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Edqvist, E.
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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Edqvist, E., Hedlund, E. & Lundberg, B. (2010). Quasi-static and dynamic electromechanical response of piezoelectric multilayer cantilever beams. Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, 157(2), 198-209
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quasi-static and dynamic electromechanical response of piezoelectric multilayer cantilever beams
2010 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 157, no 2, p. 198-209Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Piezoelectric multilayer cantilever beams were considered with the aim to establish a simple but general theoretical model, fabricate such beams by a procedure suitable for devices on millimetre scale such as actuators, and study their quasi-static and dynamic electro-mechanical responses. In addition to Euler-Bernoulli assumptions, the beams were assumed to be lossless and have linear piezoelectric response. Four types of beams of nominal length 10 mm, width 2 mm and thickness either 55 or 86 µm, and with two asymmetric configurations of 14 or 15 layers, were fabricated. From top to bottom, each beam consisted of six aluminium electrode layers alternating with five active P(VDF-TrFE) layers, of one passive such layer, and of one polyimide and one copper layer, or vice versa. The thicknesses of the layers and of the beam were determined by use of focused ion beam, scanning electron microscope, light microscope, and Heidenhain probe. Both theoretical and experimental results for resonance frequencies and transverse tip displacement per unit driving voltage showed fair overall agreement from quasi-static conditions to frequencies above the second resonance frequency. Deviations observed are mainly due to variations resulting from the manufacturing process, to nonlinear piezoelectricity and to the presence of losses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010
Keywords
Cantilever, multilayer, piezoelectric, quasi-static, dynamic, tip deflection, PVDF-TrFE.
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108496 (URN)10.1016/j.sna.2009.11.013 (DOI)000274979300004 ()
Available from: 2009-09-20 Created: 2009-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, J., Edqvist, E., Kratz, H., Almqvist, M. & Thornell, G. (2010). Simulation, manufacturing, and evaluation of a sonar for a miniaturized submersible explorer. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 57(2), 490-495
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation, manufacturing, and evaluation of a sonar for a miniaturized submersible explorer
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2010 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, ISSN 0885-3010, E-ISSN 1525-8955, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 490-495Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single-beam side-scan sonar elements, to be fitted on a miniaturized submersible, are here simulated, manufactured, and evaluated. Finite element analysis simulations are compared with measurements, and an overall observation is that the agreement between simulations and measurements deviates from the measured values of 1.5 to 2°, for the narrow lobe angle, by less than 10% for most models. An overall finding is that the lobe width along the track direction can be accurately simulated and, hence, the resolution of the sonars can be predicted. This paper presents, to the authors’ knowledge, the world’s smallest side-scan sonars.

Keywords
Sonar, beam width, acoustic imaging
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121440 (URN)10.1109/TUFFC.2010.1429 (DOI)000274817300023 ()
Projects
Deeper Access, Deeper Understanding (DADU)
Note

This article is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, this work may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

Available from: 2010-03-23 Created: 2010-03-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Hedlund, E., Westerberg, L., Malyshev, O. B., Edqvist, E., Leandersson, M., Kollmus, H., . . . Krasnov, A. (2009). Ar ion induced desorption yields at the energies 5-17.7 MeV/u. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 599(1), 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ar ion induced desorption yields at the energies 5-17.7 MeV/u
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2009 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 599, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Particle accelerators have, during operation with heavy ion beams, shown a significant pressure rise when the intensity of the beam is increased. This pressure rise is due to ion induced desorption, which is the result of beam ions colliding with residual gas atoms in the beam pipe, where they undergo charge exchange. This causes them to hit the vacuum chamber after the next dipole magnet and gas to be released. For the upgrade of the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI the intensity has to be a few orders of magnitude higher than it is today at the injection energy of 10 MeV/u. The aim of this experiment is to measure desorption yields, η, (released molecules per incident ion) from materials commonly used in accelerators: 316LN stainless steel, Cu, etched Cu, gold coated Cu and Ta, using an Ar beam at impact energies in the range of 5–17.7 MeV/u for perpendicular incidence. The measured initial desorption yields vary for the same material from sample to sample: up to 4.5 times for stainless steel and up to 3 times for etched Cu. Therefore more samples should be studied to have better statistics. Beam conditioning at lower energy does not significantly reduce the desorption yield at higher energy. There is a significant difference of up to a few times in desorption yield between flat and tubular samples. The desorption yield from a Cu sample at grazing incident angle of 125 mrad was an order of magnitude larger than at normal incident angle. It was found that the total number of positively and negatively charged secondary particles, emitted from the surface bombarded with heavy ions, does not exceed 40 secondary particles per impact heavy ion. The current of negatively charged particles was about 2.3 times larger than the current for positively charged particles. The impact from secondary particles on dynamic gas pressure was not possible to investigate.

