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Döring, S. & Hall, J. (2023). Drought exposure decreases altruism with salient group identities as key moderator. Nature Climate Change, 13(8), 856-861
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drought exposure decreases altruism with salient group identities as key moderator
2023 (English)In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 856-861Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research on climate change impact regularly considers conflict outcomes, thereby disregarding cooperative behaviour such as altruism. Drought has the potential to fuel inter-ethnic cleavages, thus contributing to conflicts. Yet this runs against resilience arguments suggesting people who experience environmental hardship are more cooperative. Here we examine altruism in survey experiments in a natural setting among refugees from Syria and Iraq. We match survey responses to observational data on drought and socioeconomic variables. Our findings speak to both arguments. First, we show that drought exposure is associated with decreased altruism for survey respondents generally. We further show how group identity moderates the relationship between drought and altruism. Our results suggest a decrease in altruism due to drought is much larger when the target of altruism is presented as a member of an antagonistic ethno-religious outgroup.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Drought, altruism, refugees, prosocial behavior, cooperation, Syria, Iraq, violence, prosociality, post-war
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-508345 (URN)10.1038/s41558-023-01732-2 (DOI)001034506000003 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M21-0002Swedish Research Council, 2022-00183Swedish Research Council, 2015-06564
Available from: 2023-07-27 Created: 2023-07-27 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Gredebäck, G., Lindskog, M. & Hall, J. (2023). Poor maternal mental health is associated with a low degree of proactive control in refugee children. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Poor maternal mental health is associated with a low degree of proactive control in refugee children
2023 (English)In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study assesses the development of proactive control strategies in 100 Syrian refugee families (394 individuals) with 6- to 18-year-old children currently living in Turkish communities. The results demonstrate that children’s age and their mothers’ post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with the degree of proactive control in their children, with worse mental health being associated with a larger reliance on reactive control and lesser reliance on proactive, future-oriented, control (measured via d′ in the AX-CPT task). None of the following factors contributed to children’s performance: fathers’ experience with post-traumatic stress, parents’ exposure to potentially traumatic warrelated events, perceived discrimination, a decline in socio-economic status, religious beliefs, parents’ proactive control strategies, or the education or gender of the children themselves. The association between mothers’ mental health and proactive control strategies in children was large (in terms of effect size), suggesting that supporting mothers’ mental health might have clear effects on the development of their children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
Proactive control, prediction, child development, refugee, war, trauma
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-517044 (URN)10.1177/17470218231211573 (DOI)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2012.0120Swedish Research Council, 2015-06564
Available from: 2023-12-01 Created: 2023-12-01 Last updated: 2023-12-01Bibliographically approved
Thompson, P. O., Hall, J., Hecker, T. & Walsh, J. I. (2023). Posttraumatic stress moderates return intentions: A factorial survey experiment with internally displaced persons in Nigeria. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 14(2), Article ID 2277505.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Posttraumatic stress moderates return intentions: A factorial survey experiment with internally displaced persons in Nigeria
2023 (English)In: European Journal of Psychotraumatology, ISSN 2000-8198, E-ISSN 2000-8066, Vol. 14, no 2, article id 2277505Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Persons displaced by conflict often consider returning to their area of origin. Lack of reliable information about conditions in the area of origin makes this decision more difficult. Displaced persons address this by seeking information from other sources, but must then assess the credibility of these sources.

Objective: This study examines the role of symptoms of posttraumatic stress as a moderator of how information from a trustworthy source influences return intentions among displaced persons.

Method: We test our hypotheses with a factorial survey experiment, drawing participants (N = 822) from residents of internally displaced person (IDP) camps in northeastern Nigeria.

Results: Information from a more trustworthy source led to increased return intentions. However, the more participants reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress, the smaller the effect source trustworthiness had on their return intentions.

