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Lannergård, Anders
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Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Sundberg, I., Lannergård, A., Ramklint, M. & Cunningham, J. L. (2018). Direct-acting antiviral treatment in real world patients with hepatitis C not associated with psychiatric side effects: a prospective observational study. BMC Psychiatry, 18, Article ID 157.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct-acting antiviral treatment in real world patients with hepatitis C not associated with psychiatric side effects: a prospective observational study
2018 (English)In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 18, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Treatment of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has evolved from interferon (IFN)-based treatments to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Patients with HCV have an elevated psychiatric morbidity (including substance abuse) and patients with such comorbidity have often been excluded from treatment with IFN. To date, little is known about psychiatric adverse effects of DAA-based regimens. We therefore aimed to study the psychiatric side effects of new IFN-free treatment for HCV (including depressive symptoms and sleep) in real world patients also including those with a history of psychiatric diagnosis, substance abuse or drug dependence. Methods: Consecutive patients were monitored during treatment with three of the latest DAA agents (sofosbuvir, simeprevir and daclatasvir). Repeated expert psychiatric assessments from baseline to 12 weeks post-treatment were performed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) clinical version and the self-report versions of the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Friedman's test was performed to calculate differences in the MADRS-S and PSQI over time. In a post-hoc analysis Wilcoxon's test was used to compare baseline depressive symptoms with those at post-treatment. Spearman's rank correlation test was conducted in another post-hoc analysis to evaluate the correlation between symptoms of depression and HCV viral load at baseline. Results: At baseline, 15/17 patients (88%) had a history of any psychiatric diagnosis; 11 (65%) had a history of substance abuse or dependence; and 11 (65%) had previously been treated with IFN and six of those had experienced psychiatric side effects. There was no correlation between depressive symptoms and HCV viral load at baseline. Symptoms of depression did not increase during DAA treatment and were lower 12 weeks post-treatment compared with baseline: MADRS-S 10.7 vs. 8.3 (p = 0.01). This observation held when excluding patients taking antidepressant medication. Sleep quality did not significantly change during treatment. Adherence to treatment was estimated to 95% and sustained virological response was 88%. Conclusions: Despite high psychiatric morbidity, including previous substance abuse, patients successfully completed DAA treatment without increasing depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance. Symptoms of depression were significantly reduced 12 weeks after DAA treatment.

Keywords
Hepatitis C virus, Direct-acting antiviral, Depression, Sleep, Side effects
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357557 (URN)10.1186/s12888-018-1735-6 (DOI)000433388700005 ()29843679 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Society of MedicineFredrik och Ingrid Thurings StiftelseErik, Karin och Gösta Selanders Foundation
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, A. J. E., Tervahartiala, T., Lennebratt, D., Lannergård, A., Sorsa, T. & Rautelin, H. (2018). Enhanced Systemic Response of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Regulators in Campylobacter and Salmonella Patients. Diagnostics (Basel), 8(4), Article ID 82.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Systemic Response of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Regulators in Campylobacter and Salmonella Patients
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2018 (English)In: Diagnostics (Basel), ISSN 2075-4418, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Campylobacters are major enteropathogens worldwide with a substantial financial burden. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic metalloendopeptidases with ability to modify immune response and shown to be upregulated in patients with several tissue destructive diseases, including infections. We measured here serum concentrations of MMP-8 and MMP-9 together with their regulators myeloperoxidase (MPO), human neutrophil elastase (HNE), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in 80 Campylobacter and 25 Salmonella patients as well as in 27 healthy controls. Paired serum samples were available for 73 and 23 patients, respectively. When the initial serum samples were compared to those from controls, both Campylobacter and Salmonella patients showed elevated concentrations of all biomarkers tested (p ≤ 0.037). In the follow-up samples, collected about 25 days afterwards, MMP-8 levels of Campylobacter patients had already turned to normal but all the other biomarkers still showed elevated, although from the initial levels significantly dropped, levels. For the follow-up samples of Salmonella patients, only MMP-9 and MPO levels were at a significantly higher level than in controls. It remains to be studied if the systematically enhanced neutrophil-derived proteolytic and oxidative stress, induced by Campylobacter infection as shown here and persisting for several weeks, is important for the development of late sequelae.

