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Frans, Örjan
Publications (10 of 35) Show all publications
Motilla Hoppe, J., Frick, A., Åhs, F., Linnman, C., Appel, L., Jonasson, M., . . . Furmark, T. (2018). Association between amygdala neurokinin-1 receptor availability and anxiety-related personality traits. Translational Psychiatry, 8(1), 168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between amygdala neurokinin-1 receptor availability and anxiety-related personality traits
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2018 (English)In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 168-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Animal studies indicate that substance P (SP) and its preferred neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor modulate stress and anxiety-related behavior. Alterations in the SP-NK1 system have also been observed in human anxiety disorders, yet little is known about the relation between this system and individual differences in personality traits associated with anxiety propensity and approach-avoidance behavior, including trait anxiety, neuroticism, and extraversion. Exploring this relation could provide important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human anxiety and the etiology of anxiety disorders, as anxious traits are associated with increased susceptibility to develop psychopathological conditions. Here we examined the relationship between central NK1 receptor availability and self-rated measures of trait anxiety, neuroticism, and extraversion. The amygdala was chosen as the primary region of interest since this structure has been suggested to mediate the effect of the SP-NK1 system on anxiety. Anxious traits and NK1 receptor availability, determined with positron emission tomography and the radiotracer [11C]GR205171, were measured in 17 healthy individuals. Voxel-wise analyses showed a significant positive correlation between bilateral amygdala NK1 receptor availability and trait anxiety, and a trend in similar direction was observed for neuroticism. Conversely, extraversion was found to be negatively associated with amygdala NK1 receptor availability. Extraversion also correlated negatively with the NK1 measure in the cuneus/precuneus and fusiform gyrus according to exploratory whole-brain analyses. In conclusion, our findings indicate that amygdala NK1 receptor availability is associated with anxiety-related personality traits in healthy subjects, consistent with a modulatory role for the SP-NK1 system in human anxiety.

National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358759 (URN)10.1038/s41398-018-0163-1 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2018-11-08Bibliographically approved
Frans, Ö., Åhs, J., Bihre, E. & Åhs, F. (2018). Distance to Threat and Risk of Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery: A longitudinal study. Psychiatry Research, 267, 461-466
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distance to Threat and Risk of Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery: A longitudinal study
2018 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 267, p. 461-466Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]
  • Environmental factors surrounding trauma influencing PTSD risk are understudied.
  • Proximal distances to threatening individuals could increase PTSD risk directly or indirectly by increasing ASD risk.
  • Proximity to robber, ASD and PTSD was assessed in bank employees following robbery.
  • We found that proximity to robber increase PTSD risk indirectly by increasing ASD risk.
  • We speculate that proximity to threat may increase stress and arousal making trauma memories intrusive.
Abstract [en]

Identifying pathways through which environmental risk factors influence PTSD is important for understanding PTSD etiology. Here, we hypothesized that the physical proximity to threat influences PTSD risk by increasing ASD following trauma. One hundred six bank employees who had experienced a bank robbery participated in the study. A longitudinal design assessing ASD at day 2 and PTSD at day 30 was used to test the hypothesis. Participants also indicated their location in the bank at the time of the robbery. ASD was identified in 40 (38%) and PTSD in 16 (15%) of the robbery victims. Distance to the robber had a strong effect on ASD (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.94-6.34) and a somewhat lesser effect on PTSD (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.04-4.46), indicating that the effect of proximity to threat on PTSD 1 month following trauma could be mediated by its effect on ASD 2 days following trauma. Using structural equation modeling, we confirmed that the effect of distance on PTSD was fully mediated by ASD. These findings suggest that proximity to threat may increase PTSD risk by enhancing the acute stress response following trauma.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355450 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2018.06.050 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-10-03Bibliographically approved
Evers, A., McCormick, C. M., Hawley, L. R., Muniz, J., Balboni, G., Bartram, D., . . . Zhang, J. (2017). Testing Practices and Attitudes Toward Tests and Testing: An International Survey. International Journal of Testing, 17(2), 158-190
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing Practices and Attitudes Toward Tests and Testing: An International Survey
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 158-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

On behalf of the International Test Commission and the European Federation of Psychologists' Associations a world-wide survey on the opinions of professional psychologists on testing practices was carried out. The main objective of this study was to collect data for a better understanding of the state of psychological testing worldwide. These data could guide the actions and measures taken by ITC, EFPA, and other stakeholders. A questionnaire was administered to 20,467 professional psychologists from 29 countries. Five scales were constructed relating to: concern over incorrect test use, regulations on tests and testing, internet and computerized testing, appreciation of tests, and knowledge and training relating to test use. Equivalence across countries was evaluated using the alignment method, four scales demonstrated acceptable levels of invariance. Multilevel analysis was used to determine how scores were related to age, gender, and specialization, as well as how scores varied between countries. Although the results show a high appreciation of tests in general, the appreciation of internet and computerized testing is much lower. These scales show low variability over countries, whereas differences between countries on the other reported scales are much greater. This implies the need for some overarching improvements as well as country-specific actions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2017
Keywords
psychological testing, testing practices, test use, International Test Commission, European Federation of Psychologists' Associations
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328283 (URN)10.1080/15305058.2016.1216434 (DOI)000402241300004 ()
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
Frick, A., Åhs, F., Michelgård Palmquist, Å., Pissiota, A., Wallenquist, U., Fernandez, M., . . . Fredrikson, M. (2016). Overlapping expression of serotonin transporters and neurokinin-1 receptors in posttraumatic stress disorder: a multi-tracer PET study. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(10), 1400-1407
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overlapping expression of serotonin transporters and neurokinin-1 receptors in posttraumatic stress disorder: a multi-tracer PET study
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2016 (English)In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1400-1407Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The brain serotonergic system is colocalized and interacts with the neuropeptidergic substance P/neurokinin-1 (SP/NK1) system. Both these neurochemical systems have independently been implicated in stress and anxiety, but interactions between them might be crucial for human anxiety conditions. Here, we examined the serotonin and substance P/neurokinin-1 (SP/NK1) systems individually as well as their overlapping expression in 16 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 16 healthy controls. Participants were imaged with the highly selective radiotracers [(11)C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile (DASB) and [(11)C]GR205171 assessing serotonin transporter (SERT) and NK1 receptor availability, respectively. Voxel-wise analyses in the amygdala, our a priori-defined region of interest, revealed increased number of NK1 receptors, but not SERT in the PTSD group. Symptom severity, as indexed by the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale, was negatively related to SERT availability in the amygdala, and NK1 receptor levels moderated this relationship. Exploratory, voxel-wise whole-brain analyses revealed increased SERT availability in the precentral gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex of PTSD patients. Patients, relative to controls, displayed lower degree of overlapping expression between SERT and NK1 receptors in the putamen, thalamus, insula and lateral orbitofrontal gyrus, lower overlap being associated with higher PTSD symptom severity. Expression overlap also explained more of the symptomatology than did either system individually, underscoring the importance of taking interactions between the neurochemical systems into account. Thus, our results suggest that aberrant serotonergic-SP/NK1 couplings contribute to the pathophysiology of PTSD and, consequently, that normalization of these couplings may be therapeutically important.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268105 (URN)10.1038/mp.2015.180 (DOI)000384127000011 ()26619809 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Brain FoundationRiksbankens JubileumsfondForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2015-12-02 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Motilla Hoppe, J., Frick, A., Åhs, F., Frans, Ö., Fredrikson, M. & Furmark, T. (2015). Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in the Amygdala is Positively Associated with Neuroticism and Negatively Associated with Extraversion.. In: : . Paper presented at Presented at the 70th Society of Biological Psychiatry Annual Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. May 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in the Amygdala is Positively Associated with Neuroticism and Negatively Associated with Extraversion.
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284547 (URN)
Conference
Presented at the 70th Society of Biological Psychiatry Annual Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. May 2015.
Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2016-04-18
Frick, A., Åhs, F., Engman, J., Jonasson, M., Alaie, I., Björkstrand, J., . . . Furmark, T. (2015). Serotonin Synthesis and Reuptake in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.. JAMA psychiatry, 72(8), 794-802
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serotonin Synthesis and Reuptake in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.
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2015 (English)In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 794-802Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IMPORTANCE: Serotonin is involved in negative affect, but whether anxiety syndromes, such as social anxiety disorder (SAD), are characterized by an overactive or underactive serotonin system has not been established. Serotonin 1A autoreceptors, which inhibit serotonin synthesis and release, are downregulated in SAD, and serotonin transporter availability might be increased; however, presynaptic serotonin activity has not been evaluated extensively.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the serotonin synthesis rate and serotonin transporter availability in patients with SAD and healthy control individuals using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligands 5-hydroxytryptophan labeled with carbon 11 ([11C]5-HTP) and 11C-labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile [11C]DASB.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional study at an academic clinical research center. Eighteen patients with SAD (9 men and 9 women; mean [SD] age, 32.6 [8.2] years) and 18 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (9 men and 9 women; mean [SD] age, 34.7 [9.2] years) underwent [11C]5-HTP PET imaging. We acquired [11C]DASB PET images for 26 additional patients with SAD (14 men and 12 women; mean [SD] age, 35.2 [10.7] years) and the same 18 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were recruited through newspaper advertisements. Data were acquired from March 12, 2002, through March 5, 2012, and analyzed from March 28, 2013, through August 29, 2014.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The influx rate of [11C]5-HTP as a measure of serotonin synthesis rate capacity and [11C]DASB binding potential as an index of serotonin transporter availability were acquired during rest. We used the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale to measure severity of social anxiety symptoms.

