∙ selective traditions ∙ teachers’ views ∙ socio scientific issues
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265733 (URN)10.1007/s11422-016-9768-y (DOI)000435360600003 ()
Projects
Nationella prov i biologi, fysik och kemi: eventuell betydelse för lärares undervisning och bedömning
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-11-02 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Lidar, M., Karlberg, M., Almqvist, J., Östman, L. & Lundqvist, E. (2018). Teaching Traditions in Science Teachers’ Practices and the Introduction of National Testing. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 62(5), 754-768
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching Traditions in Science Teachers’ Practices and the Introduction of National Testing
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 754-768Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our main interest in this article is to explore whether Swedish teachers changed their teaching and assessment practices in relation to the new national tests in science education that were introduced 2009. Data was collected using a web-distributed questionnaire, which was answered by 407 teachers. The concept of teaching traditions is used to capture patterns of what is emphasised by teachers in terms of goals and content in teaching and the design of the questionnaire was based on the concept of curriculum emphases. The results show two distinct groups of focus, which is compared with two traditions within science education: the Academic and the Moral tradition. The main content where teaching have been changed is in making science more applied than before, where applied not only mean the application of science knowledge to practical technical issues but also to moral and political issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Teaching traditions, science education, standardized tests, teacher survey, educational change
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293941 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2017.1306802 (DOI)000442296200007 ()
Projects
NATIONELLA PROV I BIOLOGI, FYSIK OCH KEMI: EVENTUELL BETYDELSE FÖR LÄRARES UNDERVISNING OCH BEDÖMNING
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-5153Swedish Research Council, 2012-5023
Available from: 2016-05-15 Created: 2016-05-15 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J., Airey, J. & Lundqvist, E. (2017). How does the culture of physics affect physics teacher education?. In: : . Paper presented at ESERA 2017 Conference Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland 21st - 25th August 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does the culture of physics affect physics teacher education?
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we ask how the culture of physics may affect physics teacher education. Our interest is motivated by the pessimistic description of the status of physics teacher education in the US reported by the Task Force on Teacher Education in Physics (T-TEP) (2012). We present the results of an empirical study that examines the culture of physics in Sweden. The main finding is what we call the physics expert model. This was the dominant framing that physicists and physics teachers used in our interviews to talk about physics teacher education. The goal of the physics expert model is to create future physicists, something that is clearly at odds with the purpose of physics teacher education (which is to create future physics teachers). We discuss the implications of the dominance of the physics expert model and suggest that our results offer an important explanatory interpretation of the chronic problems of physics teacher training described in the T-TEP report.

Keywords
Teacher Preparation, Physics, Culture, Lärarutbildning, Fysik, Kultur
National Category
Other Physics Topics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333761 (URN)
Conference
ESERA 2017 Conference Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland 21st - 25th August 2017
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
Lidar, M., Lundqvist, E., Ryder, J. & Östman, L. (2017). The Transformation of Teaching Habits in Relation to the Introduction of Grading and National Testing in Science Education in Sweden. Research in science education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Transformation of Teaching Habits in Relation to the Introduction of Grading and National Testing in Science Education in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, a new curriculum and new methods of assessment (grading of students and national tests) in science education were introduced in grade six in 2012/2013. We have investigated what implications these reforms have for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in order to explore the question of how teachers transform their teaching habits in relation to policy reforms. Interviews with 16 teachers teaching science in Y6, over three years after the reforms were introduced, were analyzed. Building on the ideas of John Dewey, we consider teachers’ talk about their everyday practice as expressions of their habits of teaching. Habits of teaching are related both to individual experiences as well as institutional traditions in and about teaching. A categorization of educational philosophies was used to teachers’ habits of teaching to a collective level, and to show how habits can be transformed and developed over time in specific sociocultural contexts. The teachers were categorised as using essentialist and/or progressivist educational philosophy. In the responses to the introduction of grading and national testing, the teachers took three approaches: their habits being reinforced, revised or unchanged in relation to the reforms. Although the responses were different, a striking similarity was that all teachers justified their responses with wanting to do what is best for students. However, how to show care for students differed, from delivering scientific knowledge in alignment with a essentialist educational philosophy, to preparing students to do well on tests, to supporting their development as individuals, which is in alignment with a progressivist educational philosophy.

Keywords
teaching habits, policy reform, compulsory school
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337882 (URN)10.1007/s11165-017-9684-5 (DOI)
Projects
Grades and national tests in year 6: potential influence on science teaching
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5769
Available from: 2018-01-05 Created: 2018-01-05 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8036-6245

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