Keywords
Campylobacter, Salmonella, enteritis, human neutrophil elastase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, myeloperoxidase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372596 (URN)10.3390/diagnostics8040082 (DOI)000455064800015 ()30551610 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-02-04Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, A., Tervahartiala, T., Lennebratt, D., Lannergård, A., Sorsa, T. & Rautelin, H. (2018). Enhanced Systemic Response of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Regulators in Campylobacter and Salmonella Patients. Diagnostics (Basel), 8(4), Article ID E82.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Systemic Response of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Regulators in Campylobacter and Salmonella Patients
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2018 (English)In: Diagnostics (Basel), ISSN 2075-4418, Vol. 8, no 4, article id E82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Campylobacters are major enteropathogens worldwide with a substantial financial burden. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic metalloendopeptidases with ability to modify immune response and shown to be upregulated in patients with several tissue destructive diseases, including infections. We measured here serum concentrations of MMP-8 and MMP-9 together with their regulators myeloperoxidase (MPO), human neutrophil elastase (HNE), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in 80 Campylobacter and 25 Salmonella patients as well as in 27 healthy controls. Paired serum samples were available for 73 and 23 patients, respectively. When the initial serum samples were compared to those from controls, both Campylobacter and Salmonella patients showed elevated concentrations of all biomarkers tested (p ≤ 0.037). In the follow-up samples, collected about 25 days afterwards, MMP-8 levels of Campylobacter patients had already turned to normal but all the other biomarkers still showed elevated, although from the initial levels significantly dropped, levels. For the follow-up samples of Salmonella patients, only MMP-9 and MPO levels were at a significantly higher level than in controls. It remains to be studied if the systematically enhanced neutrophil-derived proteolytic and oxidative stress, induced by Campylobacter infection as shown here and persisting for several weeks, is important for the development of late sequelae. View Full-Text

Keywords
Campylobacter, Salmonella, enteritis, human neutrophil elastase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, myeloperoxidase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371720 (URN)10.3390/diagnostics8040082 (DOI)30551610 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Kileng, H., Kjellin, M., Akaberi, D., Bergfors, A., Duberg, A.-S., Wesslén, L., . . . Lennerstrand, J. (2018). Personalized treatment of hepatitis C genotype 1a in Norway and Sweden 2014-2016: a study of treatment outcome in patients with or without resistance-based DAA-therapy.. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 53(10-11), 1347-1353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personalized treatment of hepatitis C genotype 1a in Norway and Sweden 2014-2016: a study of treatment outcome in patients with or without resistance-based DAA-therapy.
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 53, no 10-11, p. 1347-1353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) may impair treatment response to direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We investigated the effects of baseline NS3-RASs (Q80K and R155K) and clinically relevant NS5A-RASs in patients with HCV genotype (GT) 1a infection on treatment outcome, with or without resistance-based DAA-treatment. This multi-center study was carried out between 2014 and 2016.

PATIENTS/METHODS: Treatment in the intervention group (n = 92) was tailored to baseline resistance. Detection of NS3-RAS led to an NS5A-inhibitor-based regimen and detection of NS5A-RAS to a protease-inhibitor regimen. Patients without baseline RAS in the intervention group and all patients in the control group (n = 101) received recommended standard DAA-treatment.

RESULTS: The sustained virologic response rates (SVR) in the intervention and control groups were 97.8% (90/92) and 93.1% (94/101), respectively (p = .174). A trend toward higher SVR-rate in cirrhotic patients (p = .058) was noticed in the intervention group compared to the control group with SVR-rates 97.5% (39/40) and 83.3% (35/42), respectively. All patients with baseline NS3 (Q80K/R155K) or NS5A-RASs in the intervention group achieved SVR with personalized resistance-based treatment. In the control group, five patients with Q80K or R155K at baseline were treated with simeprevir + sofosbuvir and treatment failed in two of them. Furthermore, one of three patients who failed ledipasvir + sofosbuvir treatment had NS5A-RASs at baseline.

