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Persson, F., Nystrom, T., Jorgensen, M. E., Carstensen, B., Gulseth, H. L., Thuresson, M., . . . Birkeland, K. I. (2018). Dapagliflozin is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes (CVD-REAL Nordic) when compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor therapy: A multinational observational study. Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, 20(2), 344-351
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dapagliflozin is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes (CVD-REAL Nordic) when compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor therapy: A multinational observational study
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2018 (English)In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 344-351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims

To compare the sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor dapagliflozin with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors with regard to risk associations with major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE; non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular mortality), hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), atrial fibrillation and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a real-world setting.

Methods

All patients with T2D prescribed glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) during 2012 to 2015 were identified in nationwide registries in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Patients were divided into two groups: new users of dapagliflozin and new users of DPP-4 inhibitors, matched 1:3 by propensity score, calculated by patient characteristics, comorbidities and drug treatment. Cox survival models were used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) per country separately, and a weighted average was calculated.

Results

After matching, a total of 40908 patients with T2D were identified as new users of dapagliflozin (n=10227) or a DPP-4 inhibitor (n=30681). The groups were well balanced at baseline; their mean age was 61years and 23% had CV disease. The mean follow-up time was 0.95years, with a total of 38760 patient-years. Dapagliflozin was associated with a lower risk of MACE, HHF and all-cause mortality compared with DPP-4 inhibitors: HRs 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.94), 0.62 (95% CI 0.50-0.77), and 0.59 (95% CI 0.49-0.72), respectively. Numerically lower, but non-significant HRs were observed for myocardial infarction (0.91 [95% CI 0.72-1.16]), stroke (0.79 [95% CI 0.61-1.03]) and CV mortality (0.76 [95% CI 0.53-1.08]) Neutral associations with atrial fibrillation and severe hypoglycaemia were observed.

Conclusions

Dapagliflozin was associated with lower risks of CV events and all-cause mortality compared with DPP-4 inhibitors in a real-world clinical setting and a broad T2D population.

Keywords
cardiovascular disease, dapagliflozin, diabetes complications, DPP-4 inhibitor, hypoglycaemia, type 2 diabetes
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343661 (URN)10.1111/dom.13077 (DOI)000422678600013 ()28771923 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-09 Created: 2018-05-09 Last updated: 2018-05-09Bibliographically approved
Johansson, E., Lubberink, M., Heurling, K., Eriksson, J. W., Skrtic, S., Ahlström, H. & Kullberg, J. (2018). Whole-Body Imaging of Tissue-specific Insulin Sensitivity and Body Composition by Using an Integrated PET/MR System: A Feasibility Study.. Radiology, 286(1), 271-278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whole-Body Imaging of Tissue-specific Insulin Sensitivity and Body Composition by Using an Integrated PET/MR System: A Feasibility Study.
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2018 (English)In: Radiology, ISSN 0033-8419, E-ISSN 1527-1315, Vol. 286, no 1, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

To develop, evaluate, and demonstrate the feasibility of a whole-body protocol for simultaneous assessment of tissue-specific insulin-mediated fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) influx rates, tissue depots, and whole-body insulin sensitivity (referred to as the M value).

Materials and Methods

An integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system combined with hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) was used. Dynamic whole-body PET imaging was used to determine the insulin-mediated 18F-FDG tissue influx rate (Ki) in the whole-body region by using the Patlak method. M value was determined with the HEC method at PET imaging. Tissue depots were quantified by using water-fat separated MR imaging and manual segmentations. Feasibility of the imaging protocol was demonstrated by using five healthy control participants and five patients with type 2 diabetes. Associations between M value and Ki were studied in multiple tissues by using the Pearson correlation.

Results

Positive correlations were found between M value and Ki in multiple tissues: the gluteus muscle (r = 0.875; P = .001), thigh muscle (r = 0.903; P , .001), calf muscle (r = 0.825; P = .003), and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (r = 0.820; P = .004). A negative correlation was found in the brain (r = 20.798; P = .006). The MR imaging–based method for quantification of tissue depots was feasible for determining adipose tissue volumes and fat fractions.

