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Elmgren, Maja
Publications (10 of 61) Show all publications
Samuelsson, C. R., Haglund, J. & Elmgren, M. (2019). Adding salt to ice: Exploring students' cognitive resources. In: : . Paper presented at Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakultetens Universitetspedagogiska Konferens 2019, Uppsala, Sweden, March 19, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adding salt to ice: Exploring students' cognitive resources
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

University students in chemistry and physics were asked to predict, observe and explain what happens when some table salt is poured on an ice cube. Some base their initial responses on everyday events, such as their experience of salt being poured on icy roads, while others try to make predictions based on some scientific knowledge, such as freezing-point depression, and  relating energy to breaking of bonds. Some everyday events led to a productive prediction and/or subsequent explanation of the temperature change, and others did not. This was also true for the predictions and explanations based on scientific knowledge. Data is presented and an attempt to explain the productiveness of the reasoning with Redish’s (2004) notions of reasoning primitives (general rules and relationships like “more is more”) and facets (applications of the reasoning primitives, e.g. “larger molecules have a higher boiling point”), and Kuhn’s (2012) exemplars, is made.

Keywords
Infrared camera, Physics Education Research, Freezing-point depression, Chemistry Education Research, Cognition, Fysikdidaktik, värmekamera, fryspunktssänkning
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380045 (URN)
Conference
Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakultetens Universitetspedagogiska Konferens 2019, Uppsala, Sweden, March 19, 2019
Available from: 2019-03-22 Created: 2019-03-22 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Rodriguez, J.-M. G., Bain, K., Towns, M. H., Elmgren, M. & Ho, F. M. (2019). Covariational reasoning and mathematical narratives: investigating students’ understanding of graphs in chemical kinetics. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 20(1), 107-119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Covariational reasoning and mathematical narratives: investigating students’ understanding of graphs in chemical kinetics
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2019 (English)In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, E-ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 107-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Graphical representations are an important tool used to model abstract processes in fields such as chemistry. Successful interpretation of a graph involves a combination of mathematical expertise and discipline-specific content to reason about the relationship between the variables and to describe the phenomena represented. In this work, we studied students’ graphical reasoning as they responded to a chemical kinetics prompt. Qualitative data was collected and analyzed for a sample of 70 students through the use of an assessment involving short-answer test items administered in a first-year, non-majors chemistry course at a Swedish university. The student responses were translated from Swedish to English and subsequently coded to analyze the chemical and mathematical ideas students attributed to the graph. Mathematical reasoning and ideas related to covariation were analyzed using graphical forms and the shape thinking perspective of graphical reasoning. Student responses were further analyzed by focusing on the extent to which they integrated chemistry and mathematics. This was accomplished by conceptualizing modeling as discussing mathematical narratives, characterizing how students described the “story” communicated by the graph. Analysis provided insight into students’ understanding of mathematical models of chemical processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372363 (URN)10.1039/C8RP00156A (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, R., Elmgren, M., Xie, C. & Haglund, J. (2019). Going through a phase: Infrared cameras in a teaching sequence on evaporation and condensation. American Journal of Physics, 87(7), 577-582
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Going through a phase: Infrared cameras in a teaching sequence on evaporation and condensation
2019 (English)In: American Journal of Physics, ISSN 0002-9505, E-ISSN 1943-2909, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 577-582Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phase transitions are everyday occurring phenomena, but students often find them difficult to comprehend, not least in terms of the principles of thermal physics. To be able to explain phase transitions in primary school, teachers need to understand various concepts and phenomena, such as condensation, evaporation, energy and temperature. As energy is absorbed or released during phase transitions, changes in temperature can occur. Infrared (IR) cameras can thus be utilized to visually observe and explore surface phenomena such as condensation and evaporation. In line with the resources framework, we have designed a teaching sequence which involves both everyday experiences and observations through IR cameras, and which is designed to encourage students to leverage common resources associated with evaporation and condensation. In testing our teaching sequence, we presented three thermal phenomena to a group of pre-service teacher students. Two of these phenomena, namely walking out of a shower and sitting in a sauna, were anchored in embodied experiences to hopefully activate the students’ resources and to make the students pay attention to the thermally relevant aspects. The third phenomenon was less familiar, involving the condensation of water on a piece of paper. The result shows that the students managed to carry out the sequence with the three phenomena and applied an explanatory model across all three to consistently explain evaporation. However, the lack of a more general model of chemical bonding and an overreliance on the second law of thermodynamics seem to have acted as barriers for the students’ forming of a coherent understanding of both evaporation and condensation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AIP Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Physics Education Research, IR cameras, Phase transition, Teaching sequence, Thermal science, Energy, Teacher education, Coherence, Variation, Fysikdidaktik, Didaktik, Värmekamera, Fasövergång, Värmelära, Lärarutbildning, Lärandesekvens, Instruktion, Variation, Koherens
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387445 (URN)10.1119/1.5110665 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2016-04113
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Ho, F. M., Elmgren, M., Rodriguez, J.-M. G., Bain, K. R. & Towns, M. H. (2019). Graphs: Working with Models at the Crossroad between Chemistry and Mathematics. In: It’s Just Math: Research on Students’ Understanding of Chemistry and Mathematics (pp. 47-67). American Chemical Society (ACS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Graphs: Working with Models at the Crossroad between Chemistry and Mathematics
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2019 (English)In: It’s Just Math: Research on Students’ Understanding of Chemistry and Mathematics, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019, p. 47-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use and interpretation of graphs pose significant challenges to the learner, but also open up opportunities for developing skills in combining both chemical and mathematical knowledge in problem solving. The analysis of a task in chemical kinetics serves in this chapter as the basis for discussing the design and use of open-ended problems through the lens of a number of frameworks, with the aim of providing the practitioner with practical examples, as well as tools and insights for further investigations and ways to help improve student learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Series
ACS Symposium Series ; 1316
National Category
Chemical Sciences Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372593 (URN)10.1021/bk-2019-1316.ch004 (DOI)9780841234352 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, R., Elmgren, M. & Haglund, J. (2019). Hot vision: Affordances of infrared cameras in investigating thermal phenomena. Designs for Learning, 11(1), 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hot vision: Affordances of infrared cameras in investigating thermal phenomena
2019 (English)In: Designs for Learning, ISSN 1654-7608, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lab activities typically involve phenomena that are invisible to the naked eye. For example, in thermodynamics transfer of heat and temperature changes are perceived by the sense of touch or indirectly observed by the use of thermometers. New tools can be introduced to increase the opportunities for talking science. In this paper, we explore affordances and semiotic resources related to infrared (IR) cameras, including color imaging, numerical values and the form of the tool itself, as used by undergraduate students and instructors in chemistry, representing a scientific community at two different levels of expertise, in investigation of a thermal phenomenon. The participants come to attend to thermal aspects of what happens when a salt (sodium hydroxide) is exposed to air, with and without the use of IR cameras. Video data were gathered and transcribed multimodally. Results show that the IR cameras afford a focus on the disciplinarily relevant thermal aspects of the phenomenon in both groups of participants, but that the students’ discussion, coordinated by their embodied engagement with the IR cameras, was limited to cumulative talk, where they do not challenge each other, and static use of the technology. This is contrasted with the instructors who shared their knowledge with each other and explored the phenomenon both spatially with the IR cameras, and verbally through exploratory talk. We suggest that this difference in the use of novel technology may be due to differences in experience of lab work and understanding of the studied phenomena, and that a shift between cumulative and exploratory talk may be an indicator of learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2019
Keywords
IR cameras, multimodality, social semiotics, physics education research, chemistry education research, laboratory practice
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383971 (URN)10.16993/dfl.94 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2016-04113
Note

