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Almqvist, J., Orpwood, G., Lundqvist, E. & Lidar, M. (2019). Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss standardized tests in biology, physics and chemistry with a special focus on their content validity. In the article we describe and discuss three different tensions between the Swedish curricula and standardized tests in science: (1) Curricular intentions and assessment choices, (2) The ‘knowledge requirements’ specified in the curriculum and the marking scheme used in the assessment and (3) The intention of the evaluation system and its actual result. These tensions have consequences for the validity of the tests. Hence, it is necessary to regard these tests as only one of many resources teachers can use in their teaching and assessment practices

Keywords
validity; standardized tests; science education
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293743 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-05-15 Created: 2016-05-15 Last updated: 2019-04-16
Almqvist, J., Orpwood, G., Lundqvist, E. & Lidar, M. (2019). Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss standardized tests in biology, physics and chemistry with a special focus on their content validity. In the article we describe and discuss three different tensions between the Swedish curricula and standardized tests in science: (1) Curricular intentions and assessment choices, (2) The ‘knowledge requirements’ specified in the curriculum and the marking scheme used in the assessment and (3) The intention of the evaluation system and its actual result. These tensions have consequences for the validity of the tests. Hence, it is necessary to regard these tests as only one of many resources teachers can use in their teaching and assessment practices.

Publisher
p. 21
Keywords
validity, standardized tests, science education
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381714 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5769
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-16Bibliographically approved
Lundqvist, E. & Lidar, M. (2019). Functional coordination between present teaching and policy reform in Swedish science education. In: : . Paper presented at The 5th pragmatism colloquium on education and transaction 0ctober 8-9th 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional coordination between present teaching and policy reform in Swedish science education
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Major policy changes make teachers reconsider how they teach. In Sweden, a new curriculum, a grading system, and national tests were introduced in science education in Year 6 (Y6) for the 2012/2013 academic year. After two years the national tests were made voluntary, and they ended the following year. In this longitudinal interview study we investigate what implications these reforms had for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in science education. Interviews with 10 teachers over four subsequent years were analysed by applying Dewey’s notion of habits in order to explore how teachers coordinate between their teaching habits and new policies. The result show that teachers work to adjust their teaching practices in order to; make teaching transparent, deal with the experience of increased levels of stress, develop professionally in collective practices, and reconsider the teaching content and methods. Most strikingly, almost all the teachers accepted the reforms as a positive element in their professional work. In the last round of interviews, it was evident that, after the tests were taken away, teachers downplayed the significance of the national tests as a factor that changed their teaching and changed what they consider as good science education.

National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394677 (URN)
Conference
The 5th pragmatism colloquium on education and transaction 0ctober 8-9th 2019
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-09
Ryder, J., Lidar, M., Lundqvist, E. & Östman, L. (2018). Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: Science teachers’ experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden. International Journal of Science Education, 40(5), 538-563
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: Science teachers’ experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 538-563Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in implementing' reform practices.

National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311216 (URN)10.1080/09500693.2018.1435921 (DOI)000428300600004 ()
Projects
Grades and national tests in year 6: potential influence on Science teaching
Funder
Swedish Research Council, UVK 2012-5769
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2018-06-20Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, A., Berge, M. & Lidar, M. (2018). Knowledge and power in the technology classroom:: a framework for studying teachers and students in action. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 13(1), 163-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge and power in the technology classroom:: a framework for studying teachers and students in action
2018 (English)In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 163-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to develop and illustrate an analytical framework for exploring how relations between knowledge and power are constituted in science and technology classrooms. In addition, the empirical purpose of this paper is to explore how disciplinary knowledge and knowledge-making are constituted in teacher–student interactions. In our analysis we focus on how instances of teacher–student interaction can be understood as simultaneously contributing to meaning-making and producing power relations. The analytical framework we have developed makes use of practical epistemological analysis in combination with a Foucauldian conceptualisation of power, assuming that privileging of educational content needs to be understood as integral to the execution of power in the classroom. The empirical data consists of video-recorded teaching episodes, taken from a teaching sequence of three 1-h lessons in one Swedish technology classroom with sixteen 13–14 years old students. In the analysis we have identified how different epistemological moves contribute to the normalisation and exclusion of knowledge as well as ways of knowledge-making. Further, by looking at how the teacher communicates what counts as (ir)relevant knowledge or (ir)relevant ways of acquiring knowledge we are able to describe what kind of technology student is made desirable in the analysed classroom.