Conclusion

This PET/MR imaging protocol may be feasible for simultaneous assessment of tissue-specific insulin-mediated 18F-FDG influx rates, tissue depots, and M value.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329272 (URN)10.1148/radiol.2017162949 (DOI)000422905200034 ()28846496 (PubMedID)
Funder
AstraZeneca
Available from: 2017-09-11 Created: 2017-09-11 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Fonseca, A. R. G., Carvalho, E., Eriksson, J. W. & Pereira, M. J. (2017). Calcineurin is involved in the regulation of human adipocyte glucose uptake. Paper presented at 53rd Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), SEP 11-15, 2017, Lisbon, PORTUGAL. Diabetologia, 60, S227-S227
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calcineurin is involved in the regulation of human adipocyte glucose uptake
2017 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 60, p. S227-S227Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347284 (URN)000408315001275 ()
Conference
53rd Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), SEP 11-15, 2017, Lisbon, PORTUGAL
Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2018-03-29Bibliographically approved
Birkeland, K. I., Jorgensen, M. E., Carstensen, B., Persson, F., Gulseth, H. L., Thuresson, M., . . . Norhammar, A. (2017). Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes following initiation of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors versus other glucose-lowering drugs (CVD-REAL Nordic): A Multinational Observational Analysis. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 5(9), 709-717
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes following initiation of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors versus other glucose-lowering drugs (CVD-REAL Nordic): A Multinational Observational Analysis
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2017 (English)In: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, ISSN 2213-8587, E-ISSN 2213-8595, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 709-717Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background In patients with type 2 diabetes and a high cardiovascular risk profile, the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors empagliflozin and canagliflozin have been shown to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Using real-world data from clinical practice, we aimed to compare cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in new users of SGLT2 inhibitors versus new users of other glucose-lowering drugs, in a population with a broad cardiovascular risk profile. Methods CVD-REAL Nordic was an observational analysis of individual patient-level data from the Prescribed Drug Registers, Cause of Death Registers, and National Patient Registers in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. All patients who filled a prescription for glucose-lowering drugs between 2012 and 2015 were included and followed up until Dec 31, 2015. Patients were divided into new users of SGLT2 inhibitors and new users of other glucose-lowering drugs. Each SGLT2 inhibitor user was matched with three users of other glucose-lowering drugs by use of propensity scores. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by country (Cox survival model) and weighted averages were calculated. Cardiovascular outcomes investigated were cardiovascular mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke), hospital events for heart failure (inpatient or outpatient visit with a primary diagnosis of heart failure), non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and atrial fibrillation. We also assessed incidence of severe hypoglycaemia. Findings Matched SGLT2 inhibitor (n=22 830) and other glucose-lowering drug (n=68 490) groups were well balanced at baseline, with a mean follow-up of 0.9 (SD 4.1) years (80 669 patient-years) and mean age of 61 (12.0) years; 40% (36 362 of 91 320) were women and prevalence of cardiovascular disease was 25% (22 686 of 91 320). 