CONCLUSIONS: In line with the findings of the OPTIMIST-2 trial for Q80K and the EASL-guidelines 2016 for NS5A-RASs, baseline RASs appeared to have an impact on treatment outcome albeit a statistical significance was not observed in this low-prevalence population.

Keywords
Baseline resistance, NS5A, Q80K, hepatitis C virus, resistance-associated substitution, sustained virologic response
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371722 (URN)10.1080/00365521.2018.1511824 (DOI)000457980900029 ()30394152 (PubMedID)
Funder
Erik, Karin och Gösta Selanders Foundation
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
Kjellin, M., Wesslén, T., Löfblad, E., Lennerstrand, J. & Lannergård, A. (2018). The effect of the first-generation HCV-protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir and the relation to baseline NS3 resistance mutations in genotype 1: experience from a small Swedish cohort. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 123(1), 50-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of the first-generation HCV-protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir and the relation to baseline NS3 resistance mutations in genotype 1: experience from a small Swedish cohort
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2018 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 50-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The clinical experience with protease-inhibitor (PI) triple regimen appears disappointing regarding effect, side effects, high work load, and costs. This real-world study evaluates baseline and emerging resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) and their significance for treatment outcome.

Method: Thirty-six genotype 1a/b patients treated according to Swedish recommendations during 2011-2013 with triple therapy including pegylated interferon and ribavirin in combination with a protease-inhibitor, either boceprevir (BOC) or telaprevir (TVR), were retrospectively evaluated. Frozen serum samples from the patients were tested for resistance with pan-genotypic population sequencing.

Results: Overall, 56% (20/36) of the patients achieved sustained viral response (SVR). The SVR was comparable between BOC (64%; 9/14) and TVR (50%; 11/22) (p = 0.07), and the IL28B type non-CC (48%; 12/25) and CC (46%; 6/13) (p = 0.77). The SVR was higher in patients without cirrhosis (89.5%; 17/19) (p < 0.0005), in treatment-naive patients (70%; 14/20) (p = 0.02), and those with low viral load (<800,000 IU/mL) (66.7%; 8/12) (p < 0.0002), compared to those with cirrhosis (17.6%; 3/17), treatment-experienced (37.5%; 6/16), and high viral load (>800,000 IU/mL) (50%; 12/24).

Conclusion: PI triple regimes were highly effective in treatment-naive patients without cirrhosis, but in this real-world cohort an inferior effect was evident in cirrhotic and treatment-experienced patients. Although tested on a limited sample, the baseline resistance testing seems to have no impact on prediction of therapy outcome. The reason could be that the baseline RASs T54S and V55A have relatively low resistance towards BOC and TVR. Emerging RASs, mainly R155K, with known high resistance to BOC and TVR were frequently found in non-responders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018
Keywords
Boceprevir, hepatitis C, protease inhibitor, RAS, resistance association substitution, telaprevir
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354543 (URN)10.1080/03009734.2018.1441928 (DOI)000428060300006 ()29536805 (PubMedID)
Funder
Erik, Karin och Gösta Selanders Foundation
Available from: 2018-07-20 Created: 2018-07-20 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, I., Lannergård, A., Ramklint, M. & Cunningham, J. (2017). Inflammatory Cytokines in a Repeated Measures Prospective Case Study of Interferon-Induced Depression. Paper presented at 72nd Annual Scientific Convention and Meeting of the Society-of-Biological-Psychiatry (SOBP), MAY 18-20, 2017, San Diego, CA. Biological Psychiatry, 81(10), S399-S399
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inflammatory Cytokines in a Repeated Measures Prospective Case Study of Interferon-Induced Depression
2017 (English)In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 81, no 10, p. S399-S399Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Keywords
Interferon-induced depression, Depression, Melatonin, Cytokines and Chemokines, Hepatitis C
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331809 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.02.713 (DOI)000400348701079 ()
Conference
72nd Annual Scientific Convention and Meeting of the Society-of-Biological-Psychiatry (SOBP), MAY 18-20, 2017, San Diego, CA
Available from: 2017-10-18 Created: 2017-10-18 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, A.-K., Larsson, A., Tängdén, T., Melhus, Å. & Lannergård, A. (2015). A trial with IgY chicken antibodies to eradicate faecal carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, 5, Article ID 28224.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A trial with IgY chicken antibodies to eradicate faecal carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases
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2015 (English)In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 5, article id 28224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is an emerging therapeutic challenge, especially in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Following an outbreak of CTX-M-15 Klebsiella pneumoniae in Uppsala, Sweden, an orphan drug trial on IgY chicken antibodies was undertaken in an attempt to eradicate faecal carriage of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

