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Frans, Örjan
Publications (10 of 33) Show all publications
Evers, A., McCormick, C. M., Hawley, L. R., Muniz, J., Balboni, G., Bartram, D., . . . Zhang, J. (2017). Testing Practices and Attitudes Toward Tests and Testing: An International Survey. International Journal of Testing, 17(2), 158-190
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing Practices and Attitudes Toward Tests and Testing: An International Survey
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 158-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

On behalf of the International Test Commission and the European Federation of Psychologists' Associations a world-wide survey on the opinions of professional psychologists on testing practices was carried out. The main objective of this study was to collect data for a better understanding of the state of psychological testing worldwide. These data could guide the actions and measures taken by ITC, EFPA, and other stakeholders. A questionnaire was administered to 20,467 professional psychologists from 29 countries. Five scales were constructed relating to: concern over incorrect test use, regulations on tests and testing, internet and computerized testing, appreciation of tests, and knowledge and training relating to test use. Equivalence across countries was evaluated using the alignment method, four scales demonstrated acceptable levels of invariance. Multilevel analysis was used to determine how scores were related to age, gender, and specialization, as well as how scores varied between countries. Although the results show a high appreciation of tests in general, the appreciation of internet and computerized testing is much lower. These scales show low variability over countries, whereas differences between countries on the other reported scales are much greater. This implies the need for some overarching improvements as well as country-specific actions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2017
Keywords
psychological testing, testing practices, test use, International Test Commission, European Federation of Psychologists' Associations
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328283 (URN)10.1080/15305058.2016.1216434 (DOI)000402241300004 ()
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
Frick, A., Åhs, F., Michelgård Palmquist, Å., Pissiota, A., Wallenquist, U., Fernandez, M., . . . Fredrikson, M. (2016). Overlapping expression of serotonin transporters and neurokinin-1 receptors in posttraumatic stress disorder: a multi-tracer PET study. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(10), 1400-1407
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overlapping expression of serotonin transporters and neurokinin-1 receptors in posttraumatic stress disorder: a multi-tracer PET study
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2016 (English)In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1400-1407Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The brain serotonergic system is colocalized and interacts with the neuropeptidergic substance P/neurokinin-1 (SP/NK1) system. Both these neurochemical systems have independently been implicated in stress and anxiety, but interactions between them might be crucial for human anxiety conditions. Here, we examined the serotonin and substance P/neurokinin-1 (SP/NK1) systems individually as well as their overlapping expression in 16 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 16 healthy controls. Participants were imaged with the highly selective radiotracers [(11)C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile (DASB) and [(11)C]GR205171 assessing serotonin transporter (SERT) and NK1 receptor availability, respectively. Voxel-wise analyses in the amygdala, our a priori-defined region of interest, revealed increased number of NK1 receptors, but not SERT in the PTSD group. Symptom severity, as indexed by the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale, was negatively related to SERT availability in the amygdala, and NK1 receptor levels moderated this relationship. Exploratory, voxel-wise whole-brain analyses revealed increased SERT availability in the precentral gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex of PTSD patients. Patients, relative to controls, displayed lower degree of overlapping expression between SERT and NK1 receptors in the putamen, thalamus, insula and lateral orbitofrontal gyrus, lower overlap being associated with higher PTSD symptom severity. Expression overlap also explained more of the symptomatology than did either system individually, underscoring the importance of taking interactions between the neurochemical systems into account. Thus, our results suggest that aberrant serotonergic-SP/NK1 couplings contribute to the pathophysiology of PTSD and, consequently, that normalization of these couplings may be therapeutically important.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268105 (URN)10.1038/mp.2015.180 (DOI)000384127000011 ()26619809 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Brain FoundationRiksbankens JubileumsfondForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2015-12-02 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Motilla Hoppe, J., Frick, A., Åhs, F., Frans, Ö., Fredrikson, M. & Furmark, T. (2015). Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in the Amygdala is Positively Associated with Neuroticism and Negatively Associated with Extraversion.. In: : . Paper presented at Presented at the 70th Society of Biological Psychiatry Annual Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. May 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in the Amygdala is Positively Associated with Neuroticism and Negatively Associated with Extraversion.
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284547 (URN)
Conference
Presented at the 70th Society of Biological Psychiatry Annual Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. May 2015.
Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2016-04-18
Frick, A., Åhs, F., Engman, J., Jonasson, M., Alaie, I., Björkstrand, J., . . . Furmark, T. (2015). Serotonin Synthesis and Reuptake in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.. JAMA psychiatry, 72(8), 794-802
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serotonin Synthesis and Reuptake in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.
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2015 (English)In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 794-802Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IMPORTANCE: Serotonin is involved in negative affect, but whether anxiety syndromes, such as social anxiety disorder (SAD), are characterized by an overactive or underactive serotonin system has not been established. Serotonin 1A autoreceptors, which inhibit serotonin synthesis and release, are downregulated in SAD, and serotonin transporter availability might be increased; however, presynaptic serotonin activity has not been evaluated extensively.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the serotonin synthesis rate and serotonin transporter availability in patients with SAD and healthy control individuals using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligands 5-hydroxytryptophan labeled with carbon 11 ([11C]5-HTP) and 11C-labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile [11C]DASB.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional study at an academic clinical research center. Eighteen patients with SAD (9 men and 9 women; mean [SD] age, 32.6 [8.2] years) and 18 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (9 men and 9 women; mean [SD] age, 34.7 [9.2] years) underwent [11C]5-HTP PET imaging. We acquired [11C]DASB PET images for 26 additional patients with SAD (14 men and 12 women; mean [SD] age, 35.2 [10.7] years) and the same 18 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were recruited through newspaper advertisements. Data were acquired from March 12, 2002, through March 5, 2012, and analyzed from March 28, 2013, through August 29, 2014.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The influx rate of [11C]5-HTP as a measure of serotonin synthesis rate capacity and [11C]DASB binding potential as an index of serotonin transporter availability were acquired during rest. We used the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale to measure severity of social anxiety symptoms.