94% of the total SGLT2 inhibitor exposure time was for use of dapagliflozin, with 5% for empagliflozin, and 1% for canagliflozin. Compared with other glucose-lowering drugs, use of SGLT2 inhibitors was associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.53 [95% CI 0.40-0.71]), major adverse cardiovascular events (0.78 [0.69-0.87]), and hospital events for heart failure (0.70 [0.61-0.81]; p<0.0001 for all). We did not identify significant differences between use of SGLT2 inhibitors and use of other glucose-lowering drugs for non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or atrial fibrillation. Compared with other glucose-lowering drugs, use of SGLT2 inhibitors was associated with a decreased risk of severe hypoglycaemia (HR 0.76 [0.65-0.90]; p=0.001). For cardiovascular mortality, the differences were similar for the 25% of individuals with cardiovascular disease at baseline and those without (HR 0.60 [0.42-0.85] vs 0.55 [0.34-0.90]), while for major adverse cardiovascular events the HR in the group with cardiovascular disease at baseline was 0.70 (0.59-0.83) versus 0.90 (0.76-1.07) in the group without. Interpretation In a population of patients with type 2 diabetes and a broad cardiovascular risk profile, SGLT2 inhibitor use was associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality compared with use of other glucose-lowering drugs-a finding consistent with the results of clinical trials in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
All-Cause Mortality; Heart-Failure; Severe Hypoglycemia; Dpp-4 Inhibitors; Increased Risk; Events; Prevalence; Outcomes; Diagnosis; Accuracy
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330539 (URN)10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30258-9 (DOI)000408369600017 ()
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-10-03
Pereira, M. J., Skrtic, S., Katsogiannos, P., Abrahamsson, N., Kullberg, J., Nowak, C. & Eriksson, J. W. (2017). CDKN2C expression is low in type 2 diabetes and associated with reduced lipid storage capacity in subcutaneous adipose tissue and elevated free fatty acid levels. Paper presented at 53rd Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), SEP 11-15, 2017, Lisbon, PORTUGAL. Diabetologia, 60(S1), S272-S272, Article ID 598.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CDKN2C expression is low in type 2 diabetes and associated with reduced lipid storage capacity in subcutaneous adipose tissue and elevated free fatty acid levels
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2017 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 60, no S1, p. S272-S272, article id 598Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347293 (URN)000408315001375 ()
Conference
53rd Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), SEP 11-15, 2017, Lisbon, PORTUGAL
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, J. W., Norhammar, A., Bodegard, J., Thuresson, M., Fenici, P., Nathanson, D., . . . Birkeland, K. I. (2017). Dapagliflozin compared to DPP4i treatment is associated with lower risk of kidney disease, heart failure and all-cause death: CVD-REAL Nordic. Paper presented at 53rd Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), SEP 11-15, 2017, Lisbon, PORTUGAL. Diabetologia, 60(S1), S401-S402, Article ID 868.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dapagliflozin compared to DPP4i treatment is associated with lower risk of kidney disease, heart failure and all-cause death: CVD-REAL Nordic
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2017 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 60, no S1, p. S401-S402, article id 868Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347282 (URN)000408315002208 ()
Conference
53rd Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), SEP 11-15, 2017, Lisbon, PORTUGAL
Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Lundkvist, P., Pereira, M. J., Katsogiannos, P., Sjöström, C. D., Johnsson, E. & Eriksson, J. W. (2017). Dapagliflozin once daily plus exenatide once weekly in obese adults without diabetes: Sustained reductions in body weight, glycaemia and blood pressure over 1 year. Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, 19(9), 1276-1288
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dapagliflozin once daily plus exenatide once weekly in obese adults without diabetes: Sustained reductions in body weight, glycaemia and blood pressure over 1 year
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2017 (English)In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 1276-1288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Dapagliflozin and exenatide reduce body weight by differing mechanisms. Dual therapy with these agents reduces body weight, adipose tissue volume, glycaemia and systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 24weeks. Here, we examined these effects over 1year in obese adults without diabetes.