METHODS: Hens were immunised with epitopes from freeze-dried, whole-cell bacteria (ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli) and recombinant proteins of two K. pneumoniae fimbriae subunits (fimH and mrkD). The egg yolks were processed according to good manufacturing practice and the product was stored at-20°C until used. Using an internal database from the outbreak and the regular laboratory database, faecal carriers were identified and recruited from May 2005 to December 2013. The participants were randomised in a placebo-controlled 1:1 manner.

RESULTS: From 749 eligible patients, 327 (44%) had deceased, and only 91 (12%) were recruited and signed the informed consent. In the initial screening performed using the polymerase chain reaction, 24 participants were ESBL positive and subsequently randomised and treated with either the study drug or a placebo. The study was powered for 124 participants. Because of a very high dropout rate, the study was prematurely terminated. From the outbreak cohort (n=247), only eight patients were screened, and only one was positive with the outbreak strain in faeces.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study design, using IgY chicken antibodies for the eradication of ESBL-producing K. pneumonia and E. coli, was ineffective in reaching its goal due to high mortality and other factors resulting in a low inclusion rate. Spontaneous eradication of ESBL-producing bacteria was frequently observed in recruited participants, which is consistent with previous reports.

National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266969 (URN)10.3402/iee.v5.28224 (DOI)26560861 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-15 Created: 2015-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Lindstrom, I., Kjellin, M., Palanisamy, N., Bondeson, K., Wesslen, L., Lannergard, A. & Lennerstrand, J. (2015). Prevalence of polymorphisms with significant resistance to NS5A inhibitors in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1a and 3a in Sweden. INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 47(8), 555-562
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of polymorphisms with significant resistance to NS5A inhibitors in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1a and 3a in Sweden
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2015 (English)In: INFECTIOUS DISEASES, ISSN 2374-4235, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The future treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection will be combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that not only target multiple viral targets, but are also effective against different HCV genotypes. Of the many drug targets in HCV, one promising target is the non-structural 5A protein (NS5A), against which inhibitors, namely daclatasvir, ledipasvir and ombitasvir, have shown potent efficacy. However, since HCV is known to have very high sequence diversity, development of resistance is a problem against but not limited to NS5A inhibitors (i.e. resistance also found against NS3-protease and NS5B non-nucleoside inhibitors), when used in suboptimal combinations. Furthermore, it has been shown that natural resistance against DAAs is present in treatment-naive patients and such baseline resistance will potentially complicate future treatment strategies. Methods: A pan-genotypic population-sequencing method with degenerated primers targeting the NS5A region was developed. We have investigated the prevalence of baseline resistant variants in 127 treatment-naive patients of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2b and 3a. Results: The method could successfully sequence more than 95% of genotype 1a, 1b and 3a samples. Interpretation of fold resistance data against the NS5A inhibitors was done with the help of earlier published phenotypic data. Baseline resistance variants associated with high resistance (1000-50000-fold) was found in three patients: Q30H or Y93N in genotype 1a patients and further Y93H in a genotype 3a patient. Conclusion: Using this method, baseline resistance can be examined and the data could have a potential role in selecting the optimal and cost-efficient treatment for the patient.

