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Publications (10 of 57) Show all publications
Pan, R., Sun, R., Wang, Z., Lindh, J., Edström, K., Strömme, M. & Nyholm, L. (2019). Double-sided conductive separators for lithium-metal batteries. Energy Storage Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Double-sided conductive separators for lithium-metal batteries
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2019 (English)In: Energy Storage Materials, ISSN 2405-8297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel double-sided conductive (DSC) separator consisting of two 5 μm-thick carbon nanotube (CNT)/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) composite layers coated on each side of a 20 μm-thick glass-fiber (GF)/CNF composite membrane is described. In a lithium-metal battery (LMB), the DSC separator exhibits a high ionic conductivity (i.e. 1.7 mS cm−1 using an LP40 electrolyte) due to the high porosity (i.e. 66%) of the GF/CNF membrane. More stable Li anodes can also be realized by depositing Li within the porous electronically conducting CNT/CNF matrix at the DSC separator anode side due to the decreased current density. The CNT/CNF layer of the DSC separator facing the cathode, which is in direct electric contact with the current collector, decreases the overpotential for the cathode and consequently improves its capacity and rate performance significantly. A Li/Li cell containing a DSC separator showed an improved cycling stability compared to an analogous cell equipped with a commercial Celgard separator at current densities up to 5 mA cm−2 for Li deposition and stripping capacities up to 5 mAh cm−2. A proof-of-concept LMB containing a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) composite cathode and a DSC separator showed a significantly improved rate capability, yielding capacities of about 110 mAh g−1 at 5 C and 80 mAh g−1 at 10 C. The LMB cell containing a DSC separator also exhibited a capacity retention of 80% after 200 cycles at a rate of 6 C indicating that the two-sided conductive separator design has significant potential in facilitating the development of well-functioning LMBs.

National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials; Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389860 (URN)
Available from: 2019-07-30 Created: 2019-07-30 Last updated: 2019-07-30
Pan, R., Wang, Z., Sun, R., Lindh, J., Edström, K., Strömme, M. & Nyholm, L. (2019). Polydopamine-based redox-active separators for lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Materiomics, 204-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polydopamine-based redox-active separators for lithium-ion batteries
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Materiomics, ISSN 2352-8478, p. 204-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can be effectively increased with functionalized separators. Herein, it is demonstrated that polydopamine-based redox-active (PRA) separators can provide additional capacity to that of typical anode materials, increase the volumetric capacity of the cell, as well as, decrease the cell resistance to yield an improved performance at higher cycling rates. The PRA separators, which are composed of a 2 μm thick electrically insulating nanocellulose fiber (NCF) layer and an 18 μm thick polydopamine (PDA) and carbon nanotube (CNT) containing redox-active layer, are readily produced using a facile paper-making process. The PRA separators are also easily wettable by commonly employed electrolytes (e.g. LP40) and exhibit a high dimensional stability. In addition, the pore structure endows the PRA separator with a high ionic conductivity (i.e. 1.06 mS cm−1) that increases the rate performance of the cells. Due to the presence of the redox-active layer, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) half-cells containing PRA separator were found to exhibit significantly higher capacities than the corresponding cells containing commercial separators. These results clearly show that the implementation of this type of redox-active separators constitutes a straightforward and effective way to increase the energy and power densities of LIBs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Lithium-ion battery, Separator, Cellulose, Polydopamine, Redox-active
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-370069 (URN)10.1016/j.jmat.2018.12.007 (DOI)000470660000008 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2017-013543
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Pan, R., Sun, R., Wang, Z., Lindh, J., Edström, K., Strömme, M. & Nyholm, L. (2019). Sandwich-structured nano/micro fiber-based separators for lithium metal batteries. Nano Energy, 55, 316-326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sandwich-structured nano/micro fiber-based separators for lithium metal batteries
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2019 (English)In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 55, p. 316-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although the increased need for high-energy/power-density energy storage systems has revived the research on lithium metal batteries (LMBs), the influence of the separator on the performance of LMBs is still generally neglected. In the present study, a sandwich-structured separator (referred to as the CGC separator below) composed of two 2.5µm thick cellulose nanofiber (CNF) surface layers and an intermediate 15µm thick glass microfiber (GMF) and CNF composite layer is described. While the CNF surface layers of the CGC separator feature a homogeneous distribution of nano-sized pores favoring the attainment of a homogeneous current distribution at both electrodes, the intermediate GMF/CNF layer contains macropores facilitating the ionic transport through the separator. The CGC separator exhibited a much better electrolyte wettability and thermal stability compared to a Celgard separator, due to the use of the hydrophilic and thermally stable CNFs and GMFs. It is also shown that the combination of nano-sized and micro-sized fibers used in the CGC separator yields a higher ionic conductivity than that for the commercial separator (1.14 vs. 0.49 mS cm−1). Moreover, the influence of the separator pore structure (e.g. the porosity and pore distribution) on the performance of LMBs is studied for both Li anodes and LiFePO4 composite cathodes. The results demonstrate that the use of separators with high porosities and homogeneous surface pore distributions can improve the performances (e.g. capacities and stabilities) of LMBs considerably, and also highlights the importance of proper separator/electrode interactions. The present approach constitutes a practical engineering strategy for the production of separators with nano/micro fibers and a promising route for the development of LMBs with improved safety and enhanced electrochemical performances.