National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-286870 (URN)10.1007/s11422-016-9782-0 (DOI)000429417900010 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, dnr 2012-5472
Available from: 2016-04-22 Created: 2016-04-22 Last updated: 2018-07-18Bibliographically approved
Lidar, M., Berge, M. & Danielsson, A. (2018). Methodological considerations in the analysis of the co-production of knowledge and power in secondary school physics classrooms. In: : . Paper presented at ECER, 3-4 September, Bolzano, Italien.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodological considerations in the analysis of the co-production of knowledge and power in secondary school physics classrooms
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-360256 (URN)
Conference
ECER, 3-4 September, Bolzano, Italien
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-01-04Bibliographically approved
Lidar, M., Karlberg, M., Almqvist, J., Östman, L. & Lundqvist, E. (2018). Teaching Traditions in Science Teachers’ Practices and the Introduction of National Testing. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 62(5), 754-768
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching Traditions in Science Teachers’ Practices and the Introduction of National Testing
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 754-768Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our main interest in this article is to explore whether Swedish teachers changed their teaching and assessment practices in relation to the new national tests in science education that were introduced 2009. Data was collected using a web-distributed questionnaire, which was answered by 407 teachers. The concept of teaching traditions is used to capture patterns of what is emphasised by teachers in terms of goals and content in teaching and the design of the questionnaire was based on the concept of curriculum emphases. The results show two distinct groups of focus, which is compared with two traditions within science education: the Academic and the Moral tradition. The main content where teaching have been changed is in making science more applied than before, where applied not only mean the application of science knowledge to practical technical issues but also to moral and political issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Teaching traditions, science education, standardized tests, teacher survey, educational change
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293941 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2017.1306802 (DOI)000442296200007 ()
Projects
NATIONELLA PROV I BIOLOGI, FYSIK OCH KEMI: EVENTUELL BETYDELSE FÖR LÄRARES UNDERVISNING OCH BEDÖMNING
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-5153Swedish Research Council, 2012-5023
Available from: 2016-05-15 Created: 2016-05-15 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
Lidar, M., Lundqvist, E., Ryder, J. & Östman, L. (2017). The Transformation of Teaching Habits in Relation to the Introduction of Grading and National Testing in Science Education in Sweden. Research in science education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Transformation of Teaching Habits in Relation to the Introduction of Grading and National Testing in Science Education in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, a new curriculum and new methods of assessment (grading of students and national tests) in science education were introduced in grade six in 2012/2013. We have investigated what implications these reforms have for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in order to explore the question of how teachers transform their teaching habits in relation to policy reforms. Interviews with 16 teachers teaching science in Y6, over three years after the reforms were introduced, were analyzed. Building on the ideas of John Dewey, we consider teachers’ talk about their everyday practice as expressions of their habits of teaching. Habits of teaching are related both to individual experiences as well as institutional traditions in and about teaching. A categorization of educational philosophies was used to teachers’ habits of teaching to a collective level, and to show how habits can be transformed and developed over time in specific sociocultural contexts. The teachers were categorised as using essentialist and/or progressivist educational philosophy. In the responses to the introduction of grading and national testing, the teachers took three approaches: their habits being reinforced, revised or unchanged in relation to the reforms. Although the responses were different, a striking similarity was that all teachers justified their responses with wanting to do what is best for students. However, how to show care for students differed, from delivering scientific knowledge in alignment with a essentialist educational philosophy, to preparing students to do well on tests, to supporting their development as individuals, which is in alignment with a progressivist educational philosophy.

Keywords
teaching habits, policy reform, compulsory school
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337882 (URN)10.1007/s11165-017-9684-5 (DOI)
Projects
Grades and national tests in year 6: potential influence on science teaching
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5769
Available from: 2018-01-05 Created: 2018-01-05 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Lundqvist, E., Lidar, M., Jim, R. & Östman, L. (2016). Science Teachers’ Teaching Habits in the Enactment of Reform. In: : . Paper presented at ECER, European Conference of Educational Research, Dublin, Ireland, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Science Teachers’ Teaching Habits in the Enactment of Reform
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The middle years of compulsory school in Sweden has recently experienced major changes. Reforms to theassessment system in Swedish schools were implemented in 2012, a reform that required that pupils received grades for the first time at Y6 (age 12-13). Also, national tests were introduced in Biology, Physics and Chemistry. The national tests, marked locally using a marking scheme, are intended to support teachers in the assessment of students’ knowledge and to be supportive of consistent grading between schools. Teachers teaching the Science subjects in Y6 are thus faced with a situation of increased centralized control.

