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Bruhn, Jan G.
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Aboye, T. L., Strömstedt, A. A., Gunasekera, S., Bruhn, J. G., El-Seedi, H., Rosengren, K. J. & Göransson, U. (2015). A Cactus-Derived Toxin-Like Cystine Knot Peptide with Selective Antimicrobial Activity. ChemBioChem (Print), 16(7), 1068-1077
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Cactus-Derived Toxin-Like Cystine Knot Peptide with Selective Antimicrobial Activity
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2015 (English)In: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 1068-1077Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Naturally occurring cystine knot peptides show a wide range of biological activity, and as they have inherent stability they represent potential scaffolds for peptide-based drug design and biomolecular engineering. Here we report the discovery, sequencing, chemical synthesis, three-dimensional solution structure determination and bioactivity of the first cystine knot peptide from Cactaceae (cactus) family: Ep-AMP1 from Echinopsis pachanoi. The structure of Ep-AMP1 (35 amino acids) conforms to that of the inhibitor cystine knot (or knottin) family but represents a novel diverse sequence; its activity was more than 500 times higher against bacterial than against eukaryotic cells. Rapid bactericidal action and liposome leakage implicate membrane permeabilisation as the mechanism of action. Sequence homology places Ec-AMP1 in the plant C6-type of antimicrobial peptides, but the three dimensional structure is highly similar to that of a spider neurotoxin.

Keywords
antibiotics, C6-type AMP, Cactaceae, cystine knot, drug discovery, plant antimicrobial peptide
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-253232 (URN)10.1002/cbic.201402704 (DOI)000353502300009 ()25821084 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-22 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Bruhn, J. G., El-Seedi, H. R., Stephanson, N., Beck, O. & Shulgin, A. T. (2008). Ecstasy analogues found in cacti. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 40(2), 219-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecstasy analogues found in cacti
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, ISSN 0279-1072, E-ISSN 2159-9777, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 219-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs."

Keywords
ecstasy, homopiperonylamine, lophophine, lobivine, peyote, San Pedro
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99308 (URN)000257868400015 ()18720674 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Bruhn, J. G. (2003). Scientific reporting of unscientific data: a case of Ginkgo biloba being miscredited. Phytomedicine, 10(4), 358
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scientific reporting of unscientific data: a case of Ginkgo biloba being miscredited
2003 (English)In: Phytomedicine, ISSN 0944-7113, E-ISSN 1618-095X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 358-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2003
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-65228 (URN)12809368 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Bruhn, J. G., De Smet, P. A. G., El-Seedi, H. R. & Beck, O. (2002). Mescaline use for 5700 years. The Lancet, 359(9320), 1866
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mescaline use for 5700 years
2002 (English)In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 359, no 9320, p. 1866-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Archaeological investigations in northeast Mexico and Trans-Pecos, Texas have shown that the use of psychotropic drugs in this region goes back to around 8500 BC. The aboriginal inhabitants of this region used the mescal bean, Sophora secundiflora, and buttons from the peyote cactus, Lophophora williamsii1.

From an archaeological site in Coahuila, Mexico, several peyote buttons were retrieved and radiocarbon-dated to AD 810–1070. Alkaloid analysis revealed the presence of mescaline and four related tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids2. We have, however, analysed two much older samples of peyote buttons. These samples are thought to have been found in Shumla Cave number five on the Rio Grande, TX, USA, and are in the collection of the Witte Museum in San Antonio3. Radiocarbon dating showed a mean age of 5700 years.

Standard alkaloid extraction procedures done on the samples gave residues that were analysed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to identify mescaline in both samples, based on identical retention times and Rf values, and similar mass-to-charge ratios and fragmentation pattern. The detection of mescaline in two different samples, both analysed by two methods based on different principles, is reliable evidence for the presence of this psychotropic drug.

Freshly prepared peyote buttons can contain up to 8% of total alkaloids. The previously studied 1000-year-old sample had a lower content, around 2·25%. In our analysis, alkaloid content had fallen to 2%, and mescaline was the only peyote alkaloid we could identify. There was no trace of any of the other tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids typical for peyote.

Earlier, nicotine and caffeine had been identified in plant remains from a medicine man's tomb in Bolivia, aged 1600 years4. Morphine has been found in a 3500 year old ceramic container from Cyprus5.

From a scientific perspective, the studied peyote material seems to be the oldest plant drug that yielded a major bioactive compound on chemical analysis. From a cultural point of view, our identification of mescaline strengthens the evidence that Native Americans already recognised and valued the psychotropic properties of peyote as long as 5700 years ago.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2002
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-63216 (URN)10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08701-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Bruhn, J. G. & Eneroth, P. (Eds.). (1999). Naturläkemedelsboken 2: fakta och erfarenheter (2., uppdaterade och utök. uppl.ed.). Skärholmen: Boehringer Ingelheim AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Naturläkemedelsboken 2: fakta och erfarenheter
1999 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skärholmen: Boehringer Ingelheim AB, 1999. p. 184 Edition: 2., uppdaterade och utök. uppl.
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-59693 (URN)91-88762-16-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Bruhn, J. G. & Bohlin, L. (1997). Molecular Pharmacognosy: an explanatory model. Drug Discovery Today, 2(6), 243-246
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular Pharmacognosy: an explanatory model
1997 (English)In: Drug Discovery Today, ISSN 1359-6446, E-ISSN 1878-5832, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 243-246Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased interest in the study of natural products as potential drugs and rapidly changing research strategies are driving us to reassess the role of pharmacognosy in the wider context of pharmaceutical research. The authors propose a new definition and an explanatory model of modern pharmacognosy that can be used as a theoretical foundation for future development of this classical branch of the life sciences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 1997
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-50627 (URN)10.1016/S1359-6446(97)01048-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Bruhn, J. G. & Eneroth, P. (Eds.). (1997). Naturläkemedelsboken: fakta och erfarenheter. Skärholmen: Boehringer Ingelheim AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Naturläkemedelsboken: fakta och erfarenheter
1997 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skärholmen: Boehringer Ingelheim AB, 1997. p. 127
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-59690 (URN)91-630-5667-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Bruhn, J. G., Holmstedt, B. & Lindgren, J.-E. (1997). Natéma, la bebida alucinógena de los indígenas jíbaros del Ecuador: un estudio etnofarmacológico de la colección Rafaél Karsten de 1917. In: Rafaél Karsten: Observador y teórico. Quito: Abya Yala/UPS Publicaciones
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natéma, la bebida alucinógena de los indígenas jíbaros del Ecuador: un estudio etnofarmacológico de la colección Rafaél Karsten de 1917
1997 (Spanish; Castilian)In: Rafaél Karsten: Observador y teórico, Quito: Abya Yala/UPS Publicaciones , 1997Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Quito: Abya Yala/UPS Publicaciones, 1997
Series
Biblioteca Abya-Yala
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-63924 (URN)
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Bruhn, J. G., Holmstedt, B. & Lindgren, J.-E. (1995). Natema, the hallucinogenic drink of the Jivaro indians of Ecuador: an Ethnopharmacological Study of Rafael Karsten's Collection from 1917. ACTA AMERICANA, 3(2), 161-180
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natema, the hallucinogenic drink of the Jivaro indians of Ecuador: an Ethnopharmacological Study of Rafael Karsten's Collection from 1917
1995 (English)In: ACTA AMERICANA, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 161-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-63188 (URN)
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
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