Conclusions: Findings highlight how traumatic experiences during wartime can undermine the effectiveness of the provision of information from a trustworthy source about good conditions in displaced persons’ areas of origin, and suggest that interventions addressing posttraumatic stress could have downstream effects on safe, durable, and dignified return.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Displacement, posttraumatic stress, information, Nigeria, conflict
National Category
Psychiatry Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-516796 (URN)10.1080/20008066.2023.2277505 (DOI)001123362100001 ()
Available from: 2023-11-29 Created: 2023-11-29 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Hall, J., Skoog, E. & Vassiliou, P. (2023). The Impact of War Exposure on Morality: Evidence From the Battle of Mosul. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of War Exposure on Morality: Evidence From the Battle of Mosul
2023 (English)In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) was one of the most grueling urban warfare campaigns in recent memory. The fighting quickly concentrated in West Mosul, where civilians prevented by the Islamic State from leaving their homes experienced airstrikes and indiscriminate shelling by government forces. Utilizing the as-if-randomness of severe damage or destruction of people’s homes, this paper examines the impact of war exposure on the endorsement of moral foundations among a large and diverse sample of Mosul residents (N = 1027). Home damage increased binding morality but had a larger impact on individualizing morality, heightening concerns about fairness and protection from harm. A survey experiment in which the sectarian identity of the target was randomly assigned further revealed a strong association between individualizing morality and parochial altruism. Challenging conventional wisdom, both individualizing and binding morality reinforce group cohesion in ways that are functionally adaptive and responsive to the damage wrought by war.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
moral foundations theory, cooperation, altruism born of suffering, parochial altruism, threat perceptions, emotions, housing destruction, war exposure, Mosul
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research; Political Science; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-511588 (URN)10.1177/00220027231200796 (DOI)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M21-0002Swedish Research Council, 2015-06564
Available from: 2023-09-13 Created: 2023-09-13 Last updated: 2023-09-21Bibliographically approved
Peltonen, K., Gredebäck, G., Pollak, S. D., Lindskog, M. & Hall, J. (2023). The role of maternal trauma and discipline types in emotional processing among Syrian refugee children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(8), 1487-1495
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of maternal trauma and discipline types in emotional processing among Syrian refugee children
Show others...
2023 (English)In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1487-1495Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stressful experiences in armed conflict incur intergenerational effects through parental behaviors with their children. A recent study reported that among Syrian refugee families, mothers' (but not fathers') post-traumatic stress (PTS) impacted children's emotional processing. In this study, we aim to shed further light on this phenomenon by analyzing how the parenting practices in the context of post-traumatic stress confers protection or risk for children's emotional processing. Participants were 6-18-year-old children (n = 212) and their mothers (n = 94), who fled from Syria and were residing in Turkish communities. We used the computer-based emotional processing task including photos of facial movements typically associated with different emotions to measure children's capacity for emotional processing. Mothers reported their PTS and the discipline types they use, as well as the contextual factors related to their refugee background. Linear mixed effect models were constructed first, to find out the discipline types that are most strongly associated with emotional processing of the child, and second, to examine whether these discipline types moderate the effect of maternal PTS on children's emotional processing. Finally, generalized linear models were constructed to examine which contextual factors are associated with the use of these discipline types by mothers. We found that spanking as a discipline type was associated with poorer child emotional processing, whereas withholding of media access was associated with better emotional processing. Younger and less religious mothers were more prone to use spanking. The study underlines the need for parenting programs alongside with efforts to address mental health issues among mothers living under armed conflict.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Discipline, Emotion, Face recognition, PTS, Parenting, War
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-469577 (URN)10.1007/s00787-022-01962-3 (DOI)000761841000001 ()35217919 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2012.0120Swedish Research Council, 2015-06564
Available from: 2022-03-11 Created: 2022-03-11 Last updated: 2023-07-12Bibliographically approved
Hall, J., Ahmad, A., Nordenving, S. & Gredebäck, G. (2022). Child development and resilience in war, conflict and displacement. Solna: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child development and resilience in war, conflict and displacement
2022 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Approximately 452 million children were living in a conflict zone in 2020, and almost half of the roughly 80 million forcibly displaced people worldwide are children. Many of the countries most affected by conflict are developing countries with a young and growing population.

War and displacement entail a wide range of adversity, with several negative impacts on children’s psychological development. These include mental health disorders, emotional and conduct problems, and impaired cognitive development, which have relevance for their life opportunities, including social relations, school performance and labour market success. While physical development is important, the development of the child’s emotional, social and cognitive abilities is equally crucial. The early years of childhood represent the ‘window of opportunity’ that shapes the child’s whole development experience throughout life. Research shows that the development potential of 250 million children under five years (around 43 per cent) in low- and middle-income countries is at stake. Also, there is a high probability that children will experience delayed early childhood development with exposure to local conflicts, and this delay increases with chronic exposure.

