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Jahani, Carina
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Publications (10 of 52) Show all publications
Jaháni, K. & Balóch, A. (2016). Chokkán gón pásé. Uppsala: Uppsala University.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chokkán gón pásé
2016 (Baluchi)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2016. 128 p.
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Iranian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-287484 (URN)978-91-506-2652-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Ghomeshi, J., Jahani, C. & Lenepveu-Hotz, A. (Eds.). (2016). FURTHER TOPICS IN IRANIAN LINGUISTICS: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on iranian linguistics, held in Bamberg on 24-26 august 2013. Paper presented at 5th international conference on iranian linguistics, held in Bamberg on 24-26 august 2013.. Paris: ASSOCIATION POUR L’AVANCEMENT DES ÉTUDES IRANIENNES.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FURTHER TOPICS IN IRANIAN LINGUISTICS: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on iranian linguistics, held in Bamberg on 24-26 august 2013
2016 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The papers in this volume were presented at the Fifth International Conference on Iranian Linguistics (ICIL5), held 24–26 August 2013 at the Otto Friedrich University, Bamberg, Germany. The conference was organized by Geoffrey Haig, Otto-Friedrich University, Bamberg; Carina Jahani, Uppsala University; Agnes Korn, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main; and Pollet Samvelian, Université Paris III, Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris. It involved more than 50 registered participants, 33 oral presentations, and eight poster presentations, as well as keynote speeches by Bernard Comrie (Max-Planck-Institut, Leipzig) and Éva Jeremiás (Eötvös Lorand University, Budapest). This biennial conference, first held in 2005, attracts international scholars with diverse backgrounds and theoretical outlooks who come to share their current research on Iranian languages past and present. It was first held in Leipzig and thereafter in Hamburg, Paris, Uppsala and Bamberg. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paris: ASSOCIATION POUR L’AVANCEMENT DES ÉTUDES IRANIENNES, 2016
Series
Cahiers, Studia Iranica, ISSN 0993 - 8699 ; 58
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Iranian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277752 (URN)
Conference
5th international conference on iranian linguistics, held in Bamberg on 24-26 august 2013.
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Jahani, C. (2015). Complex predicates and the issue of transitivity: The case of Southern Balochi. In: Iván Szántó (Ed.), From Aṣl to Zā’id: Essays in Honour of Éva M. Jeremiás (pp. 79-105). Piliscsaba: The Avicenna Institute of Middle Eastern Studies.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complex predicates and the issue of transitivity: The case of Southern Balochi
2015 (English)In: From Aṣl to Zā’id: Essays in Honour of Éva M. Jeremiás / [ed] Iván Szántó, Piliscsaba: The Avicenna Institute of Middle Eastern Studies , 2015, 79-105 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Complex predicates (CPs) are very common in many Iranian languages. However, the source of transitivity of CPs in these languages is, according to previous studies, somewhat uncertain. In some cases the transitivity of the light verb (LV) is found to determine the transitivity of the CP, whereas in other cases it depends on the semantic transitivity of the whole CP. In Southern Balochi (SB), as well as in several other Iranian languages, where ergative alignment is found with transitive (tr.) predicates formed with the past stem, and accusative alignment with intransitive (itr.) predicates formed with the past stem, as well as with all predicates formed with the non-past (present–future) stem, the transitivity of a CP is evident from the alignment.