The overarching aim in this study is to investigate whether, and if so in what way, the introduction of an increased centralized control in the form of grades and national testing influences the teachers’ local teaching and assessment practices in Science education.

Many parts of the world have over time had more of standardized testing than Sweden has. For example countries within Great Britain have performed tests at least at three key stages within the educational system from 1991, although this has changed in recent years as a consequence of devolution and debates about the pros and cons of such testing (Collins, Reiss & Stobart, 2010). Sweden has historically used this kind of assessment in a restricted way.

The assumption that standardized tests affect teachers’ instruction and student learning is both confirmed and rejected (Cimbricz 2002, Andersen 2011) in international research. A common reaction to state standards and tests is that the content of teaching is adapted to what is tested (Au 2009). Additionally, Au writes that norms are created from high-stake testing reflecting what teaching that is considered to be “good” or “bad”. Standardized tests thus provide a discursive control that defines the acceptable ways of acting as teachers and also creates norms about what counts as valid content and valid methods in teaching. The theoretical approach in this paper is underpinned by Dewey’s pragmatist notion of habits (Dewey 1922/1983). The concept of habits is used to describe how teachers, with their different background and experiences, work with the enacting of reforms in their everyday teaching practice. The notion of habits focuses on understanding how teachers’ actions can appear to be both immutable and revisable and how the context of reform also can contribute to development. A teacher is acting as an individual in selecting what is central within the practice, but the teacher is also at the same time a part of a community, acting in relation to collective habits within this community. Consequently, individuals develop personal habits of acting/teaching on the basis of being educated in, being in and working in contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers and disciplinary traditions. Habits are thus acquired, but alterable depending on the circumstances. The concept is used to describe individuals’ predispositions for response to situations and problems that arise within a specific context (Nelsen 2015). In the context of reform, different teachers will have different predispositions to respond and with the notion of habits is a resource to capture the process and the tensions that may emerge.

In this study we ask the question: In what ways are teachers’ teaching and assessment habits challenged by the reforms?

Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources UsedIn order to investigate how teachers’ teaching and assessment habits were challenged by reforms, individual interviews were conducted with 15 science teachers. Data collection was made three consecutive years in connection to the conduction of the national tests, since changes in well-established practices will not happen instantly. The sampling of teachers was made to ensure a broad variation in teaching experience, educational background and school settings. All teachers teach Y6, whereof 6 are educated as intermediate school teachers, and 9 are secondary teachers. To be able to investigate and clarify if the teachers change their approach to teaching and assessment as reaction to the reforms, three rounds of interviews were made. The interview questions in the first round covered what the teachers considered to be characteristic in science teaching, what they select as teaching content and ways of assessing, in addition to their thoughts on the reforms. The second interview focused on the questions in the national test concerning the content and the assessment of students’ answers when marking the tests. This interview also included follow-up questions concerning changes in teaching and grading because of the tests. In the third interview we asked questions to clarify and deepen if, and if so, how the teachers had changed their teaching and assessment practice since the reform was introduced. Two of the authors conducted all the interviews. The interviews lasted between 35-60 minutes. The teachers received the questions in advance so that they could prepare for the interviews. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim by a professional transcriber. The analyzing process started out with reading thoroughly all of the interviews from the first interview round. In this first reading, we had a broad focus on what affordances and challenges in connection to their habits of teaching teachers recognize in enacting the reforms. From this reading we came up with three different approaches in dealing with the complexity of the reform, they were used when analyzing the remaining interviews. The approaches are representing three different ways that show how habits are a part of practice when dealing with the reforms. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsWe find different approaches to the reforms. The teachers are in different ways struggling to balance local teaching autonomy with external assessment-driven reform. The results show that teachers’ habits relate to the reforms in three different ways. Five of the teachers express that their habits of teaching are in line with the reforms, which means they do not need to change their teaching and assessment practice to any or to any great extent. The reforms even strengthen their habits. Eight of the teachers need to stretch their habits because of these reforms. This means for example that questions in the national tests work as a tool for finding new ways of asking questions and perform laboratory exercises. For two of the teachers, their habits are not in line with the reforms. The most striking part is the approach to assess the students. These teachers feel that they need to assess the students more frequently and to document the students work to have as a basis for assessment. These ways of working collide with the teachers’ views on how they want to teach to make science education interesting, fun and meaningful. When following these teachers during three rounds of interviews, we find that it seems likely that this new regime involves making changes in some way for all teachers. All teachers among the interviewees are experienced teachers. Considering this, it is striking that almost all the teachers, independent of teaching habits, accept the reforms as a positive element in their professional work, even though they have objections, for example causing stress for both teachers and students. That teachers have different approaches to teaching and assessment is a vital aspect in the implementation of reforms. The knowledge about teaching habits is there for important for policy makers to consider. ReferencesAnderson, K. J. B. (2011). Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy. Science Education 96:104-129. Au, W (2009). Unequal by design. High-Stakes Testing and the Standardization of Inequality. New York and London: Routledge. Cimbricz, S. (2002). State-Mandated Testing and Teachers’ Beliefs and Practice. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10, 2. Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/281 Collins, Sue, Reiss, Michael & Stobart, Gordon (2010). What happens when high-stake testing stops? Teachers’ perceptions of the impact of compulsory national testing in science of 11-year-olds in England and its abolition in Wales. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Vol. 17, No. 3, 273-286. Dewey, J. (1922/1983). Human Nature and Conduct. Jo Ann Boydston (ed.), John Dewey: The Middle Works, Volume 14. Carbondale:  Southern Illinois University Press. Nelsen, P. J. (2015). Intelligent Dispositions: Dewey, Habits and Inquiry in Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 66(1), 86-97.