Perhaps somewhat surprising, however, is that research has also uncovered widespread resilience and even increased prosocial behaviour among children exposed to war violence. Resilience is a broad concept concerning the capacity to respond when challenged, return to stability, adjust to a new normal, or transform to survive or flourish. One approach to building resilience is the protection of child mental health and development through providing special care in the early stages of a child’s life. Addressing children’s resilience and early childhood psychological development is essential to limit human suffering, rebuild war-torn societies and evade recurring conflicts. Therefore, an important question is: What could be done to protect child development in the midst of conflict?

This SIPRI Topical Backgrounder provides an overview of existing aid-supported programmes and current practices to protect and promote children’s psychological development in war and displacement, followed by a review of a selection of rigorous research from the body of relevant literature to suggest ways forward.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Solna: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), 2022. p. 8
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology; Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-474140 (URN)
Available from: 2022-05-09 Created: 2022-05-09 Last updated: 2022-05-11Bibliographically approved
Canevello, A., Hall, J. & Walsh, J. I. (2022). Empathy-Mediated Altruism in Intergroup Contexts: The Roles of Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Growth. Emotion, 22(8), 1699-1712
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empathy-Mediated Altruism in Intergroup Contexts: The Roles of Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Growth
2022 (English)In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1699-1712Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure to war-related violence is associated with greater pro-social behavior. Although researchers point to empathy and individual differences in posttraumatic growth to explain this relationship, there is no direct empirical evidence of the psychological process by which exposure to wartime violence leads to pro-sociality. In this investigation, we propose and test a comprehensive model of empathy-mediated altruism that addresses both how and when exposure to violence may be associated with pro-sociality. Results from a large-scale survey experiment conducted in a naturalistic field setting (1660 refugees from the wars in Syria and Iraq residing in Turkey) indicate that participants reported greater empathy and altruism toward ingroup versus outgroup targets, and that posttraumatic stress predicted less and posttraumatic growth predicted more empathy and altruism. Further, empathy mediated ingroup biases in altruism (i.e., allocation of resources to the self and others); this indirect effect was stronger for those reporting greater posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress. These results support our proposed model of empathy-mediated altruism that incorporates individual differences in response to war violence and ingroup preferences. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2022
Keywords
empathy, altruism, posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, group identity
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-437215 (URN)10.1037/emo0000803 (DOI)000733185200001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-06564
Available from: 2021-03-08 Created: 2021-03-08 Last updated: 2023-08-23Bibliographically approved
Gredebäck, G., Hall, J. & Lindskog, M. (2022). Fluid intelligence in refugee children: A cross-sectional study of potential risk and resilience factors among Syrian refugee children and their parents. Intelligence, 94, Article ID 101684.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluid intelligence in refugee children: A cross-sectional study of potential risk and resilience factors among Syrian refugee children and their parents
2022 (English)In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 94, article id 101684Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We assess fluid intelligence of 6–18 year-old children growing up in families that have fled from Syria and reside in Turkish communities (100 families, 394 individuals). We demonstrate that fluid intelligence of refugee children is related to maternal fluid intelligence and to the amount of time mothers spend reading to their child. These factors stood out in the analysis even when controlling for a large range of other factors such as demographics, parental mental health, parental fluid intelligence, home environment, and a large array of potential enrichment factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Intelligence, Child development, War, Refugee, Book reading, Trauma
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-481537 (URN)10.1016/j.intell.2022.101684 (DOI)000860744400007 ()
Funder
Wallenberg Foundations, 2012.0120Swedish Research Council, 2015-06564
Available from: 2022-08-11 Created: 2022-08-11 Last updated: 2022-10-14Bibliographically approved
Kangaslampi, S., Peltonen, K. & Hall, J. (2022). Posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress: a network analysis among Syrian and Iraqi refugees. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 13, Article ID 2117902.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress: a network analysis among Syrian and Iraqi refugees
2022 (English)In: European Journal of Psychotraumatology, ISSN 2000-8198, E-ISSN 2000-8066, Vol. 13, article id 2117902Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Traumatic events related to war and displacement may lead to development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), but many war trauma survivors also report experiencing posttraumatic growth (PTG). However, the phenomenon of PTG remains poorly understood among refugees. Previous findings are also contradictory on whether more PTSS associate with PTG and what specific symptoms or aspects of growth may account for any possible link.

Objective and Method: Here, we aimed to better understand posttraumatic growth among refugees, especially its structure and most important constituent elements, as well as how it associates with PTSS. We employed regression and network analysis methods with a large sample (N = 3,159) of Syrian and Iraqi refugees living in Turkey self-reporting on PTG and PTSS.

