uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Hagström, Emil
Publications (10 of 52) Show all publications
Hagström, E., Norlund, F., Stebbins, A., Armstrong, P. W., Chiswell, K., Granger, C. B., . . . Held, C. (2018). Psychosocial stress and major cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Journal of Internal Medicine, 283(1), 83-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychosocial stress and major cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 283, no 1, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Assess the risk of ischaemic events associated with psychosocial stress in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD).

METHODS: Psychosocial stress was assessed by a questionnaire in 14 577 patients (median age 65.0, IQR 59, 71; 81.6% males) with stable CHD on optimal secondary preventive therapy in the prospective randomized STABILITY clinical trial. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to assess associations between individual stressors, baseline cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes.

RESULTS: After 3.7 years of follow-up, depressive symptoms, loss of interest and financial stress were associated with increased risk (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) of CV death (1.21, 1.09-1.34; 1.15, 1.05-1.27; and 1.19, 1.08-1.30, respectively) and the primary composite end-point of CV death, nonfatal MI or nonfatal stroke (1.21, 1.13-1.30; 1.19, 1.11-1.27; and 1.17, 1.10-1.24, respectively). Living alone was related to higher risk of CV death (1.68, 1.38-2.05) and the primary composite end-point (1.28, 1.11-1.48), whereas being married as compared with being widowed, was associated with lower risk of CV death (0.64, 0.49-0.82) and the primary composite end-point (0.81, 0.67-0.97).

CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial stress, such as depressive symptoms, loss of interest, living alone and financial stress, were associated with increased CV mortality in patients with stable CHD despite optimal medical secondary prevention treatment. Secondary prevention of CHD should therefore focus also on psychosocial issues both in clinical management and in future clinical trials.

Keywords
death, depression, psychosocial stress, stable coronary heart disease
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333087 (URN)10.1111/joim.12692 (DOI)000418411100006 ()28960596 (PubMedID)
Funder
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2018-01-29Bibliographically approved
Vedin, O., Hagström, E., Östlund, O., Avezum, A., Budaj, A., Flather, M. D., . . . Held, C. (2017). Associations between tooth loss and prognostic biomarkers and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease. International Journal of Cardiology, 245, 271-276
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between tooth loss and prognostic biomarkers and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease
Show others...
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 245, p. 271-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

Underlying mechanisms behind the hypothesized relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been insufficiently explored. We evaluated associations between self-reported tooth loss-a marker of PD- and prognostic biomarkers in 15,456 (97%) patients with stable CHD in the global STABILITY trial.

Methods and results:

Baseline blood samples were obtained and patients reported their number of teeth according to the following tooth loss levels: "26-32 (All)" [lowest level], "20-25", "15-19", "1-14", and "No Teeth" [highest level]. Linear and Cox regression models assessed associations between tooth loss levels and biomarker levels, and the relationship between tooth loss levels and outcomes, respectively.

After multivariable adjustment, the relative biomarker increase between the highest and the lowest tooth loss level was: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.29), interleukin 6 1.14 (1.10-1.18), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) activity 1.05 (1.03-1.06), growth differentiation factor 15 1.11 (1.08-1.14), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) 1.18 (1.11-1.25). No association was detected for high-sensitivity troponin T 1.02 (0.98-1.05). Some attenuation of the relationship between tooth loss and outcomes resulted from the addition of biomarkers to the multivariable analysis, of which NT-proBNP had the biggest impact.

Conclusions:

A graded and independent association between tooth loss and several prognostic biomarkers was observed, suggesting that tooth loss and its underlying mechanisms may be involved in multiple pathophysiological pathways also implicated in the development and prognosis of CHD. The association between tooth loss and cardiovascular death and stroke persisted despite comprehensive adjustment including prognostic biomarkers.

