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Hultman, Lisa
Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Fjelde, H., Hultman, L. & Nilsson, D. (2019). Protection through Presence: UN Peacekeeping and the Costs of Targeting Civilians. International Organization, 73(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protection through Presence: UN Peacekeeping and the Costs of Targeting Civilians
2019 (English)In: International Organization, ISSN 0020-8183, Vol. 73, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354931 (URN)10.1017/S0020818318000346 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-09-10
Hultman, L. & Peksen, D. (2017). Successful or Counterproductive Coercion? The Effect of International Sanctions on Conflict Intensity. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 61(6), 1315-1339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Successful or Counterproductive Coercion? The Effect of International Sanctions on Conflict Intensity
2017 (English)In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 1315-1339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the frequent use of economic and military-specific sanctions against countries affected by civil conflicts, little is known about the possible impact that these coercive tools have on conflict dynamics. This article examines how threats and imposition of international sanctions affect the intensity of civil conflict violence. We formulate and test two competing views on the possible effect of economic and military-specific sanctions on conflict dynamics by combining data on fatalities in battle-related violence in all internal armed conflicts in Africa from 1989 to 2005 with data on economic sanctions and arms embargoes. The results indicate that threats of economic sanction and arms embargo are likely to increase the intensity of conflict violence. Similarly, imposed economic sanctions are likely to contribute to the escalation of conflict violence. Imposed arms embargoes, on the other hand, are likely to reduce conflict violence. We conclude that international sanctions appear to be counterproductive policy tools in mitigating the human cost of civil conflicts unless they are in the form of imposed arms embargoes attempting to limit the military capacity of the warring parties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2017
Keywords
economic sanctions, arms embargoes, civil conflicts, conflict intensity
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328999 (URN)10.1177/0022002715603453 (DOI)000403489000007 ()
Funder
Riksbankens JubileumsfondKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2017-09-06Bibliographically approved
Fjelde, H., Hultman, L. & Lindberg Bromley, S. (2016). Offsetting Losses: Bargaining Power and Rebel Attacks on Peacekeepers. International Studies Quarterly, 60(4), 611-623
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Offsetting Losses: Bargaining Power and Rebel Attacks on Peacekeepers
2016 (English)In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 611-623Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, international third parties have increasingly sought to manage the dire consequences of civil war, often by deploying peacekeeping operations. However, peacekeepers sometimes face deliberate attacks by armed groups. These attacks hamper efforts to provide humanitarian relief and security. This raises a critical question: what factors lead rebel groups to target peacekeepers? We argue that internal conflict dynamics are important for explaining this phenomenon. Rebels attack peacekeepers as an alternative strategy to undermine incumbent regimes. They adopt this strategy as the balance of power turns against them in their struggle against governments. We evaluate our argument using a novel event data set on violent attacks on peacekeepers in sub-Saharan Africa from 1989 to 2009. We find a positive relationship between rebel losses and violent attacks on peacekeepers. These findings hold when controlling for mission-specific characteristics, time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity, and across different model specifications.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314273 (URN)10.1093/isq/sqw017 (DOI)000392925300003 ()
Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2017-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Hultman, L., Kathman, J. D. & Shannon, M. (2016). United Nations peacekeeping dynamics and the duration of post-civil conflict peace. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 33(3), 231-249
Open this publication in new window or tab >>United Nations peacekeeping dynamics and the duration of post-civil conflict peace
2016 (English)In: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, E-ISSN 1549-9219, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 231-249Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How do the qualities of United Nations peacekeeping operations (PKOs) influence the duration of peace after civil wars? Recent work shows that UN peacekeeping extends the duration of peace. However, this work has only been able to assess whether the presence or absence of UN missions affects post-conflict peace processes. Such analyses offer little in the way of policy prescriptions for planning and structuring PKOs to effectively pursue their goals. By employing fine-grained data on the personnel composition of PKOs, and generating expectations from rationalist bargaining models of civil war, we argue that the number and type of personnel deployed to a PKO influence the UN's ability guarantee peace by addressing the information and commitment problems that so often lead to the collapse of post-conflict peace. We analyze how the composition of missions influences the duration of peace, finding that, as the number of UN military troops deployed increases, the chance of civil war recurring decreases. However, other personnel types do not have the same effect. We conclude that the effectiveness of post-conflict peacekeeping lies in the ability of PKOs to alleviate commitment problems through the deployment of military troops that are able to defend the peace.

