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Publications (10 of 64) Show all publications
Berg, A., Larsson, E. & Westberg, J. (2017). Att studera omvälvande förändringar: Revolutioner, paradigmskiften och epistemiska brott i studiet av utbildning. In: Berg, Anne et al. (Ed.), Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring (pp. 13-18). Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att studera omvälvande förändringar: Revolutioner, paradigmskiften och epistemiska brott i studiet av utbildning
2017 (Swedish)In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Berg, Anne et al., Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, p. 13-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED), 2017
Series
Utbildningshistoriska meddelanden, ISSN 2000-4168 ; 5
Keywords
utbildningshistoria, historiografi, revolutioner
National Category
History Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319954 (URN)9789186701031 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-04-11 Created: 2017-04-11 Last updated: 2017-04-12Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2016). “How could a teacher survive on a salary consisting of 8 barrels of grains and 53 riksdaler 16 skilling in cash? A question answered”,. In: Räume für Bildung. Räume der Bildung.: DGfE-Kongress 2016. Paper presented at German Educational Research Association (GERA) Congress, 13-16 March 2016, Kassel.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“How could a teacher survive on a salary consisting of 8 barrels of grains and 53 riksdaler 16 skilling in cash? A question answered”,
2016 (English)In: Räume für Bildung. Räume der Bildung.: DGfE-Kongress 2016, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Elementary School Act of 1842 changed the conditions for the teaching profession in Swedish elementary schools. It set a minimum wage for teachers, which included housing, firewood and summer grazing for a cow, and established a regulatory framework for hiring teachers. In order to be employed as a teacher at an elementary school, a degree had to be obtained from a teachers’ college. Apart from this formal requirement, teachers were also expected to have a wide range of abilities, far exceeding the elementary school’s minimum level. In addition to having a personality characterized by piety and moral conduct, the future teacher was to have a complete mastery of his reading and writing skills, and should also have full knowledge of the catechism, biblical history, science, geography and arithmetic. 

In our paper, Iwill shed light upon the social, economic and cultural conditions under which Swedish teachers lived and worked following the school act of 1842. Special attention will be paid to issues such as the teacher’s wages (in kind and in cash), their living conditions and their position in the local community and relationships with the school district’s inhabitants. The empirical basis of this paper will be found in published statistical data and government questionnaires as well as case studies delving deeper into the realities of individual school districts and teachers.

Keywords
utbildningshistoria
National Category
History
Research subject
Sociology of Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-286855 (URN)
Conference
German Educational Research Association (GERA) Congress, 13-16 March 2016, Kassel
Available from: 2016-04-21 Created: 2016-04-21 Last updated: 2016-04-21
Westberg, J. (2016). Making mass schooling affordable: in-kind taxation and the establishment of an elementary school system in Sweden, 1840–1870. Paedagogica historica, 52(4), 349-363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making mass schooling affordable: in-kind taxation and the establishment of an elementary school system in Sweden, 1840–1870
2016 (English)In: Paedagogica historica, ISSN 0030-9230, E-ISSN 1477-674X, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 349-363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article discusses the significance of in-kind taxation and payments in kind for the establishment of an elementary school system in Sweden, in the 1840-1870 period. By analysing the funding of teachers' wages, the heating of the school facilities, and school building construction in the 12 rural school districts of the Sundsvall region, this study shows that schooling to a large extent relied on in-kind transactions in this area. Despite the practical problems that such transactions entailed, the author has argued that they were instrumental in the establishment of schooling in the Sundsvall region. Apart from making schooling affordable for the school districts, since in-kind taxation and payment made it possible to avoid extensive cash expenditure, the natural economy presented an opportunity to align the school funding to the school districts' local resources, price levels and social structure. In contrast to the historiography of schooling that has mainly linked the emergence of mass schooling to the modernisation of society, this work reveals that age-old customs of in-kind transactions are an important factor to acknowledge when explaining the educational revolution that mass schooling entailed.

Keywords
Schooling, school finance, in-kind taxation, teachers, nineteenth century
National Category
History
Research subject
Sociology of Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-283176 (URN)10.1080/00309230.2016.1158725 (DOI)000379543600003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2016). Thrifty or fair? : The economic thinking of Swedish school districts, 1840-1900. In: European Social Science History Conference, 30 March - 2 April 2016, Valencia.: . Paper presented at European Social Science History Conference, 30 March - 2 April 2016, Valencia..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thrifty or fair? : The economic thinking of Swedish school districts, 1840-1900
2016 (English)In: European Social Science History Conference, 30 March - 2 April 2016, Valencia., 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The economic considerations of local school districts and their school boards were an important factor in the emergence of mass schooling during the nineteenth century. Consequently, both econometric analyses and historical studies have dealt with issues such as local fiscal capacity and the limited funds of school boards. Studies have, for example, drawn attention to the thriftiness of farmers in matters of schooling, and pointed out how school districts pursued a school system geared towards low teacher salaries, short semesters and cheap school buildings. In this context, the global diffusion of monitorial education has been explained by its inexpensive nature. 