Keywords
Tooth loss, Periodontal disease, Stable coronary heart disease, Biomarkers, Risk factors
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336290 (URN)10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.07.036 (DOI)000411288700055 ()28735759 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-23 Created: 2018-01-23 Last updated: 2018-01-23Bibliographically approved
Lindholm, D., Lindbäck, J., Armstrong, P. W., Budaj, A., Cannon, C. P., Granger, C. B., . . . Wallentin, L. (2017). Biomarker-Based Risk Model to Predict Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 70(7), 813-826
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomarker-Based Risk Model to Predict Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Disease
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 813-826Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Currently, there is no generally accepted model to predict outcomes in stable coronary heart disease (CHD).Objectives This study evaluated and compared the prognostic value of biomarkers and clinical variables to develop a biomarker-based prediction model in patients with stable CHD.Methods In a prospective, randomized trial cohort of 13,164 patients with stable CHD, we analyzed several candidate biomarkers and clinical variables and used multivariable Cox regression to develop a clinical prediction model based on the most important markers. The primary outcome was cardiovascular (CV) death, but model performance was also explored for other key outcomes. It was internally bootstrap validated, and externally validated in 1,547 patients in another study.Results During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 591 cases of CV death. The 3 most important biomarkers were N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, where NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT had greater prognostic value than any other biomarker or clinical variable. The final prediction model included age (A), biomarkers (B) (NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and clinical variables (C) (smoking, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral arterial disease). This “ABC-CHD” model had high discriminatory ability for CV death (c-index 0.81 in derivation cohort, 0.78 in validation cohort), with adequate calibration in both cohorts.Conclusions This model provided a robust tool for the prediction of CV death in patients with stable CHD. As it is based on a small number of readily available biomarkers and clinical factors, it can be widely employed to complement clinical assessment and guide management based on CV risk. (The Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy Trial [STABILITY]; NCT00799903)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
cardiac troponin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, risk prediction
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327281 (URN)10.1016/j.jacc.2017.06.030 (DOI)000407028500001 ()28797349 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-08-08 Created: 2017-08-08 Last updated: 2017-11-23Bibliographically approved
Forbes, C. A., Deshpande, S., Sorio-Vilela, F., Kutikova, L., Duffy, S., Gouni-Berthold, I. & Hagström, E. (2017). Comparison Of Methods To Measure Patient Adherence And Persistence With Pharmacological Therapy: A Systematic Review. Value in Health, 20(9), A620-A620
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison Of Methods To Measure Patient Adherence And Persistence With Pharmacological Therapy: A Systematic Review
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 20, no 9, p. A620-A620Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Social and Clinical Pharmacy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-345693 (URN)000413599901590 ()
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Lind, L., Sundström, J., Stenemo, M., Hagström, E. & Ärnlöv, J. (2017). Discovery of new biomarkers for atrial fibrillation using a custom-made proteomics chip. Heart, 103(5), 379-384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discovery of new biomarkers for atrial fibrillation using a custom-made proteomics chip
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 5, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Apart from several established clinical risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF), a number of biomarkers have also been identified as potential risk factors for AF. None of these have so far been adopted in clinical practice. Objective To use a novel custom-made proteomics chip to discover new prognostic biomarkers for AF risk. Methods In two independent community-based cohorts (Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (978 participants without AF, mean age 70.1 years, 50% women, median followup 10.0 years) and Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) (n= 725, mean age 77.5 years, median follow-up 7.9 years)), ninety-two plasma proteins were assessed at baseline by a proximity extension assay (PEA) chip. Of those, 85 proteins showed a call rate > 70% in both cohorts. Results Thirteen proteins were related to incident AF in PIVUS (148 events) using a false discovery rate of 5%. Of those, five were replicated in ULSAM at nominal multivariable p value (123 events, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)). Of those, NT-pro-BNP and FGF-23 were also associated with AF after adjusting for established AF risk factors. In a prespecified secondary analysis pooling the two data sets, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and adrenomedullin (AM) were also significantly related to incident AF in addition to the aforementioned five proteins (Bonferroni-adjustment). The addition of NT-proBNP to a model with established risk factors increased the C-statistic from 0.605 to 0.676 (p< 0.0001). Conclusions Using a novel proteomics approach, we confirmed the previously reported association between NT-pro-BNP, FGF-23, GDF-15 and incident AF, and also discovered four proteins (FABP4, IL-6, TIM-1 and AM) that could be of importance in the development of AF.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320847 (URN)10.1136/heartjnl-2016-309764 (DOI)000395671900012 ()27609943 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2017-04-26Bibliographically approved
Venge, P., van Lippen, L., Blaschke, S., Christ, M., Geier, F., Giannitsis, E., . . . Semjonow, V. (2017). Equal clinical performance of a novel point-of-care cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay with a commonly used high-sensitivity cTnI assay. Clinica Chimica Acta, 469, 119-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Equal clinical performance of a novel point-of-care cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay with a commonly used high-sensitivity cTnI assay
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Clinica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0009-8981, E-ISSN 1873-3492, Vol. 469, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Efficient rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (MI) facilitates early disposition of chest pain patients in emergency departments (ED). Point-of-care (POC) cardiac troponin (cTn) may improve patient throughput. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a novel cTnI test (Minicare cTnI, Philips), with current POC cTnI (I-Stat, Abbott) and high-sensitivity central laboratory cTnI (hs-cTnI; Architect, Abbott) assays.

Methods: The clinical performance of the assays were compared in samples from 450 patients from a previous clinical evaluation of Minicare cTnI.

