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Kjellman, Ulrika
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Kjellman, U. (2017). Images as scientific documents in Swedish race biology: two practices. Paper presented at Proceedings of CoLIS: 9th International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science - Uppsala University, June 27-29, 2016. Information research, 22(1), Article ID 1655.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Images as scientific documents in Swedish race biology: two practices
2017 (English)In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 1655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction. During the early period of Swedish ‘race biology’, photography was extensively used in the practice of this pseudoscience. Later on, photographs were discarded and other pictorial techniques applied. This change in pictorial technique coincided with changes in the disciplinary practice of ‘race biology’. Method. Comparative image analysis. Analysis. Two pictures, exemplifying the two periods, are compared and analysed with reference to functional theories of scientific images as instrumental in institutional practices. Results. Swedish ‘race biology’ was a project ostensibly aimed at recording physiognomic traits of Swedish ‘racial types’. But the photographs of the early period depict much more. Redundant information was used to bias data to reflect ideological assumptions: irrelevant aspects like lighting, surroundings, props and clothes were used to portray Nordic ‘racial types’ as superior. When ‘race biology’ changed direction and the existence of racial differences began to be denied, pictorial rhetoric and techniques also changed and photographs depicting human ‘racial types’ were no longer in demand. Conclusion. Shifting theories and objectives of scientific practice affect tools and methods. When images are part of scientific practice, imaging techniques and rhetoric change as disciplines develop.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UNIV SHEFFIELD DEPT INFORMATION STUDIES, 2017
National Category
Other Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317447 (URN)000404551500046 ()
Conference
Proceedings of CoLIS: 9th International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science - Uppsala University, June 27-29, 2016
Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Kjellman, U. (2016). To Document the Undocumentable: Photography in the scientific practice of physical anthropology and race biology. Journal of Documentation, 72(5), 813-831
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To Document the Undocumentable: Photography in the scientific practice of physical anthropology and race biology
2016 (English)In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 813-831Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Other Humanities
Research subject
Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280198 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-03-08 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Kjellman, U. (2015). Bilden som bevis: Om bruket av fotografier i det vetenskapliga arbetet vid statens institut för rasbiologi.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bilden som bevis: Om bruket av fotografier i det vetenskapliga arbetet vid statens institut för rasbiologi
2015 (Swedish)Other (Other academic)
Series
http://www.humanistportalen.se
Keyword
fotografi, rasvetenskap
National Category
Visual Arts
Research subject
Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261345 (URN)
Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2015-09-01
Kjellman, U. & Eld, C. (2015). The Construction of Whiteness in the Work of The Swedish State Institute for Race Biology. In: : . Paper presented at Conceptions of Whiteness: White Privilege, 10th to 12th May 2015, Dubrovnik, Croatia (Hrvatska).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Construction of Whiteness in the Work of The Swedish State Institute for Race Biology
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In 1922 a eugenic research centre, The Swedish State Institute for Race Biology, was founded in Uppsala, with the purpose being to survey and classify the Swedish people according to race. The data collected was intended to make a foundation for a rational population policy aiming at improving the Nordic (Swedish) race. This race was deemed superior in comparison with the other races living in Sweden– primarily the East Baltic (Finnish) and the Lappish (Sami) race. But due to miscegenation and a depraved urban lifestyle this Nordic race was under threat and needed to be rescued.

In the scientific practice of this eugenic institute it was the external aspects of the humans, or the phenotype that decided what race a person belonged to. A vast amount of bodily data was therefore collected―bodies were measured and hair and eye colours determined to decide what race a person belonged to. Beside these records photographical portraits of the persons examined were also taken.

The use of photography in the scientific practice of the institute is not surprising―with the focus on how people looked it was a convenient and efficient tool. The camera could not only rapidly produce a vast amount of photographical records but was also, in this period, deemed objective and reliable―just capturing the world as it was. But in the same time it is obvious when examine the photographs that they were most biased. The portraits exemplifying the Nordic race show young, healthy good-looking persons in prosperous environments while for instance the Finnish type often was elderly, shabby men in worn out clothes, in front of poor homes and surroundings. The photographs were used to promote the idea of the Nordic race as superior―they were far from objective but permeated by ideological beliefs.