In this paper, I present a study of school districts’ economic activity and thinking in Sweden, 1840-1900. Using A. V. Chayanov’s and Eric R. Wolf’s classic analyses of peasant economy, and a case study of 12 school districts in northern Sweden as a starting point, this paper analyses how school districts balanced income with expenditures, how they understood the limited resources of their local community, and discussed their own financial budget. Thus I will be able to show that the school districts not only aspired to implement a school system at a minimum cost, but desired an economic practice that was righteous, just, sensible, moderate and justifiable. This meant that available resources were not the only, or, main guiding principle of the school boards. Instead, the school boards pursued a politics of schooling that catered to the needs of teachers, parents and children. The economy of the Swedish school districts was in this respect a complex social, economic and cultural practice. 

In addition to being a contribution to the economic history of schooling, analyzing how issues of educational expenditure and fiscal capacity was discussed and dealt with by school boards, this paper also has wider relevance to the history of schooling. Since teachers’ salaries and the building and maintenance of schoolhouses were the main expenditure items of the Swedish school districts, this paper addresses issues that is of particular interest for the history of teachers and the history of schoolhouses.

National Category
History
Research subject
Sociology of Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-286856 (URN)
Conference
European Social Science History Conference, 30 March - 2 April 2016, Valencia.
Available from: 2016-04-21 Created: 2016-04-21 Last updated: 2016-04-21
Westberg, J. (2015). Building systems of mass schooling: An analysis of the preconditions common to school systems and the school building process in Sweden, 1840-1900. In: International Standing Conference in the History of Education, 24-27 June, 2015, Istanbul: . Paper presented at International Standing Conference in the History of Education, 24-27 June, 2015, Istanbul.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building systems of mass schooling: An analysis of the preconditions common to school systems and the school building process in Sweden, 1840-1900
2015 (English)In: International Standing Conference in the History of Education, 24-27 June, 2015, Istanbul, 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The emergence of mass schooling during the eighteenth- and nineteenth centuries is well-known. School enrolments rose, the number of teachers increased and schoolhouses were built in village after village. It became common for parents to send their children to schools where they were presented with a basic education and instilled with patriotism and bourgeois values. 

This development, fundamental to the historiography of education, has been explained in different ways as a functional requirement, as a means of social control, a result of status group competition or state formation processes. This paper intends to shed new light upon the emergence of mass schooling during the nineteenth century, using the school building process in Sweden, 1840-1900, as point of departure. As a result of this novel approach, mass schooling is tied not only to well-known factors such as population growth, proletarisation and the intervention of nation-states, but to a broader socioeconomic and cultural context that includes the organization of the Swedish parishes, the political culture of the school districts, the modernization of the credit market, changes in local tax systems, the liberalization of the real property market, and the expansion of the construction materials market. Instead of being portrayed as a response to a need to moralize the poor, schooling appears as motivated by factors such as the social position of farmers and the sense of rivalry between school districts. Thus, a broader and more comprehensive explanation to the emergence of mass schooling and national school systems is accomplished. 

This study rests on an in-depth case study of 66 school building projects in the twelve rural parishes of the Sundsvall region, Västernorrland county, located in the north of Sweden. As this study deals with the school building process, its theoretical point of departure is the historical study of building activities in early modern and modern times. To ensure that the study has sufficient depth and breadth, a large amount of printed and unprinted materials have been consulted, including primary statistical data from the Ministry of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs, information from the Demographic Data Base in Umeå, fire insurance documents from the former Fire Insurance Agency, maps from the Land Survey Office, documents from rural courts and the multitude of documents found in church archives.

Keywords
mass schooling, educational reform, nineteenth century, history
National Category
History
Research subject
Sociology of Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-286853 (URN)
Conference
International Standing Conference in the History of Education, 24-27 June, 2015, Istanbul
Available from: 2016-04-21 Created: 2016-04-21 Last updated: 2016-04-21
Westberg, J. (2015). Multiplying the origins of mass education: An analysis of the preconditions common to school systems and the school building process in Sweden, 1842-1900. History of Education, 44(4), 415-436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiplying the origins of mass education: An analysis of the preconditions common to school systems and the school building process in Sweden, 1842-1900
2015 (English)In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 415-436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The emergence of mass schooling is undoubtedly one of the most significant transformations that took place during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This article takes a new approach to this fundamental issue by analysing the historical conditions required for the construction of school buildings and the advent of mass schooling, in the 1840-1900 period. Using the school building process as a point of departure, the growth of schooling is tied not only to well-known factors such as industrialisation, state formation processes and the decentralisation of school systems, but also to the expansion of the market economy, modernisation of the credit market, liberalisation of the real property market, changes in local tax systems, and the expansion of the building materials market. Thus, a broader and largely novel explanation of the emergence of mass schooling is accomplished.