Results: Minicare cTnI correlated with Architect hs-cTnI (r(2) = 0.85, p < 0.0001) and I-Stat cTnI (r(2) = 0.93, p < 0.0001). Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were 0.87-0.91 at admission (p = ns) and 0.96-0.97 3 h after admission (p = ns). The negative predictive values (NPV) at admission were 95% ((92-97%, 95% CI) for Minicare cTnI and increased to 99% (97-100%) at 2-4 h, and similar to Architect hs-cTnI (98%, 96-100%), but higher than I-Stat cTnI (95%, 92-97%; p < 0.01). Negative likelihood ratios (LR) after 2-4 h were 0.06 (0.02-0.17, 95% CI) for Minicare cTnI, 0.11 (0.05-0.24) for Architect hs-cTnI (p = 0.02) and 0.28 (0.18-0.43) for I-Stat cTnI (p < 0.0001). The clinical concordances between Minicare cTnI and Architect hs-cTnI were 92% (admission) and 95% (2-4 h), with lower concordances between Minicare cTnI and I-Stat cTnI (83% and 78%, respectively; p = 0.007).

Conclusions: The Minicare cTnI POC assay may become useful for prompt and safe ruling-out of AMI in ED patients with suspected AMI using a guideline supported 0/3 h sampling protocol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
Keywords
Cardiac troponin I, Acute myocardial infarction, Point-of-care, Emergency medicine
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-326220 (URN)10.1016/j.cca.2017.03.023 (DOI)000401879100019 ()28347675 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-07-06 Created: 2017-07-06 Last updated: 2017-07-06Bibliographically approved
Lindholm, D. P., Hagström, E., James, S. K., Becker, R. C., Cannon, C. P., Himmelmann, A., . . . Wallentin, L. (2017). Growth Differentiation Factor 15 at 1 Month After an Acute Coronary Syndrome Is Associated With Increased Risk of Major Bleeding.. Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, 6(4), Article ID e005580.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth Differentiation Factor 15 at 1 Month After an Acute Coronary Syndrome Is Associated With Increased Risk of Major Bleeding.
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 4, article id e005580Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is related to major bleeding when measured at initial presentation in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. It is unknown whether follow-up measurements provide additional information. The objective of this study was to investigate whether GDF-15 measured 1 month after an ACS provides additional information beyond the baseline levels with regard to the risk of major bleeding.

METHODS AND RESULTS: GDF-15 was measured at baseline and at 1 month after an ACS in 4049 patients included in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. The association between 1-month GDF-15 level and non-coronary artery bypass grafting surgery-related major bleeding was assessed by a multivariable Cox model, adjusting for baseline GDF-15, age, anemia, impaired renal function, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, and sex. Elevated GDF-15 (>1800 ng/L) at 1 month was associated with an increased risk of non-coronary artery bypass grafting-related major bleeding (3.9% versus 1.2%; hazard ratio, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.89-6.06), independent of baseline GDF-15. Patients who had elevated GDF-15 levels at baseline and subsequent nonelevated GDF-15 at 1 month had a similar risk as patients who had nonelevated levels at both measurements.

CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 at 1 month after an ACS is related to the risk of bleeding during DAPT and provides additional information on the bleeding risk beyond baseline GDF-15 levels. GDF-15 levels may therefore be useful as part of decision support concerning long-term antithrombotic treatment in patients post-ACS.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

Keywords
biomarker, bleeding, ischemic heart disease
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Cardiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320789 (URN)10.1161/JAHA.117.005580 (DOI)000404098500056 ()28411246 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Hagström, E., Held, C., Stewart, R. A., Aylward, P. E., Budaj, A., Cannon, C. P., . . . Wallentin, L. (2017). Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Predicts All-Cause Morbidity and Mortality in Stable Coronary Heart Disease. Clinical Chemistry, 63(1), 325-333
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Predicts All-Cause Morbidity and Mortality in Stable Coronary Heart Disease
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 325-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Higher growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) concentrations are associated with cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV morbidity and mortality. However, information on associations between GDF-15 and the risk of specific CV and non-CV events in stable coronary heart disease (CHD) patients is limited.

METHODS: In 14 577 patients with stable CHD participating in the Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy Trial (STABILITY), GDF-15 and other prognostic biomarkers (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T, cystatin C, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were measured. In adjusted Cox regression models, the associations between GDF-15 and the composite CV end point [CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke], as well as other CV and non-CV events, were assessed.

RESULTS: The median concentration (interquartile range) of GDF-15 at baseline was 1253 (915-1827) ng/L. The hazard ratio for the composite end point for the highest compared to the lowest quartile of GDF-15 was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.2); for CV death, 2.63 (1.9-3.6); for sudden death, 3.06 (1.9-4.8); for heart failure (HF) death, 4.3 (1.3-14); for cancer death, 2.5 (1.3-4.7); for hospitalization for HF, 5.8 (3.2-10); for MI 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9); and for stroke, 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-2.8). After adjustment for other prognostic biomarkers, GDF-15 remained significantly associated with all outcomes except for MI.