Results: We found PTG and PTSS to be clearly distinct phenomena. Still, they often co- occurred, with a positive, slightly U-shaped relationship found between levels of PTSS and PTG. The main bridge between the constructs was identified from intrusive symptoms to having new priorities in life, although new priorities were more peripheral to the overall network structure of PTG. Meanwhile, discovering new psychological strengths and abilities and a new path in life emerged as elements most central to PTG itself. 

Conclusions: Many refugees report elements of PTG, even as they suffer from significant PTSS. The two phenomena appear distinct but positively associated, supporting the idea that intense cognitive processing involving distress may be necessary for growth after trauma. Our findings may inform efforts to support refugee trauma survivors in finding meaning and perhaps even growth after highly challenging experiences. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
PTSD, posttraumatic growth, network analysis, refugee, war, trauma
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-485302 (URN)10.1080/20008066.2022.2117902 (DOI)000857955300001 ()36186157 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-06504
Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2022-10-10Bibliographically approved
Hall, J. & Werner, K. (2022). Trauma and Trust: How War Exposure Shapes Social and Institutional Trust Among Refugees. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article ID 786838.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trauma and Trust: How War Exposure Shapes Social and Institutional Trust Among Refugees
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 786838Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The brutal wars in Iraq, Syria and now Ukraine have caused a massive influx of refugees to Europe. Turkey alone has received more than 4.8 million refugees. An important precondition for their economic and social incorporation is trust: refugees need to trust the citizens as well as the state and the justice system to find their place in the host country. Yet refugees’ propensity to trust may be affected by cultural differences between their home and host countries, their personal conflict exposure and the experiences they had on the run. This study investigates how individual differences in exposure to armed conflict and institutional breakdown shape two types of trust among refugees: Generalized social trust and trust in the institutions of the settlement country. We survey a large and diverse sample of refugees from Syria and Iraq living in Turkish communities and deploy well-established measures of conflict exposure, posttraumatic stress, and posttraumatic growth. We find that higher degrees of conflict exposure are positively related to social trust, and to trust in courts and the police. These positive findings are largely driven by refugees who had very personal and emotionally powerful experiences. The psychological mechanism of posttraumatic growth cannot explain these findings, however, suggesting positive experiences of cooperation in the midst of war and displacement are potentially a better explanation for this finding than positive psychological changes resulting from trauma. At the same time, conflict exposure is negatively related to trust in political institutions. Posttraumatic stress may be the mechanism behind this result. We discuss the implications of these findings for the integration of war refugees—a topic that is tragically of great relevance today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
institutional (dis)trust, social trust, refugee, conflict exposure, trauma, post-traumatic growth, post-traumatic stress, Syria and Iraq
National Category
Social Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-482424 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2022.786838 (DOI)000847902900001 ()36051202 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2014-1347
Note

The authors have contributed equally to this work.

Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2023-08-23Bibliographically approved
Projects
The Transnational Dimensions of Post-War Reconciliation; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research; Publications
Hall, J. (2011). Diasporas and Civil War. In: Tor G. Jakobsen (Ed.), War: an introduction to theories and research on collective violence (pp. 187-205). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.Hall, J. (2010). The Transnational Dimensions of Societal Reconciliation. Arlington, VA: Center for Global StudiesKostic, R. & Hall, J. (2009). Does Integration Encourage ReconciliatoryAttitudes among Diasporas?. Global Migration and Transnational Politics (7), 1-10Hall, J. & Swain, A. (2007). Catapulting Conflicts or Propelling Peace? Diasporas and Civil Wars. In: Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace: . Hall, J., Swain, A. & Kostic, R. (2007). Diasporas and Peacebuilding: A Multifaceted Association. In: Diasporas, Armed Conflicts and Peace Building in their Homelands: .
Diasporas and Their Involvement in Peace Processes; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research; Publications
Hall, J. & Swain, A. (2007). Catapulting Conflicts or Propelling Peace? Diasporas and Civil Wars. In: Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace: . Swain, A., Amer, R. & Öjendal, J. (2007). Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace. Anthem Press, London, New York & DelhiKostic, R. (2003). Strategies of livelihood in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina: A study of the economic predicament of returning home. Mimeo, Gothenburg University
Societies at risk: The impact of armed conflict on human development [M21-0002_RJ]; Uppsala University; Publications
Döring, S., Kim, K. & Swain, A. (2024). Integrating socio-hydrology, and peace and conflict research. Journal of Hydrology, 633, Article ID 131000.
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0069-1396

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