Keywords
folkskolan utbildningshistoria skola skolväsende
National Category
History Educational Sciences
Research subject
Sociology of Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255136 (URN)10.1080/0046760X.2015.1015625 (DOI)000354608400003 ()
Projects
Folkskolans finansiering
Available from: 2015-06-14 Created: 2015-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. & Sjögren, D. (2015). Norrland och dess utbildningshistoria. In: David Sjögren och Johannes Westberg (Ed.), Norrlandsfrågan: Erfarenhet av utbildning, bildning och fostrani nationalstatens periferi (pp. 9-34). Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Norrland och dess utbildningshistoria
2015 (Swedish)In: Norrlandsfrågan: Erfarenhet av utbildning, bildning och fostrani nationalstatens periferi / [ed] David Sjögren och Johannes Westberg, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2015, p. 9-34-Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet, 2015
Series
Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundets handlingar, ISSN 0560 2416 ; 73
Keywords
utbildningshistoria, folkskola, norrland
National Category
History
Research subject
Sociology of Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-271509 (URN)
Available from: 2016-01-08 Created: 2016-01-08 Last updated: 2016-01-08
Westberg, J. & Sjögren, D. (Eds.). (2015). Norrlandsfrågan: Erfarenhet av utbildning, bildning och fostran i nationalstatens periferi. Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Norrlandsfrågan: Erfarenhet av utbildning, bildning och fostran i nationalstatens periferi
2015 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
The Norrland Issue : Experiences of Education, Formation and Socialisation in the Periphery of the Nation-state
Abstract [sv]

Norrland är ett begrepp som väckt och fortsätter att väcka många associationer: såväl storslagen natur, rika naturresurser och framtidsland, som fattigdom, förtryck och underutveckling.

I Norrlandsfrågan behandlas Norrlands utbildningshistoria med utgångspunkt från tre teman: Organisation och ekonomi, Ideologi, politik och styrning samt Fostran och pedagogik. Bland de företeelser som därmed uppmärksammas ingår de norrbottniska arbetsstugorna, Svenska Missionssällskapets lappländska skolor, uppfostranstraditioner i nybyggarland och den Munktellska salongen i Falun. I ett innehållsrikt inledningskapitel ges också en introduktion till Norrlands historia, och hur dess särdrag påverkat utvecklingen av dess utbildningsväsende.

 

Samtidigt som denna bok samlat forskning kring Norrlands utbildningshistoria, avser den också att ge inblickar i mekanismer av mer allmän art. Inte minst rörande hur utbildning utformas i glesbebyggda och resursfattiga områden, hur nationella minoriteter behandlas i nationella utbildningssystem, och hur de sistnämnda påverkas av religiösa konflikter. Därmed blir boken även av intresse för de som intresserar sig för utbildningens särdrag i exempelvis kanadensiska och australienska nybyggarområden, rasmotsättningarnas amerikanska sydstater och de religiösa konflikternas Irland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet, 2015. p. 296
Series
Kungl. Skytteanska samfundets handlingar, ISSN 0560 2416 ; 73
Keywords
utbildningshistoria, skola, norrland
National Category
History
Research subject
Sociology of Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-271506 (URN)978 91 86438 53 1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-01-08 Created: 2016-01-08 Last updated: 2016-01-08
Westberg, J. (2015). Referring to international examples, adjusting to local realities: Swedish nineteenth century rural schoolhouses. IJHE Bildungsgeschichte: International Journal for the Historiography of Education, 5(1), 25-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Referring to international examples, adjusting to local realities: Swedish nineteenth century rural schoolhouses
2015 (English)In: IJHE Bildungsgeschichte: International Journal for the Historiography of Education, ISSN 2192-4295, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, 2015
Keywords
historia, utbildningshistoria, skolhus, folkskola
National Category
History
Research subject
Sociology of Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252422 (URN)
Projects
Folkskolans finansiering
Available from: 2015-05-06 Created: 2015-05-06 Last updated: 2015-05-06
Berg, A., Edquist, S., Mays, C., Westberg, J. & Åkerlund, A. (2015). The History of Educational Finance. Nordic Journal of Educational History, 2(1), 3-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The History of Educational Finance
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2015 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: , 2015
Keywords
historia, utbildningshistoria, skolfinansiering, högre utbildning, folkbildning
National Category
History
Research subject
Sociology of Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252424 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-06 Created: 2015-05-06 Last updated: 2015-09-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3444-952X

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