Keyword
Eugenics, whiteness, visuality, classification, photography, race
National Category
Information Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-253115 (URN)
Conference
Conceptions of Whiteness: White Privilege, 10th to 12th May 2015, Dubrovnik, Croatia (Hrvatska)
Available from: 2015-05-20 Created: 2015-05-20 Last updated: 2015-05-22Bibliographically approved
Kjellman, U. (2014). How to picture race?: The use of photography in the scientific practice of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology. Scandinavian Journal of History, 39(5), 580-611
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to picture race?: The use of photography in the scientific practice of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 580-611Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology, SIRB, was to survey the Swedish people according to its race criteria. In this research process photographs were used to document and portray the different races living in Sweden. This article examines how the photographs were used in this process: What pictorial rhetoric did they use and what did the photographs bring to the research process? The result shows that SIRB did not succeeded in developing consistent methods of portraying race. The style and formula of the portraits varied; sometimes environmental aspects came in to focus, sometimes bodily aspects. These methodological shortcomings must be attributed not only to the fact that the institution was working with a new and immature scientific medium – photography – but also that it operated inside an

immature scientific discipline. The race scientific community had no joint theories and methods to work with, and did not know how to affiliate with other disciplines – such as anthropology, focusing on environmental factors, or medicine, focusing on bodily aspects. But the lack of methodological consistency was not just a shortcoming; it could also be used to bias the material in a way that served the ideas of eugenics.

Keyword
race, photography, eugenics, whiteness
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-229985 (URN)10.1080/03468755.2014.948054 (DOI)000344161300003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 80162101
Available from: 2014-08-18 Created: 2014-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Kjellman, U. (2013). A Whiter Shade of Pale: Visuality and race in the work of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology. Scandinavian Journal of History, 38(2), 180-201
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Whiter Shade of Pale: Visuality and race in the work of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology
2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 180-201Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 1922 the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology (SIRB) was founded in Uppsala, with the purpose being to survey and classify the Swedish people according to their race. To make this categorization, both measurements and visual analysis of bodies and faces were used and documented in charts and photographs. The data collected was then intended to make a foundation for a rational population policy aiming at improving the Nordic (Swedish) race. The charts registering body characteristics, the photographic collection brought together by the institute, and the images illustrating the published results all testify to the importance of visuality in this eugenic project: how people looked was crucial when classifying them into different race types. In this study the works of the institute are analysed to see in what way race was constructed through this visuality. The results show how the institute followed a scientific and pictorial rhetoric founded centuries earlier, in which the human species was organized in different subgroups according to their visual appearance. The results also show how race, with time, became more and more differentiated and that white, in the work of the SIRB, came in many shades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
National Category
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198487 (URN)10.1080/03468755.2013.769458 (DOI)000318150000003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2013-04-15 Created: 2013-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Kjellman, U., Dahlström, M. & Hansson, J. (2012). "As We May Digitize’ — Institutions and Documents Reconfigured". Liber quarterly: the journal of European research libraries, 21(3/4)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"As We May Digitize’ — Institutions and Documents Reconfigured"
2012 (English)In: Liber quarterly: the journal of European research libraries, ISSN 1435-5205, E-ISSN 2213-056X, Vol. 21, no 3/4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Other Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180075 (URN)
Available from: 2012-08-29 Created: 2012-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Kjellman, U. (2009). Digitalisering som standardisering: Verktyg i konciperingen av kulturarv. In: Niels D. Lund (Ed.), Digital formidling af kulturarv: Fra samling til sampling (pp. 219-237). Köpenhamn: Multivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digitalisering som standardisering: Verktyg i konciperingen av kulturarv
2009 (Swedish)In: Digital formidling af kulturarv: Fra samling til sampling / [ed] Niels D. Lund, Köpenhamn: Multivers, 2009, p. 219-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Köpenhamn: Multivers, 2009
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109780 (URN)978-87-7917-266-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2009-10-26 Created: 2009-10-26 Last updated: 2012-08-30Bibliographically approved
Kjellman, U., Hansson, J. & Dahlström, M. (2009). Documents reconstructed: digitization and institutional practice as mediation. Paper presented at DOCAM '09, March 28-29 2009 in Madison Wisconsin, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Documents reconstructed: digitization and institutional practice as mediation
2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Other Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109779 (URN)
Conference
DOCAM '09, March 28-29 2009 in Madison Wisconsin, USA
Available from: 2009-10-26 Created: 2009-10-26 Last updated: 2012-08-30Bibliographically approved
Kjellman, U. (2008). Visual knowledge organization: towards an international standard or local institutional practice. In: Proceedings of the International Society for Knowledge Organization 12: Advances in knowledge organization.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual knowledge organization: towards an international standard or local institutional practice
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Society for Knowledge Organization 12: Advances in knowledge organization, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keyword
picture indexing, visual culture
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99246 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2012-08-29
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