RESULTS: The PET data were not available for analysis in 1 control for each scan. Increased [11C]5-HTP influx rate was observed in the amygdala, raphe nuclei region, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex of patients with SAD compared with healthy controls (P < .05 corrected), supporting an enhanced serotonin synthesis rate. Increased serotonin transporter availability in the patients with SAD relative to healthy controls was reflected by elevated [11C]DASB binding potential in the raphe nuclei region, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, and insula cortex (P < .05 corrected).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Neurotransmission in SAD is characterized by an overactive presynaptic serotonin system, with increased serotonin synthesis and transporter availability. Our findings could provide important new insights into the etiology of anxiety disorders.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259730 (URN)10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0125 (DOI)000359200000008 ()26083190 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Brain FoundationRiksbankens JubileumsfondForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2015-08-11 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Wallin Lundell, I., Sundström Poromaa, I., Ekselius, L., Georgsson Öhman, S., Frans, Ö., Helström, L., . . . Svanberg, A. S. (2014). Neuroticism-related personality traits are associated with post-abortion posttraumatic stress. Archives of Women's Mental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroticism-related personality traits are associated with post-abortion posttraumatic stress
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2014 (English)In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keywords
abortion induce, anxiety disorders, personality, stress disorder posttraumatic
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230475 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-26 Created: 2014-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Dahlman, S., Bäckström, P., Bohlin, G. & Frans, Ö. (2013). Cognitive abilities of street children: Low-SES Bolivian boys with and without experience of living in the street. Child Neuropsychology, 19(5), 540-556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive abilities of street children: Low-SES Bolivian boys with and without experience of living in the street
2013 (English)In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 540-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: This study compared results on cognitive tests measuring nonverbal visualization and reasoning, executive functions, and creativity between 36 boys with experience of living in the street and 31 housed yet socioeconomically equivalent boys, in Bolivia. Results: The street children scored significantly higher on the creativity measure, which is discussed in relation to contextual relevance. No significant differences were found on the other cognitive tests. Time elapsed after living in the street and drug use were strongly associated with cognition, while age was not. Both groups scored below average compared to Western norms. The results are discussed in terms of the cultural relevance of the tests and the impact of socioeconomic status, stress, and stimulation on cognition.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-203477 (URN)10.1080/09297049.2012.731499 (DOI)000322615500006 ()23043625 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-07-12 Created: 2013-07-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Wallin Lundell, I., Georgsson Öhman, S., Frans, Ö., Helström, L., Högberg, U., Nyberg, S., . . . Svanberg, A. S. (2013). Posttraumatic stress among women after induced abortion: a Swedish multi-centre cohort study. BMC Women's Health, 13, 52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Posttraumatic stress among women after induced abortion: a Swedish multi-centre cohort study
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2013 (English)In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 13, p. 52-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Induced abortion is a common medical intervention. Whether psychological sequelae might follow induced abortion has long been a subject of concern among researchers and little is known about the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and induced abortion. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of PTSD and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) before and at three and six months after induced abortion, and to describe the characteristics of the women who developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion.

METHODS:

This multi-centre cohort study included six departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Sweden. The study included 1457 women who requested an induced abortion, among whom 742 women responded at the three-month follow-up and 641 women at the six-month follow-up. The Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS, and anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Measurements were made at the first visit and at three and six months after the abortion. The 95% confidence intervals for the prevalence of lifetime or ongoing PTSD and PTSS were calculated using the normal approximation. The chi-square test and the Student's t-test were used to compare data between groups.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of ongoing PTSD and PTSS before the abortion was 4.3% and 23.5%, respectively, concomitant with high levels of anxiety and depression. At three months the corresponding rates were 2.0% and 4.6%, at six months 1.9% and 6.1%, respectively. Dropouts had higher rates of PTSD and PTSS. Fifty-one women developed PTSD or PTSS during the observation period. They were young, less well educated, needed counselling, and had high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. During the observation period 57 women had trauma experiences, among whom 11 developed PTSD or PTSS and reported a traumatic experience in relation to the abortion.

CONCLUSION:

Few women developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion. The majority did so because of trauma experiences unrelated to the induced abortion. Concomitant symptoms of depression and anxiety call for clinical alertness and support.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213495 (URN)10.1186/1472-6874-13-52 (DOI)000329240600001 ()24364878 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-12-25 Created: 2013-12-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Wallin Lundell, I., Sundström Poromaa, I., Frans, Ö., Helström, L., Högberg, U., Moby, L., . . . Svanberg, A. S. (2013). The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion. European journal of contraception & reproductive health care, 18(6), 480-488
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion
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2013 (English)In: European journal of contraception & reproductive health care, ISSN 1362-5187, E-ISSN 1473-0782, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 480-488Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. Methods A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1-5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1-25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Conclusions Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206289 (URN)10.3109/13625187.2013.828030 (DOI)000327484700008 ()23978220 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-12-14 Created: 2013-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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