Part of a special issue on multimodality and science education

Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Elmgren, M. & Henriksson, A.-S. (2018). Academic teaching (2ed.). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Academic teaching
2018 (English)Book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018. p. 368 Edition: 2
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372360 (URN)9789144124025 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, R., Elmgren, M. & Haglund, J. (2018). Going Through a Phase. In: : . Paper presented at The Gordon Research Seminar on Physics Research and Education, Smithfield, June 9-10, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Going Through a Phase
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Students have difficulties understanding energy transformations involved in phase changes in physics and chemistry education. For example, with a predict-observe-explain set-up, we have found that students tend to intuit that when table salt is poured onto ice, the ice will melt and the temperature increase. They are surprised to see that although the ice melts (due to freezing-point depression), the temperature actually decreases. In this study, we explore how infrared cameras as a visualization technology can help students come to terms with such challenges.

We have designed a teaching sequence for in-service science teachers on the topic of phase changes, with a focus on the central idea that it requires energy to break bonds between particles. In group discussions, students are encouraged to use this idea to explain how the temperature of water can be constant during phase change from solid to liquid, and from liquid to gas, and draw on their experiences that it feels cold when they walk out of the shower but hot when water is poured onto the stove in a sauna. With the help of an infrared camera, students can see how the temperature decreases as water evaporates from their body. With this technology, they can also see that the temperature of a piece of paper increases as moist air condenses on its surface, and that the temperature decreases when the water evaporates away in dry air. Through video analysis, we study students’ interactions with each other and the types of talk they engage in during the exercises. Early findings in a pilot study with secondary school students indicate that they tend to interpret condensation as release of energy due to particles colliding with a surface, rather than bond formation.

Keywords
Physics Education Research, Thermodynamics, Infrared Cameras, Teaching Sequence, Teacher Training, Thermodynamics Education Research, Science Education
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356314 (URN)
Conference
The Gordon Research Seminar on Physics Research and Education, Smithfield, June 9-10, 2018
Note

Presented both orally and as a poster.