Keywords
Ultra high vacuum, Heavy ion induced desorption, Heavy ion accelerators
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97075 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2008.09.052 (DOI)000263205100001 ()
Available from: 2008-04-18 Created: 2008-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Edqvist, E. & Hedlund, E. (2009). Design and manufacturing considerations of low voltage multilayer P(VDF-TrFE) actuators. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 19(11), 115019
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and manufacturing considerations of low voltage multilayer P(VDF-TrFE) actuators
2009 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 115019-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An actuator unit consisting of three multilayered cantilevers with poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) on top of a flexible printed circuit board substrate is presented. The multilayer structure has five active polymer layers and six electrodes with an alternating ground and phase configuration. Different aspects regarding processing and deflection advantages, depending on which side of the substrate the multilayer structure is manufactured, are discussed.  One of the cantilever configurations is dynamically modelled using a finite element software and the results are compared to measured values. Because of the combination of a multilayer design and the resonant driving mode, the actuators could be powered by solar cells or used in portable electronics. A 2 V sine wave signal resulted in a tip deflection of 56 μm. To test the unit as a conveyer, speed measurements were conducted. With a 2.5 V square wave signal the speed was 29 µm/s whereas a 8 V signal resulted in 732 µm/s. Motion in all four directions could be confirmed by tuning the frequency of a 10 V square wave signal from 640 Hz to 740 Hz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing, 2009
Keywords
Multilayer, actuator, cantilever, PVDF-TrFE, low voltage, resonating structure
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108484 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/19/11/115019 (DOI)000270967800020 ()
Available from: 2009-09-20 Created: 2009-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Arbat, A., Edqvist, E., Casanova Mohr, R., Brufau, J., Canals, J., Samitier, J., . . . Dieguez, A. (2009). Design and validation of the control circuits for a micro-cantilever tool for a micro-robot. Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, 153(1), 76-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and validation of the control circuits for a micro-cantilever tool for a micro-robot
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2009 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 153, no 1, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper is to present the design and validation of a cantilever-based contact sensing system for a micro-robot. Key elements of the fabrication process of the sensor and the electrical model extraction used to design the control electronics are described. The architecture used for the sensor corresponds to a micro-cantilever fabricated of piezoelectric-polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene stacked in a multilayer structure with the possibility of both actuating and sensing. A lumped electro mechanical equivalent model of the micro-cantilever was used to design the control electronics for the cantilever. A driving signal from, the control system is used to vibrate the cantilever at its first mechanical resonance frequency. The control system contains an analog front-end to measure the sensor output signal and a digital control unit designed to track and keep the resonance frequency of the cantilever. By integrating the cantilever control system is integrated in the application specified integrated circuit used to control of the circuit is simplyfied and very compact. Experimental results show a similar behavior between the electrical model and the fabricated system, and the deviations between the model and the measured structure are analyzed. The results also show that the designed control system is capable to detect the resonance frequency of the system and to actuate despite small deviations in process parameters of different batches of cantilevers. The whole system was designed to be integrated into an autonomous micro-robot, although it can be used in other applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
P.O. Box 211, Amsterdam, 1000 AE, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2009
Keywords
Vibrating cantilever, Multilayer PVDF-TrFE sensor, Control electronics, Interface circuits
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108493 (URN)10.1016/j.sna.2009.04.030 (DOI)000267646600012 ()09244247 (ISBN)
Note

Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. 20092412122278 Analog front-end Contact sensing Control circuits Control electronics Digital control units Driving signal Electrical models Electro-mechanical Equivalent model Fabricated system Fabrication process In-process parameters Interface circuits Key elements Mechanical resonance frequency Micro robots Micro-cantilever Multilayer structures Other applications Polyvinylidene fluorides Resonance frequencies Sensor output Trifluoroethylene Vibrating cantilever Whole systems

Available from: 2009-09-20 Created: 2009-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Kollmus, H., Krämer, A., Bender, M., Bellachioma, M. C., Reich-Sprenger, H., Mahner, E., . . . Edqvist, E. (2009). Energy Scaling of the Ion-Induced Desorption Yield for Perpendicular Collisions of Ar and U with Stainless Steel in the Energy Range between 5 and 100 MeV/u. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 27(2), 245-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Scaling of the Ion-Induced Desorption Yield for Perpendicular Collisions of Ar and U with Stainless Steel in the Energy Range between 5 and 100 MeV/u
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 245-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the GSI future project Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research a beam intensity of 10(12)U(28+)ions/s is planned to be extracted from the GSI heavy ion synchrotron SIS18. Measurements performed in 2001 showed that the beam lifetime of the ions in the synchrotron is decreasing with increasing number of injected particles due to vacuum   instabilities caused by ion-induced desorption. The injection energy for the SIS18 is about 10 MeV/u and U28+ ions are accelerated to 200 MeV/u limited by the magnetic rigidity for the low charge state. The aim of this work was to measure the desorption yield as a function of   the impact energy from injection to extraction of SIS18 at GSI. Low energy yields at 5.0, 9.7, and 17.7 MeV/u were measured at the Cyclotron of The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. High energy yields at 40, 80, and 100 MeV/u were measured at SIS18 of GSI in a different   setup. It was found that the desorption yield scales with the electronic energy loss (dE/dx)(el)(n), with n between 2 and 3, decreasing for increasing impact energy above the Bragg maximum.

National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97076 (URN)10.1116/1.3065979 (DOI)000264017500012 ()
Available from: 2008-04-18 Created: 2008-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Edqvist, E., Snis, N., Casanova Mohr, R., Scholz, O., Corradi, P., Gao, J., . . . Johansson, S. (2009). Evaluation of building technology for mass producible millimetre-sized robots using flexible printed circuit boards. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 19(7), 11pp
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of building technology for mass producible millimetre-sized robots using flexible printed circuit boards
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 11pp-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Initial tests of a building technology for a compact three-dimensional mass produciblemicrorobot are presented. The 3.9 × 3.9 × 3.3 mm3 sized prototype robot represents amicrosystem with actuators, sensors, energy management and integrated electronics. Theweight of a folded robot is 65 mg and the total volume is less than 23 mm3. The design of theinterfaces of the different modules in the robot, as well as the building technology, isdescribed. The modules are assembled using conductive adhesive with industrial surfacemounting technology on a thin double-sided flexible printed circuit board. The final shape ofthe microrobots is achieved by folding the flexible printed circuit board twice. Electrical andmechanical studies are performed to evaluate the assembly and it is concluded that thetechnology can be used for this type of microsystem. Several issues using the presentedassembly technique are identified and addressed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing, 2009
Keywords
microrobot surface mounting technologies microsystem autonomous flexible printed circuit boards
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108482 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/19/7/075011 (DOI)000267516800034 ()
Projects
I-SWARM
Available from: 2009-09-20 Created: 2009-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, J., Edqvist, E., Kratz, H., Almqvist, M. & Thornell, G. (2009). Simulation and Evaluation of Small High-Frequency Side Scan Sonars Using COMSOL. In: COMSOL Conference 2009 Milan: . Paper presented at COMSOL Conference 2009 Milan.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation and Evaluation of Small High-Frequency Side Scan Sonars Using COMSOL
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2009 (English)In: COMSOL Conference 2009 Milan, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

High frequency side-scan sonar, to be fitted on a miniaturized submersible explorer, have been simulated and built. The purpose of this study is to see if COMSOL Multiphysics can be used to predict the performance of the sonar, especially the beam width, setting the resolution of the system. Four models were created, from simple 2-D geometries to more complex 3-D models. The simulated beam widths were compared with measurements to see which of the models agreed best. It was found that all models agree with the experimental results to varying degrees, and mostly with a difference of less than 6%. . It was found that the simplest model agreed best with the measurements, closely followed by the most complex model. Also taking the computational load into consideration the simpler model might then be a better choice to use.