Keywords
Cellulose, separator, sandwich structure, lithium metal battery, current distribution, three-electrode
National Category
Nano Technology Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364826 (URN)10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.11.005 (DOI)000454636200029 ()
Funder
StandUpSwedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-11-04 Created: 2018-11-04 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Rocha, I., Lindh, J., Hong, J., Strömme, M., Mihranyan, A. & Ferraz, N. (2018). Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads. Molecules, 23(3), Article ID 601.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads
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2018 (English)In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

Keywords
sulfonated beads; Cladophora nanocellulose; hemocompatibility; coagulation; complement system
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346209 (URN)10.3390/molecules23030601 (DOI)000428514100092 ()
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Ruan, C., Wang, Z., Lindh, J. & Strömme, M. (2018). Carbonized cellulose beads for efficient capacitive energy storage. Cellulose (London), 25(6), 3545-3556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbonized cellulose beads for efficient capacitive energy storage
2018 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 3545-3556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural biomaterials, including polysaccharides and amino acids, provide a sustainable source of functional carbon materials for electric energy storage applications. We present a one-pot reductive amination process to functionalize 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) beads with chitosan and l-cysteine to provide single (N)- and dual (N/S)-doped materials. The functionalization enables the physicochemical properties of the materials to be tailored and can provide carbon precursors with heteroatom doping suitable for energy storage applications. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the changes to the beads after functionalization and carbonization. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified that the doping was effective, while the nitrogen sorption isotherms and pore-size distributions of the carbonized beads showed the effects of doping with different hierarchical porosities. In the electrochemical experiments, three kinds of carbon beads [pyrolyzed from DAC, chitosan-crosslinked DAC (CS-DAC) and l-cysteine-functionalized DAC] were used as electrode materials. Electrodes of carbonized CS-DAC beads had a specific capacitance of up to 242 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). These electrodes maintained a capacitance retention of 91.5% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles, suggesting excellent cycling stability. The results indicate that reductive amination of DAC is an effective route for heteroatom doping of carbon materials to be used as electrode active materials for energy storage.

Keywords
2, 3-Dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) beads, Nitrogen doping, Nitrogen/sulfur doping, Supercapacitor
National Category
Materials Chemistry Physical Chemistry Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357553 (URN)10.1007/s10570-018-1811-6 (DOI)000432990300030 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
Available from: 2018-08-17 Created: 2018-08-17 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Rocha, I., Ferraz, N., Mihranyan, A., Strömme, M. & Lindh, J. (2018). Hemocompatibility of porous sulfonated Cladophora cellulose beads towards a blood purification material with anticoagulant properties. Paper presented at 255th National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) - Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water, MAR 18-22, 2018, New Orleans, LA, USA. Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hemocompatibility of porous sulfonated Cladophora cellulose beads towards a blood purification material with anticoagulant properties
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2018 (English)In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2018
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-365865 (URN)000435537703062 ()
Conference
255th National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) - Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water, MAR 18-22, 2018, New Orleans, LA, USA
Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
Xu, C., Ruan, C.-Q., Li, Y., Lindh, J. & Strömme, M. (2018). High-performance activated carbons synthesized from nanocellulose for CO2 capture and extremely selective removal of volatile organic compounds. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 2(2), Article ID 1700147.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-performance activated carbons synthesized from nanocellulose for CO2 capture and extremely selective removal of volatile organic compounds
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, E-ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 2, no 2, article id 1700147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of sustainable activated carbons (ACs) with large surface areas and tunable pore sizes is synthesized from Cladophora cellulose and its chemically modified derivatives in a one-step physical carbonization/activation process. The molecular structure of the cellulose precursors and the carbonization/activation atmosphere (N2 or CO2) significantly influence the pore structure of the ACs. When using oxidized cellulose and its further cross-linkages as the precursor, the ACs have a large volume of ultramicropores (pore diameter < 0.8 nm). Activation in CO2 results in ACs with surface areas up to 1241 m2 g−1. These ACs have a high CO2 uptake capacity (2.29 mmol g−1 at 0.15 bar, 5.52 mmol g−1 at 1 bar; 273 K) and a high CO2–over–N2 selectivity (42 at 273 K). In addition, the capacity of the ACs to adsorb vapors of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is remarkable, with values up to 0.97 mmol g−1 at very low VOC concentrations (200 ppmv). The ACs have ultrahigh VOCs–over–N2 selectivity up to 9.35 × 103 at 293 K for 0.02 vol%/99.8 vol% of benzene/N2 mixture. It is anticipated that these ACs will be useful as sorbents for the postcombustion capture of CO2 and for indoor removal and direct air capture of various VOCs.