National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-288352 (URN)
Conference
ECER, European Conference of Educational Research, Dublin, Ireland, 2016
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5769
Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-27 Last updated: 2016-05-15
Lidar, M. & Engström, S. (2016). The influence on teaching and assessment practices from national tests in Science in Y6. In: : . Paper presented at ECER, European Conference of Educational Research, Dublin Ireland 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence on teaching and assessment practices from national tests in Science in Y6
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

General description on research questions, objectives and theoretical framework

In this paper we survey different approaches to teaching in Swedish Science Education. This means the purpose is to map and investigate patterns in teachers’ views of what constitutes “good” Science Education in the middle years of compulsory school in Sweden, in a context where these views are potentially at stake. The background for our interest in studying approaches to teaching is that a new curriculum has been established and applies in Sweden from 2011. New to this curriculum is that standardized control of student achievements are introduced in more subjects and at lower ages than before. National tests in Physics, Chemistry and Biology became mandatory in Y6 in 2013 along with marking of pupils from and including Y6. Notably for teachers in Y6 is that they could be educated and working either in a Y4-6-classteacher system, or in a Y6-9-subject specialist teacher system. Standardized testing has been proven in many cases to create norms about what types of teaching and what types of teacher are considered to be accurate (e.g. Au 2009, Stobart 2008). Some researchers argue that standardized testing tends to narrow teachers instructional practice, both concerning content and methods, while others mean that, depending for instance on how the tests are designed, tests could also increase teachers teaching repertoires in different ways (Au 2009).

What the main contents of teaching in different subjects should be is a question that is and ought to be problematized. Different policies for what contents teaching should include and how it should be conducted shapes different presuppositions for teaching and for what the pupils have opportunity learn (cf. Fensham, 2009). Analysing Science syllabuses and Science textbooks, Roberts (1994) (in North America) and Östman (1995) (in Sweden) found different patterns concerning ‘curriculum emphases’ in Science Education: correct explanation, structure of science, solid foundation, scientific skill development, self as explainer, everyday coping and science, technology and decisions. The curriculum emphases can be connected to Roberts’ (2007) two main visions (I & II) in western societies of how science education should be conducted in order to make the pupils scientific literate. Vision I is described as science reproducing its own products of concepts, laws, theories and methods. In Vision II it is accentuated that education must include facts of the subject but it must also include knowledge and skills that make the pupils able to use scientific knowledge in practical, existential, moral and political contexts.  Even though teachers are working to meet the same goals in the Science curriculum, emphasis in teaching can be made differently.