     The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the transitivity of the LV in determining the transitivity of a CP. The investigation is based on a corpus consisting of six texts and on interviews with three speakers of SB. The study shows that the transitivity of CPs is generally determined by the syntactic transitivity of the LV rather than the semantic transitivity of the whole CP. There is, however, one exception to this rule, namely the LV girag ‘to get’, which occurs with accusative alignment in semantically itr. CPs. A reasonable explanation of the fact that this verb appears at first sight to break the alignment rule is that it is an ambitransitive verb. Assuming it is, we can conclude that syntactic transitivity always takes supremacy over semantic transitivity in SB, a rule that applies both to CPs and to periphrastic verb constructions.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piliscsaba: The Avicenna Institute of Middle Eastern Studies, 2015
Series
Acta et Studia, ISSN 1785-0894 ; 13
Keyword
complex predicates, transitivity, ergativity, Iranian languages, Balochi
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Iranian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-254156 (URN)978-615-5343-03-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-08-27 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Jahani, C. & Korn, A. (2015). Grammaticalisation in the verb system in Iranian languages. In: : . Paper presented at Symposium „Grammaticalization“ “Areal patterns of grammaticalization and cross-linguistic variation in grammaticalization scenarios”. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grammaticalisation in the verb system in Iranian languages
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Iranian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-278163 (URN)
Conference
Symposium „Grammaticalization“ “Areal patterns of grammaticalization and cross-linguistic variation in grammaticalization scenarios”
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Jahani, C., Anonby, E. & Nourzaei, M. (2015). Korosh. Encyclopædia Iranica.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Korosh
2015 (English)In: Encyclopædia IranicaArticle, review/survey (Refereed) Published
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Iranian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279675 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-02 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Nourzaei, M., Jahani, C., Anonby, E. & Ahangar, A. A. (2015). Koroshi: A Corpus-based Grammatical Description. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Koroshi: A Corpus-based Grammatical Description
2015 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Korosh people are scattered across large areas of southern Iran, from Hormozgan all the way to Khuzestan, and onto the Iranian plateau. This group, which numbers over 10,000 people, is found in significant concentrations near Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan Province, in north-western Fars Province around Shiraz, and across the southern part of Fars Province. 

Although oral accounts situate the provenance of the Korosh in Balochistan, and their language is closely related to southern varieties of Balochi, they have a distinct identity. Some affirm a historical and ethnic connection to the Baloch, but others view themselves as an autonomous tribe; in north-western Fars Province, members of the group maintain an affiliation with the larger Qašqā’i tribal confederacy.

The present work contributes to the study of the Korosh through the lens of their language, Koroshi. The corpus for this study has been gathered among speakers of the dialect of Koroshi spoken around Shiraz. The book opens with a brief overview of the Korosh people and their culture. The main part of the study consists of an in-depth, corpus-based description of the phonology and morphosyntax of the Koroshi language; a corpus of seven glossed and translated texts of different genres; and a glossary of more than 1200 items. This documentation is supplemented with a CD containing soundfiles of the texts, a searchable PDF of the book, and images of the Koroshi community.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 315 p.
Series
Studia Iranica Upsaliensia, ISSN 1100-326X ; 13
Keyword
Koroshi, Balochi, Iranian languages, language documentation, corpus linguistics, oral narratives, Koroshi, Balochi, langues iraniennes, documentation linguistique, linguistique de corpus, récits oraux, Koroshi, Balochiska, Iranska språk, språkdokumentation, korpuslingvistik, muntliga berättelser
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Iranian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252421 (URN)978-91-554-9267-0 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-05-06 Created: 2015-05-06 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Jahani, C. (2015). On the Definite Marker in Modern Spoken Persian. In: : . Paper presented at International Conference on Iranian Linguistics, 6, Tbilisi. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Definite Marker in Modern Spoken Persian
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Definiteness as a grammatical category has been discussed in theoretical linguistics both from a philosophical and a discourse pragmatic point of view. One definition of definiteness is that it has to do with whether it is assumed that the addressee is acquainted with the referent of the NP or not (Abbott 2006: 393). Definite NPs can either refer to something previously introduced in the discourse or to something that the speaker assumes that the addressee knows already.

            In many languages, both definite and indefinite nouns are marked (e.g. English, French), in other languages only the definite noun is marked (Irish Gaelic) and in yet others, only the indefinite noun is marked (Turkish). Some languages neither mark definiteness nor indefiniteness on the noun (e.g. Russian) (Abbott 2006:398). Markers for indefiniteness often originate from the numeral ‘one’ and can either occur as indefinite articles (e.g. Swedish en/ett) or indefinite suffixes/clitics (e.g. Balochi =ē). As for markers for definiteness, they are often derived from demonstratives (e.g. Romance languages) (Lyons 1999: 331‒334).

            Modern Written Persian (MWP), as well as Classical Persian (CP) is a language that marks indefiniteness, or rather individuation (see e.g. Korn 2009: 75), with the clitic (CP , Middle Persian ēw ‘one’). There is no dedicated marker for definiteness in CP or MWP. On the contrary, there is a marker for definiteness -e (after C) and –he (after V)  in Modern Spoken Persian (MSP). This –e/-he carries stress. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of this marker and discuss whether it should be regarded as a suffix or as a clitic. In this study, I investigate the use of -e to mark definiteness in MSP in five Persian films and by means of interviews with five L1 Persian speakers.

            Windfuhr and Perry (2009: 432) describes this marker as having “referential function to a person or an item” mentioned earlier in the discourse. Lazard (1992: 73­‒74) also describes this definiteness marker and notes that it is optionally used “better to mark definiteness”. This study, too, shows that the marking of definiteness is by no means obligatory in MSP. Inherently definite nouns (where there is only one possible referent) never take -e, such as ‘the sun, the moon, the world’. For other nouns in the singular, the -e is optionally present. Before the direct object clitic =ro it is realized as -a. There is no marking of definiteness in the plural.

The definite marker -e can be added to a noun phrase consisting of a noun plus an adjective, in which case the ezāfe which normally connects the adjective to the noun is dropped and the noun+adjective is compounded with only one word stress. The fact that the marker is added to the adjective could be the starting point in the grammaticalization of -e as a clitic rather than a suffix, but since the noun+adjective is re-shaped into a unit with only one word stress (on the definite marker) it seems at this point more correct to regard the -e as a suffix that attaches only to nouns.

A finding in Koroshi Balochi texts may be the key to the etymology of the definite suffix in Persian. In Koroshi the originally diminutive suffix -ok carrying stress is optionally used to mark a definite noun (see Jahani and Nourzaei 2011 where the whole text is published).

I therefore argue that the diminutive suffix in Persian, -ak, is a likely candidate for the origin of the -e suffix. The diminutive suffix carries stress, like the -e suffix, and a reduction of -ak > -a > -e in MSP is not hard to envisage. It may be interesting to note that the definite marker -aka in Sorani Kurdish is likewise stressed (on the final syllable) (Thackston, p. 9), and so is the definite marker -eke / -e in Bakhtiari (Anonby and Asadi 2014: 67). Also in these languages, the definiteness marker is likely to be a diminutive suffix that has taken on the grammatical role of marking definiteness.

 

References:

Anonby, Erik and Asadi, Ashraf (2014). Bakhtiari Studies. Phonology, Text, Lexicon (Studia Iranica Upsaliensia 24). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

Abbott, B. (2006). “Definite and Indefinite”. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics. Amsterdam and Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 392–398. ‪

Jahani, Carina, and Maryam Nourzaei (2011). “A Folktale in Koroshi Dedicated to Joy Edelman”. In: Leksika, ėtimologiya, yazykovye kontakty. K yubileyu doktora filologičeskix nauk professor Džoy Yosifovny Ėdel’man [Lexicon, etymology, linguistic contacts. For the birthday of Professor Joy Yosifovna Edelman, doctor of philosophy], ed. L.R. Dodyxudoeva, S. R. Vinogradova, and A. S. Bayandur, A. S. Moscow: Akademiya Nauk,  pp. 62‒70

Korn, Agnes (2009). “The Ergative System in Balochi from a Typological Perspective”. Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies 1:1, 43–79.

Lazard, Gilbert (1992). A Grammar of Contemporary Persian. Transl. into English by Shirley A. Lyon. Costa Mesa and New York: Mazda Publishers.

Lyons, Christopher (1999). Definiteness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thackston, W.M. Sorani Kurdish. A Reference Grammar with selected readings. Online at: http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~iranian/Sorani/sorani_1_grammar.pdf (retrieved 9 Nov. 2014)

Windfuhr, Gernot and Perry John R. (2009). “Persian and Tajik”. In: The Iranian Languages, ed. G. Windfuhr, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 416‒544.

National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Iranian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277740 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Iranian Linguistics, 6, Tbilisi
Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Seraji, M., Jahani, C., Megyesi, B. & Nivre, J. (2014). A Persian Treebank with Stanford Typed Dependencies. In: Proceedings of Language Resources and Evaluation: . Paper presented at The 9th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), 2014, 26-31 May, Reykjavik, Iceland (pp. 796-801). .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Persian Treebank with Stanford Typed Dependencies
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of Language Resources and Evaluation, 2014, 796-801 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the Uppsala Persian Dependency Treebank (UPDT) with a syntactic annotation scheme based on Stanford Typed Dependencies.

The treebank consists of 6,000 sentences and 151,671 tokens with an average sentence length of 25 words. The data is from different genres, including newspaper articles and fiction, as well as technical descriptions and texts about culture and art, taken from the open source Uppsala Persian Corpus (UPC). The syntactic annotation scheme is extended for Persian to include all syntactic relations that could not be covered by the primary scheme developed for English. In addition, we present open source tools for automatic analysis of Persian containing a text normalizer, a sentence segmenter and tokenizer, a part-of-speech tagger, and a parser. The treebank and the parser have been developed simultaneously in a bootstrapping procedure. The result of a parsing experiment shows an overall labeled attachment score of 82.05% and an unlabeled attachment score of 85.29%. The treebank is freely available as an open source resource.

Keyword
treebank, Persian, Stanford Typed Dependencies
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Research subject
Computational Linguistics; Iranian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-239450 (URN)000355611002062 ()978-2-9517408-8-4 (ISBN)
Conference
The 9th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), 2014, 26-31 May, Reykjavik, Iceland
Available from: 2014-12-26 Created: 2014-12-26 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Jahani, C. (2014). Complex Predicates and the Issue of Transitivity: The case of Southern Balochi. In: : . Paper presented at Syntax of the World's Languages, Pavia, Italy. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complex Predicates and the Issue of Transitivity: The case of Southern Balochi
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Complex predicates (CPs) are very common in many Iranian languages. However, the source of transitivity of CPs in these languages is, according to previous studies, somewhat uncertain. In some cases the transitivity of the light verb (LV) is found to determine the transitivity of the CP, whereas in other cases it depends on the semantic transitivity of the whole CP. In Southern Balochi (SB), as well as in several other Iranian languages, where ergative alignment is found with transitive (tr.) predicates formed with the past stem, and accusative alignment with intransitive (itr.) predicates formed with the past stem, as well as with all predicates formed with the non-past (present–future) stem, the transitivity of a CP is evident from the alignment.

Haig (2008: 11–12) discusses the transitivity of CPs and notes that not only in Balochi, but also in Northern Kurdish and Vafsi, semantically itr. CPs can trigger ergative case marking. He also makes two additional remarks for Iranian languages, namely that ―there are examples of etymologically tr. verbs shifting class under semantic pressure‖ and that ―there are interesting interactions between main verbs and auxiliaries‖.

The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the impact of the transitivity of the LV in determining the transitivity of a CP. The investigation is based on a corpus consisting of six texts and on interviews with three speakers of SB. The study shows that the transitivity of CPs is generally determined by the syntactic transitivity of the LV rather than the semantic transitivity of the whole CP. There is, however, one exception to this rule, namely the LV girag ‘to get‘, which occurs with accusative alignment in semantically itr. CPs.

Farrell (2003: 199) proposes that the unexpected accusative alignment in the past temporal domain for a CP with a tr. LV in SB could reflect the alignment of this CP in Urdu (i.e. when Urdu forms the corresponding CP with an itr. LV). However, there is only one verb, at least in the present corpus, that breaks the alignment rule, and it does so not only in dialects of SB spoken in Pakistan, e.g. Karachi Balochi, the dialect described by Farrell, but also in dialects spoken in Iran, which are hardly influenced by Urdu syntax at all. Two of the persons I interviewed are from Iran, and they both rule out ergative alignment for semantically itr. CPs involving the LV girag ‘to get‘.