National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333723 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201700147 (DOI)000424712800009 ()
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Pan, R., Xu, X., Sun, R., Wang, Z., Lindh, J., Edström, K., . . . Nyholm, L. (2018). Nanocellulose Modified Polyethylene Separators for Lithium Metal Batteries. Small, 14(21), Article ID 1704371.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocellulose Modified Polyethylene Separators for Lithium Metal Batteries
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2018 (English)In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 14, no 21, article id 1704371Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Poor cycling stability and safety concerns regarding lithium (Li) metal anodes are two major issues preventing the commercialization of high‐energy density Li metal‐based batteries. Herein, a novel tri‐layer separator design that significantly enhances the cycling stability and safety of Li metal‐based batteries is presented. A thin, thermally stable, flexible, and hydrophilic cellulose nanofiber layer, produced using a straightforward paper‐making process, is directly laminated on each side of a plasma‐treated polyethylene (PE) separator. The 2.5 µm thick, mesoporous (≈20 nm average pore size) cellulose nanofiber layer stabilizes the Li metal anodes by generating a uniform Li+ flux toward the electrode through its homogenous nanochannels, leading to improved cycling stability. As the tri‐layer separator maintains its dimensional stability even at 200 °C when the internal PE layer is melted and blocks the ion transport through the separator, the separator also provides an effective thermal shutdown function. The present nanocellulose‐based tri‐layer separator design thus significantly facilitates the realization of high‐energy density Li metal‐based batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
Keywords
cellulose, current distribution, lithium dendrites, lithium metal batteries, separators
National Category
Materials Chemistry Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-349143 (URN)10.1002/smll.201704371 (DOI)000434173300006 ()29675952 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA-110012Swedish Energy AgencyStandUp
Available from: 2018-04-22 Created: 2018-04-22 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Ruan, C., Strömme, M. & Lindh, J. (2018). Preparation of Porous 2,3-dialdehyde Cellulose Beads Crosslinked with Chitosan and their Application in Adsorption of Congo Red Dye. Carbohydrate Polymers, 181, 200-207
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparation of Porous 2,3-dialdehyde Cellulose Beads Crosslinked with Chitosan and their Application in Adsorption of Congo Red Dye
2018 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 181, p. 200-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Micrometer sized 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) beads were produced via a recently developed method relying on periodate oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose. The produced dialdehyde groups and pristine hydroxyl groups provided the DAC beads with a vast potential for further functionalization. The sensitivity of the DAC beads to alkaline conditions, however, limits their possible functionalization and applications. Hence, alkaline-stable and porous cellulose beads were prepared via a reductive amination crosslinking reaction between 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads and chitosan. The produced materials were thoroughly characterized with different methods. The reaction conditions, including the amount of chitosan used, conditions for reductive amination, reaction temperature and time, were investigated and the maintained morphology of the beads after exposure to 1 M NaOH (aq.) was verified with SEM. Different washing and drying procedures were used and the results were studied by SEM and BET analysis. Furthermore, FTIR, TGA, EDX, XPS, DLS and elemental analysis were performed to characterize the properties of the prepared beads. Finally, the alkaline-stable porous chitosan cross-linked 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads were applied as adsorbent for the dye Congo red. The crosslinked beads displayed fast and high adsorption capacity at pH 2 and good desorption properties at pH 12, providing a promising sorption material.

Keywords
Cladophora nanocellulose, 2, 3-Dialdehyde cellulose beads Chitosan, Crosslink, Congo red dye
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334956 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.10.072 (DOI)000418661000025 ()29253964 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Rocha, I., Hattori, Y., Mirna, D., Mihranyan, A., Strömme, M. & Lindh, J. (2018). Spectroscopic and physicochemical characterization of sulfonated Cladophora cellulose beads. Langmuir, 34(37), 11121-11125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectroscopic and physicochemical characterization of sulfonated Cladophora cellulose beads
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2018 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, no 37, p. 11121-11125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The work presents a full physicochemical characterization of sulfonated cellulose beads prepared from Cladophora nanocellulose intended for use in biological systems. 2,3-Dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) beads were sulfonated, and transformation of up to 50% of the aldehyde groups was achieved, resulting in highly charged and porous materials compared to the compact surface of the DAC beads. The porosity could be tailored by adjusting the degree of sulfonation, and a subsequent reduction of the aldehyde groups to hydroxyl groups maintained the bead structure without considerable alteration of the surface properties. The thermal stability of the DAC beads was significantly increased with the sulfonation and reduction reactions. Raman spectroscopy also showed to be a useful technique for the characterization of sulfonated cellulose materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
National Category
Physical Chemistry Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346211 (URN)10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b01704 (DOI)000445440200035 ()30169040 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5196-4115

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