There is reason to believe that the introduction of grades and national tests can change these teachers’ perceptions of what counts as good science instruction, and effective teaching and assessment practice. However, it is not certain that all teachers’ instruction is affected in the same way.

If teachers aligning with different visions of teaching understand a reform in different ways, this will have consequences for how policy makers need to work to effectively implement reforms. Through knowledge of different approaches to teaching, we have the possibility to better understand teachers' reactions to new elements in teaching.

Methods/methodology

A questionnaire was developed using research of curriculum emphases and visions in science education and curriculum emphases (e.g. Roberts 2007) to explicate different aspects of content. The questionnaire contained background questions along with questions of selection of methods for teaching, the teacher’s views of science and the aim of science teaching and assessment but also questions of their opinions about the new directives of testing and grading.

Of Sweden's 2523 schools covering Y6, 1348 schools were selected. These schools were distributed across the country and different sized schools with different operating forms were studied. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 1924 teachers and contained 103 questions/positions. The primary form of questioning was through closed-form response alternatives. A number of free text response alternatives were also included. The response number after three remainders was 830 (43%), including 34 no-thank answers.  

The answers were analysed with SPSS both for descriptions and classification (using cluster analysis: hierarchical, Ward's method, Euclidean distance), the aim being to detect a variety of patterns within the material (Sjöquist et al., 2010). Within the cluster analysis, the clustering was based on answers to eight specific statements/variables (the most important and most characteristic of teaching in Science) and four clusters were created.

From a first step in the cluster analyses, four different teacher profiles in relation to different views on science emerged. Nevertheless, to a great extent teachers teaching Y6 in Sweden represent a homogenous group. This conclusion was drawn since there were no strong similarities or differences between the groups, and no clear pattern in the relationship between views of teaching science and reforms.

In a second step, the clustering was based specifically on answers to statements about national tests. In this analysis, two distinct clusters were made, where one group contained teachers that are more positive to the tests. Group 1 consists of 532 teachers and group 2 of 231, where Y4-6-teacher have higher representation in group 1. Subsequent analyses were made by comparing how teachers in these two groups answered to all questions.

 

Expected outcomes/results

In the comparisons between group 1 and group 2, the results also are rather homogenous. Common features that stand out, are for example the valuation of: teaching in whole class and group work in pairs, to give students an understanding of the relationships in nature and the world around us and to relate to students' questions and experiences.

Generally, we can see a positive approach to tests, grades and the new curriculum. There is an acceptance towards being "controlled" and guided. For many teachers, national testing has meant that teaching has evolved to make students more aware of their own learning. Many teachers seem to believe that the tests helped to make the subject content more clear. Many use matrices, support materials, etc. from the Swedish National Agency for Education, which they have not done before, but many also believe that tests and grading criteria changed and control their teaching. The items where the largest differences are seen in changes in teaching after the reform includes to argue scientifically, to evaluate investigations, to plan investigations and to use concepts models and theories. This is found at higher levels in group 1, teachers for years 1-6, with a teacher education that includes less depth subject content.

We can conclude that many teachers emphasis a positive approach to reforms even though there is a group of teachers that also stress a clear criticism of the new system. We will discuss this from the point of view of who is the the professional: is it someone who acts in line with management expectations or in line with values connected to the profession?

References Au, W (2009). Unequal by design. High-Stakes Testing and the Standardization of Inequality. New York and London: Routledge.

Fensham P.J. (2009). The link between policy and practice in science education: the role of research, Science Education, 93, 1076-1095.

Roberts, D. A. (1994). Developing the concept of "curriculum emphases" in science education. Nordisk Pedagogik, 14, 10-25.

Roberts, D. A. (2007). Scientific literacy/science literacy. I S. K. Abell & N. G. Lederman (Eds.). Handbook of research on science education (pp. 729-780). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sjöqvist, E., Almqvist, L., Åsenlöf, P., Lampa, J., Opava, C H., and The Para Study Group (2010). Physical-activity coaching and health status in rheumatoid arthritis: A person-oriented approach. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(10), p. 816-825.

Stobart, G. (2008) Testing Times. Abingdon: Routledge.

Östman, L. (1995). Socialisation och mening: No-utbildning som politiskt och miljömoraliska problem Uppsala Studies in Education, 61. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. 

National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-288336 (URN)
Conference
ECER, European Conference of Educational Research, Dublin Ireland 2016
Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-27 Last updated: 2016-04-27
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6764-954x

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