Materials and methods: Obese adults without diabetes (N=50; aged 18-70years; body mass index, 30-45kg/m(2)) were initially randomized to double-blind oral dapagliflozin 10mg once daily plus subcutaneous long-acting exenatide 2mg once weekly or to placebo. They entered an open-label extension from 24 to 52weeks during which all participants received active treatment.

Results: Of the original 25 dapagliflozin+exenatide-treated and 25 placebo-treated participants, respectively, 21 (84%) and 17 (68%) entered the open-label period and 16 (64%) and 17 (68%) completed 52weeks of treatment. At baseline, mean body weight was 104.6kg, and 73.5% of participants had prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance). Reductions with dapagliflozin+exenatide at 24weeks were sustained at 52weeks, respectively, for body weight (-4.5 and -5.7kg), total adipose tissue volume (-3.8 and -5.3L), proportion with prediabetes (34.8% and 35.3%), and SBP (-9.8 and -12.0mm Hg). Effects on body weight, SBP and glycaemia at 52weeks with placebodapagliflozin+exenatide were similar to those observed with continuation of dapagliflozin+exenatide. Nausea and injection-site reactions were more frequent with dapagliflozin+exenatide than with placebo and diminished over time. Safety and tolerability were similar to that in previous diabetes trials with these agents. No clear difference in adverse event-related withdrawals between placebo and active treatment periods was observed.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin+exenatide dual therapy produced sustained reductions in body weight, prediabetes and SBP over 52weeks and was well tolerated in obese adults without diabetes.

Keywords
dapagliflozin, exenatide, obesity, prediabetes
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334932 (URN)10.1111/dom.12954 (DOI)000408241200010 ()28345814 (PubMedID)
Funder
AstraZeneca
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Lundkvist, P., Sjöström, C. D., Amini, S., Pereira, M. J., Johnsson, E. & Eriksson, J. W. (2017). Dapagliflozin once-daily and exenatide once-weekly dual therapy: A 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II study examining effects on body weight and prediabetes in obese adults without diabetes. Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, 19(1), 49-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dapagliflozin once-daily and exenatide once-weekly dual therapy: A 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II study examining effects on body weight and prediabetes in obese adults without diabetes
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2017 (English)In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: To explore the effects of dual therapy with dapagliflozin and exenatide on body weight, body composition, glycaemic variables and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in obese adults without diabetes.

Materials and methods: In this single-centre, double-blind trial, we randomized 50 obese adults without diabetes (aged 18-70 years; body mass index 30-45 kg/m(2)) to oral dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily plus subcutaneous long-acting exenatide 2 mg once weekly or placebo. MRI was used to assess change in body composition. Participants were instructed to follow a balanced diet and exercise moderately.

Results: Of 25 dapagliflozin/exenatide-and 25 placebo-treated participants, 23 (92.0%) and 20 (80.0%) completed 24 weeks of treatment, respectively. At baseline, the mean participant age was 52 years, 61% were female, the mean body weight was 104.6 kg, and 73.5% of participants had prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance). After 24 weeks, for dapagliflozin/exenatide versus placebo: the difference in body weight change was -4.13 kg (95% confidence interval -6.44, -1.81; P <.001), which was mostly attributable to adipose tissue reduction without lean tissue change; 36.0% versus 4.2% of participants achieved >= 5% body weight loss, respectively; and prediabetes was less frequent with active treatment (34.8% vs 85.0%, respectively; P <.01). The difference in SBP change for dapagliflozin/ exenatide versus placebo was -6.7 mm Hg. As expected, nausea and injection-site reactions were more frequent with dapagliflozin/exenatide than with placebo. Only two and three participants, respectively, discontinued because of adverse events.

Conclusions: Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin/exenatide dual therapy reduced body weight, frequency of prediabetes and SBP over 24 weeks and was well tolerated in obese adults without diabetes.