Keywords
Hepatitis C virus, NS5A, prevalence, polymorphism, baseline resistance
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259636 (URN)10.3109/23744235.2015.1028097 (DOI)000357738200007 ()25851241 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding: Uppsala-Orebro Regional Research Council, Selander Foundation

Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-10 Last updated: 2016-01-07Bibliographically approved
Viberg, A., Lannergård, A., Larsson, A., Cars, O., Karlsson, M. O. & Sandström, M. (2006). A population pharmacokinetic model for cefuroxime using cystatin C as a marker of renal function. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 62(3), 297-303
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A population pharmacokinetic model for cefuroxime using cystatin C as a marker of renal function
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2006 (English)In: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0306-5251, E-ISSN 1365-2125, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 297-303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Since cefuroxime mainly is excreted by renal filtration, dosing is currently based on serum creatinine (Scr) or creatinine clearance (CLcr). However, it has been suggested that cystatin C (CysC) is superior to Scr as a marker of renal function. The aim of this prospective study was to develop a population model that describes the pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime and to investigate the usefulness of CysC as a covariate of the model parameters.

Methods: Ninety-seven patients were studied (CLcr range 6.5-115 ml min(-1)). Blood samples (n = 407) for the determination of cefuroxime were withdrawn according to a sparse data sampling schedule and analysed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The population analysis was performed in NONMEM.

Results: A two-compartment model described the data well. The biomarkers Scr, CLcr and CysC were evaluated as covariates on clearance (CL). The model that included CysC generated the best fit. In the final population model CL was a function of CysC and body weight, whereas V-1 was only a function of body weight. Final parameter estimates (relative standard errors) were 6.00 (3.2%) l h(-1), 11.4 (5.3%) l and 5.11 (11%) l for CL, V-1 and V-2, respectively.

Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, and because CysC is practical to use in the clinic, it is suggested that individual dosing of cefuroxime may be based on CysC rather than on Scr or CLcr. Furthermore, our final population model may be useful as a tool when designing new dosing schedules for cefuroxime.

Keywords
cefuroxime, cystatin C, NONMEM, pharmacokinetics
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94166 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02652.x (DOI)000239694000007 ()16934045 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2006-03-31 Created: 2006-03-31 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Lannergård, A., Friman, G., Ewald, U., Lind, L. & Larsson, A. (2005). Serum amyloid A (SAA) protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in healthy newborn infants and healthy young through elderly adults. Acta Paediatrica, 94(9), 1198-1202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serum amyloid A (SAA) protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in healthy newborn infants and healthy young through elderly adults
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2005 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 94, no 9, p. 1198-1202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM:

To determine the levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in different age groups.

METHODS:

Serum samples from 70 healthy newborn infants, 80 blood donors and 81 healthy elderly individuals were analysed using a nephelometric method. The 231 samples were grouped as follows: 35 umbilical cords, 35 newborns, 48 young adults, 28 middle-aged adults, and 85 elderly adults.

RESULTS:

Serum levels of both SAA and hsCRP were lower in umbilical cords than in the newborns and young, middle-aged and elderly adults (p<0.0001). The SAA and hsCRP levels were comparable in newborns, and young and middle-age adults, but higher in elderly adults (p<0.0001-0.03). SAA (r2=0.159, p<0.0001) and hsCRP (r2=0.059, p<0.0001) were positively correlated with age and to each other (r2=0.385, p<0.0001).

CONCLUSION:

Serum levels of SAA and hsCRP in umbilical cord blood are close to the detection limit and lower than in the other age groups investigated. The elderly have generally higher levels than the younger age groups, which require higher decision levels in inflammatory diseases, including infections. In newborns and young and middle-aged adults, the lower decision levels of 10 mg/l for SAA and 5 mg/l for CRP are suggested.

Keywords
Adult, Age Factors, Aged, C-Reactive Protein/*analysis, Female, Fetal Blood/chemistry, Humans, Infant; Newborn, Male, Middle Aged, Research Support; Non-U.S. Gov't, Serum Amyloid A Protein/*analysis, Sweden
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92981 (URN)16279005 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
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