Keywords
Civil war, peace duration, United Nations peacekeeping
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301029 (URN)10.1177/0738894215570425 (DOI)000379954300001 ()
Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Brosché, J., Brounéus, K., Fjelde, H., Forsberg, E., Hegre, H., Hultman, L., . . . Wallensteen, P. (2015). Nio punkter för global fred (Nine Points for Global Peace). Uppsala: Uppsala Nya Tidning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nio punkter för global fred (Nine Points for Global Peace)
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2015 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Insatserna för global fred måste stärkas skriver tolv företrädare för institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning apropå att världens ledare samlas i dag i New York för att anta 17 nya globala mål för en bättre värld och mer hållbar utveckling.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala Nya Tidning, 2015
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331931 (URN)
Available from: 2017-10-19 Created: 2017-10-19 Last updated: 2018-06-26
Hultman, L., Kathman, J. & Shannon, M. (2014). Beyond Keeping Peace: United Nations Effectiveness in the Midst of Fighting. American Political Science Review, 108(4), 737-753
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond Keeping Peace: United Nations Effectiveness in the Midst of Fighting
2014 (English)In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 108, no 4, p. 737-753Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While United Nations peacekeeping missions were created to keep peace and perform post-conflict activities, since the end of the Cold War peacekeepers are more often deployed to active conflicts. Yet, we know little about their ability to manage ongoing violence. This article provides the first broad empirical examination of UN peacekeeping effectiveness in reducing battlefield violence in civil wars. We analyze how the number of UN peacekeeping personnel deployed influences the amount of battlefield deaths in all civil wars in Africa from 1992 to 2011. The analyses show that increasing numbers of armed military troops are associated with reduced battlefield deaths, while police and observers are not. Considering that the UN is often criticized for ineffectiveness, these results have important implications: if appropriately composed, UN peacekeeping missions reduce violent conflict.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237714 (URN)10.1017/S0003055414000446 (DOI)000345446700002 ()
Available from: 2014-12-04 Created: 2014-12-04 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Hultman, L. (2014). Violence Against Civilians. In: Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars: (pp. 289-299). LONDON: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Violence Against Civilians
2014 (English)In: Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars, LONDON: Routledge, 2014, p. 289-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
LONDON: Routledge, 2014
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233130 (URN)000340879000023 ()
Available from: 2014-09-29 Created: 2014-09-29 Last updated: 2014-09-29Bibliographically approved
Fjelde, H. & Hultman, L. (2014). Weakening the Enemy: A Disaggregated Study of Violence against Civilians in Africa. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 58(7), 1230-1257
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weakening the Enemy: A Disaggregated Study of Violence against Civilians in Africa
2014 (English)In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 1230-1257Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While case-based narratives from civil wars often stress the ethnic dimension of civilian atrocities, cross-national studies have found limited evidence in support of such contentions. Addressing this debate, we argue that warring actors often use ethnic affiliation to identify groups of suspected enemy supporters when individual wartime affiliations are not known. Since warring actors depend on their civilian constituencies for support, collective targeting of the enemy's co-ethnics becomes a strategy for weakening the enemy's capacity. Armed actors are thus more likely to engage in civilian abuse in areas where the enemy's ethnic constituency resides. To examine this argument, we combine new georeferenced event data on violence against civilians in African conflicts, 1989-2009, with spatial data on the location of the warring actors' ethnic constituencies. The analysis shows that the number of civilians killed by both governments and rebel groups is higher in areas inhabited by the enemy's ethnic constituency.

Keywords
civil war, violence against civilians, ethnic violence, ethnicity, spatial disaggregation
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-235624 (URN)10.1177/0022002713492648 (DOI)000342576900004 ()
Available from: 2014-11-11 Created: 2014-11-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hultman, L. (2013). UN peace operations and protection of civilians: Cheap talk or norm implementation?. Journal of Peace Research, 50(1), 59-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>UN peace operations and protection of civilians: Cheap talk or norm implementation?
2013 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Protection of civilians is now at the forefront of the responsibilities of the international community. There is a strong international norm that civilian populations should be protected from violence. But how committed is the United Nations to acting in line with this norm? I argue that the UN Security Council (UNSC) has an interest in demonstrating that it takes violence against civilians seriously. Through a broadened security agenda including human security, the legitimacy and the credibility of the UNSC hinges on its ability to act as a guarantor of civilian protection. As a consequence, the UN is more likely to deploy peace operations in conflicts where the warring parties target the civilian population. The argument is supported by a statistical examination of all internal armed conflicts in 1989-2006. The results show that the likelihood of a UN peace operation is higher in conflicts with high levels of violence against civilians, but this effect is mainly visible after 1999. This year marked a shift in the global security agenda and it was also when the UNSC first issued an explicit mandate to protect civilians. Conflicts with high levels of violence against civilians are also more likely to get operations with robust mandates. This suggests that the UNSC is not just paying lip service to the protection norm, but that it actually acts to implement it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2013
Keywords
civil war, peacekeeping, protection of civilians, UN
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196757 (URN)10.1177/0022343312461662 (DOI)000314240300005 ()
Available from: 2013-03-14 Created: 2013-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hultman, L., Kathman, J. & Shannon, M. (2013). United Nations Peacekeeping and Civilian Protection in Civil War. American Journal of Political Science, 57(4), 875-891
Open this publication in new window or tab >>United Nations Peacekeeping and Civilian Protection in Civil War
2013 (English)In: American Journal of Political Science, ISSN 0092-5853, E-ISSN 1540-5907, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 875-891Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Does United Nations peacekeeping protect civilians in civil war? Civilian protection is a primary purpose of UN peacekeeping, yet there is little systematic evidence for whether peacekeeping prevents civilian deaths. We propose that UN peacekeeping can protect civilians if missions are adequately composed of military troops and police in large numbers. Using unique monthly data on the number and type of UN personnel contributed to peacekeeping operations, along with monthly data on civilian deaths from 1991 to 2008 in armed conflicts in Africa, we find that as the UN commits more military and police forces to a peacekeeping mission, fewer civilians are targeted with violence. The effect is substantialthe analyses show that, on average, deploying several thousand troops and several hundred police dramatically reduces civilian killings. We conclude that although the UN is often criticized for its failures, UN peacekeeping is an effective mechanism of civilian protection.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210579 (URN)10.1111/ajps.12036 (DOI)000325495000007 ()
Available from: 2013-11-13 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Projects
ViEWS: a political Violence Early Warning System; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research; Publications
Hegre, H., Hultman, L. & Nygård, H. M. Evaluating the conflict-reducing effect of UN peacekeeping operations. Journal of PoliticsHegre, H., Hultman, L. & Nygård, H. M. Evaluating the conflict-reducing effect of UN peacekeeping operations. Journal of Politics
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