Keywords
dapagliflozin, exenatide, obesity, prediabetes
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314407 (URN)10.1111/dom.12779 (DOI)000390987800006 ()
Funder
AstraZeneca
Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-02 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Marklund, M., Pingel, R., Rosqvist, F., Lindroos, A. K., Eriksson, J. W., Vessby, B., . . . Risérus, U. (2017). Fatty Acid Proportions in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids Are Positively Correlated in Various Swedish Populations. Journal of Nutrition, 147(11), 2118-2125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatty Acid Proportions in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids Are Positively Correlated in Various Swedish Populations
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 147, no 11, p. 2118-2125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Fatty acid (FA) proportions in cholesterol esters (CEs) and plasma phospholipids are widely used as dietary biomarkers. Information on how proportions in these fractions correlate could have implications for interpretation and use of FA biomarkers in observational and interventional studies. Objective: We investigated correlations between FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids in free-living individuals and assessed how diet-induced alterations of FA proportions correlate between fractions. Methods: Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs) between FA proportions (percentage of total FAs) in circulating CEs and phospholipids were calculated separately in 8 individual study populations including Swedish females and males (N = 2052; age range: 11-84 y), and pooled by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. In addition, study populations were stratified by age, sex, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), and diabetes status, and strata-specific rs were pooled by meta-analysis. In 2 randomized trials (N = 79) in which dietary saturated FAs were isocalorically replaced with unsaturated FAs, treatment-wise calculations of rs were conducted between FA changes in CEs and phospholipids. Results: Overall, FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids correlated well and especially strongly for polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), with pooled rs (95% CIs) ranging from 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) for a-linolenic acid to 0.92 (0.91, 0.93) for eicosapentaenoic acid. Weak correlations (pooled rs <0.4) were observed only for palmitic acid and stearic acid, with pooled rs (95% CIs): 0.29 (0.24, 0.33) and 0.30 (0.25, 0.34), respectively. Overall, correlations were not affected by age, sex, BMI, or diabetes status. Strong correlations (r(s) >= 0.6) between diet-induced FA changes in CEs and phospholipids were observed for most PUFAs. Conclusions: Proportions of most FAs in CEs and phospholipids ranked individuals similarly, suggesting that FA proportions in these fractions can be used interchangeably in populations of diverse age, sex, body composition, and diabetes status. Caution is advised, however, when comparing results from studies assessing palmitic acid or stearic acid in different lipid fractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN, 2017
Keywords
fatty acid, biomarker, cholesterol ester, phospholipid, meta-analysis
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-344334 (URN)10.3945/jn.117.254250 (DOI)000417124300014 ()28931585 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2018-03-07Bibliographically approved
Kamble, P. G., Gustafsson, S., Pereira, M. J., Lundkvist, P., Cook, N., Lind, L., . . . Ingelsson, E. (2017). Genotype-based recall to study metabolic effects of genetic variation: a pilot study of PPARG Pro12Ala carriers. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 122(4), 234-242
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genotype-based recall to study metabolic effects of genetic variation: a pilot study of PPARG Pro12Ala carriers
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2017 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 234-242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: To assess practical implications of genotype-based recall (GBR) studies, an increasingly popular approach for in-depth characterization of genotype-phenotype relationships.

METHODS: We genotyped 2500 participants from the Swedish EpiHealth cohort and considered loss-of-function and missense variants in genes with relation to cardiometabolic traits as the basis for our GBR study. Therefore, we focused on carriers and non-carriers of the PPARG Pro12Ala (rs1801282) variant, as it is a relatively common variant with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 0.14. It has also been shown to affect ligand binding and transcription, and carriage of the minor allele (Ala12) is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. We re-invited 39 Pro12Pro, 34 Pro12Ala, and 30 Ala12Ala carriers and performed detailed anthropometric and serological assessments.

RESULTS: The participation rates in the GBR study were 31%, 44%, and 40%, and accordingly we included 12, 15, and 13 individuals with Pro12Pro, Pro12Ala, and Ala12Ala variants, respectively. There were no differences in anthropometric or metabolic variables among the different genotype groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Our report highlights that from a practical perspective, GBR can be used to study genotype-phenotype relationships. This approach can prove to be a valuable tool for follow-up findings from large-scale genetic discovery studies by undertaking detailed phenotyping procedures that might not be feasible in large studies. However, our study also illustrates the need for a larger pool of genotyped or sequenced individuals to allow for selection of rare variants with larger effects that can be examined in a GBR study of the present size.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Genotype-based recall, PPARG Pro12Ala, metabolism
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342240 (URN)10.1080/03009734.2017.1405127 (DOI)000423294800005 ()29303622 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-02907Göran Gustafsson Foundation for Research in Natural Sciences and MedicineSwedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20140422Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2013.0126Swedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2639-9481

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