RESULTS: The PET data were not available for analysis in 1 control for each scan. Increased [11C]5-HTP influx rate was observed in the amygdala, raphe nuclei region, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex of patients with SAD compared with healthy controls (P < .05 corrected), supporting an enhanced serotonin synthesis rate. Increased serotonin transporter availability in the patients with SAD relative to healthy controls was reflected by elevated [11C]DASB binding potential in the raphe nuclei region, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, and insula cortex (P < .05 corrected).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Neurotransmission in SAD is characterized by an overactive presynaptic serotonin system, with increased serotonin synthesis and transporter availability. Our findings could provide important new insights into the etiology of anxiety disorders.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259730 (URN)10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0125 (DOI)000359200000008 ()26083190 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Brain FoundationRiksbankens JubileumsfondForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2015-08-11 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Wallin Lundell, I., Sundström Poromaa, I., Ekselius, L., Georgsson Öhman, S., Frans, Ö., Helström, L., . . . Svanberg, A. S. (2014). Neuroticism-related personality traits are associated with post-abortion posttraumatic stress. Archives of Women's Mental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroticism-related personality traits are associated with post-abortion posttraumatic stress
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2014 (English)In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keywords
abortion induce, anxiety disorders, personality, stress disorder posttraumatic
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230475 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-26 Created: 2014-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Dahlman, S., Bäckström, P., Bohlin, G. & Frans, Ö. (2013). Cognitive abilities of street children: Low-SES Bolivian boys with and without experience of living in the street. Child Neuropsychology, 19(5), 540-556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive abilities of street children: Low-SES Bolivian boys with and without experience of living in the street
2013 (English)In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 540-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: This study compared results on cognitive tests measuring nonverbal visualization and reasoning, executive functions, and creativity between 36 boys with experience of living in the street and 31 housed yet socioeconomically equivalent boys, in Bolivia. Results: The street children scored significantly higher on the creativity measure, which is discussed in relation to contextual relevance. No significant differences were found on the other cognitive tests. Time elapsed after living in the street and drug use were strongly associated with cognition, while age was not. Both groups scored below average compared to Western norms. The results are discussed in terms of the cultural relevance of the tests and the impact of socioeconomic status, stress, and stimulation on cognition.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-203477 (URN)10.1080/09297049.2012.731499 (DOI)000322615500006 ()23043625 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-07-12 Created: 2013-07-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Wallin Lundell, I., Georgsson Öhman, S., Frans, Ö., Helström, L., Högberg, U., Nyberg, S., . . . Svanberg, A. S. (2013). Posttraumatic stress among women after induced abortion: a Swedish multi-centre cohort study. BMC Women's Health, 13, 52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Posttraumatic stress among women after induced abortion: a Swedish multi-centre cohort study
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2013 (English)In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 13, p. 52-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Induced abortion is a common medical intervention. Whether psychological sequelae might follow induced abortion has long been a subject of concern among researchers and little is known about the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and induced abortion. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of PTSD and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) before and at three and six months after induced abortion, and to describe the characteristics of the women who developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion.

METHODS:

This multi-centre cohort study included six departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Sweden. The study included 1457 women who requested an induced abortion, among whom 742 women responded at the three-month follow-up and 641 women at the six-month follow-up. The Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS, and anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Measurements were made at the first visit and at three and six months after the abortion. The 95% confidence intervals for the prevalence of lifetime or ongoing PTSD and PTSS were calculated using the normal approximation. The chi-square test and the Student's t-test were used to compare data between groups.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of ongoing PTSD and PTSS before the abortion was 4.3% and 23.5%, respectively, concomitant with high levels of anxiety and depression. At three months the corresponding rates were 2.0% and 4.6%, at six months 1.9% and 6.1%, respectively. Dropouts had higher rates of PTSD and PTSS. Fifty-one women developed PTSD or PTSS during the observation period. They were young, less well educated, needed counselling, and had high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. During the observation period 57 women had trauma experiences, among whom 11 developed PTSD or PTSS and reported a traumatic experience in relation to the abortion.