Available from: 2018-07-24 Created: 2018-07-24 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, R., Elmgren, M. & Haglund, J. (2018). Phasing the invisible. In: : . Paper presented at Forskning i Naturvetenskapernas Didaktik, Malmö, November 7-8, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phasing the invisible
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Students have difficulties understanding phase transition (Coştu, Ayas, & Niaz, 2012; Gopal, Kleinsmidt, Case, & Musonge, 2004). In the Swedish curriculum (Skolverket, 2011), phase transition is first introduced in physics during year 1-3 in primary school. The concept of, and transfer of energy is introduced in year 4-6. However, IR cameras can make the non-perceivable perceivable and thus afford the students an arena for mutual orientation and shared attention.

The purpose of this study is to explore the affordances of IR cameras for teacher students that, in their profession, introduces the concepts of energy, phases, phase transition and energy transfer for their own students. We propose a teaching sequence in which the group will get to study four different phenomena involving phase transition and energy transfer. The proposed phenomena are: condensation of water on skin in a sauna, evaporation of water from the skin after a shower, condensation of water on a paper and salt on ice.

Each stage of the sequence involves a prediction, an observation and an explanation part (White & Gunstone, 1992). The prediction will be done without access to IR cameras and the observation and explanation will be carried out with the cameras. When later phenomena are introduced, the new predictions are based on the experience and understanding from the earlier stages.

From a previous study (Samuelsson, Haglund & Elmgren, 2016), we know that the last phenomenon is difficult to understand, but by starting out in a phenomenon familiar to the students and iteratively working through the three parts in predict-observe-explain, the students may succeed in giving a satisfactory explanation at the end of the sequence.

The teaching sequence will be implemented in two physics classes for pre-service year 4-6 teachers during the autumn, and the interactions will be video recorded for analysis within the project.

National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-365273 (URN)
Conference
Forskning i Naturvetenskapernas Didaktik, Malmö, November 7-8, 2018
Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
Johansson, A., Andersson, S., Salminen-Karlsson, M. & Elmgren, M. (2018). “Shut up and calculate”: the available discursive positions in quantum physics courses. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 13(1), 205-226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Shut up and calculate”: the available discursive positions in quantum physics courses
2018 (English)In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 205-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Educating new generations of physicists is often seen as a matter of attracting good students, teaching them physics and making sure that they stay at the university. Sometimes, questions are also raised about what could be done to increase diversity in recruitment. Using a discursive perspective, in this study of three introductory quantum physics courses at two Swedish universities, we instead ask what it means to become a physicist, and whether certain ways of becoming a physicist and doing physics is privileged in this process. Asking the question of what discursive positions are made accessible to students, we use observations of lectures and problem solving sessions together with interviews with students to characterize the discourse in the courses. Many students seem to have high expectations for the quantum physics course and generally express that they appreciate the course more than other courses. Nevertheless, our analysis shows that the ways of being a “good quantum physics student” are limited by the dominating focus on calculating quantum physics in the courses. We argue that this could have negative consequences both for the education of future physicists and the discipline of physics itself, in that it may reproduce an instrumental “shut up and calculate”-culture of physics, as well as an elitist physics education. Additionally, many students who take the courses are not future physicists, and the limitation of discursive positions may also affect these students significantly.

Keywords
Physics, Higher education, Quantum physics, Discourse, Identity
National Category
Physical Sciences Educational Sciences Gender Studies
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267306 (URN)10.1007/s11422-016-9742-8 (DOI)000429417900012 ()
Available from: 2015-11-20 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2018-08-19Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, C. R., Haglund, J. & Elmgren, M. (2017). Looking for solutions: University chemistry and physics students interacting with infrared cameras. In: : . Paper presented at ESERA 2017, Dublin City University, Ireland, 21-25 August.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Looking for solutions: University chemistry and physics students interacting with infrared cameras
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Infrared (IR) cameras can be used to support the learning and understanding of thermodynamics. Previous research shows that the technology enables university physics students to observe otherwise invisible thermal phenomena. In the present study, the focus is extended to the use of IR cameras in an educational chemistry laboratory setting with a comparison to the physics labs. Depending on the communicative actions made to interact with the cameras, different affordances of the IR cameras are accessed. For example, some students compare what they see with the IR camera with their sense of touch. The kinds of actions students make depend on aspects like their disciplinary experience and the discipline of study. Predict-Observe-Explain is used to probe students’ potential actions for interaction with the IR camera. Data is collected by video recording and iterative transcription to find contrasting or shared patterns of interaction across the groups. A multimodal approach to conversation analysis is used to find these patterns. The result shows that the physics and chemistry students use the technology to confirm or disconfirm predictions made, but differ in the coordination of actions to achieve that goal. The physics students move around and use the sense of touch together with IR-camera observations, while the chemistry students focus on IR-camera observations from one perspective alone.

Keywords
laboratory practice, infrared cameras, affordance
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328406 (URN)
Conference
ESERA 2017, Dublin City University, Ireland, 21-25 August
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04113
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
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