Keywords
Sonar, beam width, acoustic imaging
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120403 (URN)
Conference
COMSOL Conference 2009 Milan
Projects
Deeper Access, Deeper Understanding (DADU)
Available from: 2010-03-11 Created: 2010-03-11 Last updated: 2016-04-14Bibliographically approved
Nguyen, H., Jonsson, J., Edqvist, E., Sundqvist, J., Kratz, H. & Thornell, G. (2008). A heavily miniaturized submersible: a terrestrial kickoff. In: Proceedings of ASTRA 2008: . Paper presented at ASTRA 2008, 10th Workshop on Advanced Space Technologies for Robotics and Automation, 11-14 November 2008, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (pp. 1-9).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A heavily miniaturized submersible: a terrestrial kickoff
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2008 (English)In: Proceedings of ASTRA 2008, 2008, p. 1-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The vision of exploring extraterrestrial water findings employing a remotely operated submersible, as proposed by JPL/NASA for the investigation of the possible ocean underneath the frozen crust of Jupiter’s moon Europa, is now taking a step further into fulfilment. The Ångström Space Technology Centre has developed a sophisticated vehicle concept based on microtechnology for most of the navigational systems and payload systems. This enables a high function density, and a compact vehicle with a diameter of 50 mm and length of 200 mm, i.e. an overall size allowing the vehicle to be deployed through a borehole like that typical for arctic drilling.

Here, the system architecture of the vehicle complying with the requirements on manoeuvrability, operational functions, and mission objectives is presented. In short, the vehicle in the first version will operate in deep and narrow waters, and will be equipped with a camera, sonar imaging system, an electronic tongue for chemical sampling, and a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensor. Although the vehicle will be given certain autonomy in later versions, the first edition will rely on remote manual guidance. Commands for this, as well as power download, and data upload will be communicated through an optic fibre.

The objective of this contribution is to present, for the first time, the status of the project including, briefly, the first results from miniaturized sonar, the vehicle bus design, and the design, realization and testing of the propulsion and attitude control systems differing in manoeuvrability, weight/volume, redundancy and efficiency.

National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120365 (URN)
Conference
ASTRA 2008, 10th Workshop on Advanced Space Technologies for Robotics and Automation, 11-14 November 2008, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Available from: 2010-03-12 Created: 2010-03-11 Last updated: 2016-04-13Bibliographically approved
Hedlund, E., Westerberg, L., Malyshev, O. B., Leandersson, M., Fridén, C.-J., Edqvist, E., . . . Krasnov, A. (2008). A new test stand for heavy ion induced gas desorption measurements at TSL. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 586(3), 377-381
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new test stand for heavy ion induced gas desorption measurements at TSL
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2008 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 586, no 3, p. 377-381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In several experiments at CERN, GSI and BNL it has been found that the lifetime of highly energetic heavy ions in synchrotrons decreases with increasing number of injected ions. This phenomenon occurs due to the collisions of beam ions and residual gas molecules leading to the change of charge of the ions and their loss on the vacuum chamber walls, which in turn cause ion-induced gas desorption and further pressure increase. To gain a deeper understanding of the ion-induced desorption process in the energy range 5-45 MeV/u, a dedicated test stand was built at the end of the K beamline at The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, Sweden. The energy range was chosen due to the fact that the injection energy of the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI will be 10 MeV/u, and that there are insufficient data in this energy range. A Test Particle Monte-Carlo model of the experimental set-up was build-up, run and analysed for different sample configurations. An important result is that for the same sample material the desorption yield from a flat sample causes a 1.58 times larger pressure increase than that of a tubular sample. A detailed explanation of the set-up is presented.

Keywords
ultrahigh vacuum, heavy-ion-induced desorption, test particles Monte-Carlo
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97074 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2007.12.020 (DOI)000253960800001 ()
Available from: 2008-04-18 Created: 2008-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
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