A more reasonable explanation of the fact that girag ‘to get‘ appears at first sight to break the alignment rule, is that it is an ambitransitive verb. Assuming it is, we can conclude that syntactic transitivity always takes supremacy over semantic transitivity in SB, a rule that applies both to CPs and to periphrastic verb constructions.

At the end, I compare alignment of CPs a) in SB and Kurdish (a closely related Iranian language) b) in SB and Urdu (a language that SB is in close contact with, particularly in Pakistan).

References

Farrell, Tim 1995. Fading Ergativity? A Study of Ergativity in Balochi‖. In: Bennett, David C., Bynon, Theodora, and Hewitt, B. George (eds), Subject, Voice and Ergativity. Selected Essays. London: SOAS, 218–243.

Farrell, Tim 2003. Linguistic Influences on the Balochi Spoken in Karachi‖. In: Jahani, Carina, and Korn, Agnes (eds), The Baloch and Their Neighbours. Ethnic and Linguistic Contact in Balochistan in Historical and Modern Times. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 169–210.

Haig, Geoffrey L. J. 2008. Alignment Change in Iranian Languages. A Construction Grammar Approach [Empirical Approaches to Language Typology, 37]. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Korn, Agnes 2009. The Ergative System in Balochi from a Typological Perspective‖. Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies 1:1, 43–79.

National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Iranian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277739 (URN)
Conference
Syntax of the World's Languages, Pavia, Italy
Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Dahlén, A. & Jahani, C. (Eds.). (2014). Iran 4 000 år av historia, konst, religion, litteratur och språk. Paper presented at Kungl. Vitterhetsakademien och Medelhavsmuseet, endagskonferens om iranistiken i Sverige, november 2010.. Uppsala: Uppsala universitet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iran 4 000 år av historia, konst, religion, litteratur och språk
2014 (Swedish)Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Kungl. Vitterhetsakademien anordnade i november 2010, tillsammans med Medelhavsmuseet, en endagskonferens om iranistiken i Sverige. Konferenspresentationerna utgör de tretton bidragen i denna bok.

Boken är indelad i fyra olika avdelningar: “Tillbaka till rötterna, om konst, musik och arkeologi i Iran” där Bo Lawergren, Karin Ådahl, Kristian Göransson och Mehrdad Fallahzadeh presenterar sin forskning inom konst, musik och arkeologi. I den andra avdelningen, “Stat och religion, glimtar ur den iranska historien”, återfinns artiklar om Irans historia och religioner av Ashk Dahlén, Anders Hultgård och David Thurfjell. Avdelning nummer tre, “Litteraturen i tiden, forskning kring iranska litteraturer”, innehåller bidrag om persisk, kurdisk och pashtunsk litteratur av Bo Utas, Farhad Shakely och Anders Widmark. Till den fjärde avdelningen, “Iranska språk förr och nu, några axplock från ett forskningsfält”, bidrar Judith Josephson, Helena Bani-Shoraka och Carina Jahani med grammatiska studier samt en diskussion av sociolingvistiska forskningsmetoder.

Iranistiken rör sig inte bara inom dagens geografiska och politiska stat Iran, utan inom hela det gamla Stor-Iran med dess långa historia, dess religioner, språk och kultur, alltifrån Medelhavet till djupt in i Centralasien. Från och med 1988 finns en professur i ämnet vid Uppsala universitet och svenska Iran-forskare har för första gången fått en organisatorisk och institutionell bas, vilket har bidragit till att det idag bedrivs en livaktig forskning i Sverige kring ämnen med anknytning till Iran.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2014. 186 p.
Series
RAAS. Reports on Asian and African studies, ISSN 1404-0743 ; 4
Keyword
Iranistik, Irans förhistoria och historia, Irans religioner, iransk konst och musik, iranska språk och litteraturer
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
Iranian Languages; Archaeology; History of Art; History of Religions; History; Literature; Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-224308 (URN)978-91-506-2402-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Kungl. Vitterhetsakademien och Medelhavsmuseet, endagskonferens om iranistiken i Sverige, november 2010.
Available from: 2015-08-27 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2016-07-04Bibliographically approved
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