CONCLUSION:

Few women developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion. The majority did so because of trauma experiences unrelated to the induced abortion. Concomitant symptoms of depression and anxiety call for clinical alertness and support.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213495 (URN)10.1186/1472-6874-13-52 (DOI)000329240600001 ()24364878 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-12-25 Created: 2013-12-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Wallin Lundell, I., Sundström Poromaa, I., Frans, Ö., Helström, L., Högberg, U., Moby, L., . . . Svanberg, A. S. (2013). The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion. European journal of contraception & reproductive health care, 18(6), 480-488
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion
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2013 (English)In: European journal of contraception & reproductive health care, ISSN 1362-5187, E-ISSN 1473-0782, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 480-488Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. Methods A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1-5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1-25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Conclusions Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206289 (URN)10.3109/13625187.2013.828030 (DOI)000327484700008 ()23978220 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-12-14 Created: 2013-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Engman, J., Åhs, F., Furmark, T., Linnman, C., Pissiota, A., Appel, L., . . . Fredrikson, M. (2012). Age, sex and NK1 receptors in the human brain: A positron emission tomography study with [C-11]GR205171. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 22(8), 562-568
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age, sex and NK1 receptors in the human brain: A positron emission tomography study with [C-11]GR205171
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2012 (English)In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 562-568Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The substance P/neurokinin 1 (SP/NK1) system has been implicated in the processing of negative affect. Its role seems complex and findings from animal studies have not been easily translated to humans. Brain imaging studies on NK1 receptor distribution in humans have revealed an abundance of receptors in cortical, striatal and subcortical areas, including the amygdala. A reduction in NK1 receptors with increasing age has been reported in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as in hippocampal areas. Also, a previous study suggests sex differences in cortical and subcortical areas, with women displaying fewer NK1 receptors. The present PET study explored NK1 receptor availability in men (n = 9) and women (n = 9) matched for age varying between 20 and 50 years using the highly specific NK1 receptor antagonist [11C]GR205171 and a reference tissue model with cerebellum as the reference region. Age by sex interactions in the amygdala and the temporal cortex reflected a lower NK1 receptor availability with increasing age in men, but not in women. A general age-related decline in NK1 receptor availability was evident in the frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices, as well as in the brainstem, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. Women had lower NK1 receptor availability in the thalamus. The observed pattern of NK1 receptor distribution in the brain might have functional significance for brain-related disorders showing age- and sex-related differences in prevalence.

Keywords
Age, Sex, NK1 receptor, Substance P, Positron emission tomography
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-181875 (URN)10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.12.005 (DOI)000308056800004 ()
Available from: 2012-10-01 Created: 2012-10-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Faria, V., Appel, L., Åhs, F., Linnman, C., Pissiota, A., Frans, Ö., . . . Furmark, T. (2012). Amygdala Subregions Tied to SSRI and Placebo Response in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37(10), 2222-2232
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amygdala Subregions Tied to SSRI and Placebo Response in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder
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2012 (English)In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 2222-2232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The amygdala is a key structure in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, and a putative target for anxiolytic treatments, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and placebo seem to induce anxiolytic effects by attenuating amygdala responsiveness. However, conflicting amygdala findings have also been reported. Moreover, the neural profile of responders and nonresponders is insufficiently characterized and it remains unknown whether SSRIs and placebo engage common or distinct amygdala subregions or different modulatory cortical areas. We examined similarities and differences in the neural response to SSRIs and placebo in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15-labeled water was used to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 72 patients with SAD during an anxiogenic public speaking task, before and after 6-8 weeks of treatment under double-blind conditions. Response rate was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. Conjunction analysis revealed a common rCBF-attenuation from pre- to post-treatment in responders to SSRIs and placebo in the left basomedial/basolateral and right ventrolateral amygdala. This rCBF pattern con-elated with behavioral measures of reduced anxiety and differentiated responders from nonresponders. However, nonanxiolytic treatment effects were also observed in the amygdala. All subgroups, including nonresponders, showed deactivation of the left lateral part of the amygdala. No rCBF differences were found between SSRI responders and placebo responders. This study provides new insights into the brain dynamics underlying anxiety relief by demonstrating common amygdala targets for pharmacologically and psychologically induced anxiety reduction, and by showing that the amygdala is functionally heterogeneous in anxiolysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2012
Keywords
amygdala, SSRIs, placebo, SAD, subregions, PET
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-181544 (URN)10.1038/npp.2012.72 (DOI)000307796600005 ()
Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
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