CONCLUSIONS: In stable CHD, GDF-15 was independently associated with CV, non-CV, and cancer mortality, as well as with MI and stroke. When also adjusting for other prognostic biomarkers, the associations to all fatal and nonfatal events were maintained except for MI. Information on GDF-15, therefore, might be helpful when assessing the risk of adverse outcomes in patients with stable CHD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00799903.

National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319433 (URN)10.1373/clinchem.2016.260570 (DOI)000395048800045 ()27811204 (PubMedID)
Funder
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)AstraZeneca
Available from: 2017-04-04 Created: 2017-04-04 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Stewart, R. A. H., Held, C., Hadziosmanovic, N., Armstrong, P. W., Cannon, C. P., Granger, C. B., . . . White, H. D. (2017). Physical Activity and Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 70(14), 1689-1700
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Activity and Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 70, no 14, p. 1689-1700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND Recommendations for physical activity in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) are based on modest evidence.

OBJECTIVES The authors analyzed the association between self-reported exercise and mortality in patients with stable CHD.

METHODS A total of 15,486 patients from 39 countries with stable CHD who participated in the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) study completed questions at baseline on hours spent each week taking mild, moderate, and vigorous exercise. Associations between the volume of habitual exercise in metabolic equivalents of task hours/week and adverse outcomes during a median follow-up of 3.7 years were evaluated.

RESULTS A graded decrease in mortality occurred with increased habitual exercise that was steeper at lower compared with higher exercise levels. Doubling exercise volume was associated with lower all-cause mortality (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 0.85; adjusting for covariates, HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87 to 0.93). These associations were similar for cardiovascular mortality (unadjusted HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.87; adjusted HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.96), but myocardial infarction and stroke were not associated with exercise volume after adjusting for covariates. The association between decrease in mortality and greater physical activity was stronger in the subgroup of patients at higher risk estimated by the ABC-CHD (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical-Coronary Heart Disease) risk score (p for interaction = 0.0007).

CONCLUSIONS In patients with stable CHD, more physical activity was associated with lower mortality. The largest benefits occurred between sedentary patient groups and between those with the highest mortality risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2017
Keywords
cardiac rehabilitation, coronary artery disease, exercise, physical activity
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336432 (URN)10.1016/j.jacc.2017.08.017 (DOI)000411615300001 ()28958324 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Journath, G., Hambraeus, K., Hagström, E., Pettersson, B. & Lothgren, M. (2017). Predicted impact of lipid lowering therapy on cardiovascular and economic outcomes of Swedish atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease guideline. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 17, Article ID 224.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicted impact of lipid lowering therapy on cardiovascular and economic outcomes of Swedish atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease guideline
Show others...
2017 (English)In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 17, article id 224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) by treatment recommendations on prevention of atherosclerotic CVD remain to be evaluated. The objectives were to assess treatment gap for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) according to guidelines, potential impact on CVD outcomes, and possible avoided economic costs, in post myocardial infarction (MI) patients, if target LDL-C levels of <= 1.8 mmol/L would be achieved. Methods: All patients registered in the Swedish Secondary Prevention after Heart Intensive care Admission register, with one-year post-MI follow-up during 2013 were selected. The REACH risk prediction and a calibrated model for recurrent cardiovascular events and death were used to estimate unadjusted risk prediction based on the REACH equation henceforth called base case, and calibrated CVD outcomes based on gender-specific risk factors. The predicted impact of the LDL-C reduction on the risk of CVD was based on the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration findings. Results: A sample of n = 5904 patients (74% men) with a mean age of 64 years were included. Around 70% did not reach LDL-C target = 1.8 mmol/L. Over a 10-year period, 820-2262 events were predicted to occur in those who did not reach target corresponding to 20%-55% risk of CVD events. To achieve LDL-C target, the mean LDL-C had to be reduced by 0.73 mmol/L (29%). If this LDL-C reduction was achieved, 195-544 life years, 132-343 CVD events, and 7.9-20.9 million Swedish crowns (MSEK) of direct costs, and 19.3-51.0 MSEK of total costs would be avoided. Conclusion: Lowering of LDL cholesterol to achieve target levels according to guidelines for post-MI patients may lead to fewer cardiovascular events and avoidance of event costs.

Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, Costs, Guidelines, Lipids, Myocardial infarction
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332653 (URN)10.1186/s12872-017-0659-2 (DOI)000407723700002 ()28814290 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications