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Berglund, ChristoferORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9923-0775
Publications (10 of 25) Show all publications
Dragojevic, M., Berglund, C. & Blauvelt, T. (2018). Figuring Out Who's Who: The Role of Social Categorization in the Language Attitudes Process. Journal of language and social psychology, 37(1), 28-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Figuring Out Who's Who: The Role of Social Categorization in the Language Attitudes Process
2018 (English)In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 28-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined the role of social categorization in the language attitudes process. Participants (N = 1,915) from three ethnolinguistic groups residing in the republic of Georgia—Georgians, Armenians, and Azerbaijanis—listened to a speaker reading a text in a Tbilisi-accented (standard variety) and a Mingrelian-accented (nonstandard variety) Georgian guise. We predicted that the three groups would vary in their ability to correctly categorize the two guises and that this intergroup variation in categorization accuracy would result in intergroup variation in language attitudes. These hypotheses were supported. Georgians were more accurate than Armenians and Azerbaijanis in their categorization of both guises. The Tbilisi-accented (Mingrelian-accented) guise was evaluated more (less) favorably when categorized correctly than when miscategorized. This resulted in intergroup variation in language attitudes: Overall, Georgians evaluated the Tbilisi-accented (Mingrelian-accented) guise more (less) favorably than Armenians and Azerbaijanis, due in part to Georgians’ higher categorization accuracy of both guises. 

Keywords
social categorization, categorization accuracy, accent, language attitudes, intergroup
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321514 (URN)10.1177/0261927X17706942 (DOI)000415330600002 ()
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT)
Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Berglund, C. (2018). Weber's secret admirer in the Caucasus: Saakashvili and the nationalisation of Georgia's Armenian and Azeri borderlands. Nations and Nationalism
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weber's secret admirer in the Caucasus: Saakashvili and the nationalisation of Georgia's Armenian and Azeri borderlands
2018 (English)In: Nations and Nationalism, ISSN 1354-5078, E-ISSN 1469-8129Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

After the 2003 Rose Revolution, the Georgian government strove to integrate its disaffected Armenian and Azeri minorities, settled in southern Georgia across the border from their kin states. This article sheds novel light on this nationalisation drive. It argues that the centre’s nation-building entrepreneurs – the Mississippdaleulni – laboured to spur minorities in the ethnic enclaves first to interact with the heartland and then to adapt to its language. Officials invested in infrastructure and extended the state’s clout into the borderlands so as to foster inter-ethnic contacts. In tandem, the authorities promoted the Georgian language in the civil service, demoted the Russian tongue, and acculturated pupils to the state language. This nationalisation drive, I conclude, drew upon the same set of tools that Eugen Weber recorded French authorities as using in the opposite corner of Europe centuries ago. 

Keywords
Borderlands, Minorities, Nationalisation, Saakashvili, South Caucasus
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338820 (URN)10.1111/nana.12369 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-01-13 Created: 2018-01-13 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
Blauvelt, T. & Berglund, C. (2016). Armenians in the Making of Modern Georgia. In: Konrad Siekierski & Stefan Troebst (Ed.), Armenians in Post-Socialist Europe: (pp. 69-85). Köln: Böhlau
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Armenians in the Making of Modern Georgia
2016 (English)In: Armenians in Post-Socialist Europe / [ed] Konrad Siekierski & Stefan Troebst, Köln: Böhlau, 2016, p. 69-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

While sharing a common ethnic heritage and national legacy, and an ambiguous status in relation to the Georgian state and ethnic majority, the Armenians in Georgia comprise not one, but several distinct communities with divergent outlooks, concerns, and degrees of assimilation. There are the urbanised Armenians of the capital city, Tbilisi (earlier called Tiflis), as well as the more agricultural circle of Armenians residing in the Javakheti region in southwestern Georgia. Notwithstanding their differences, these communities have both helped shape modern Armenian political and cultural identity, and still represent an intrinsic part of the societal fabric in Georgia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Köln: Böhlau, 2016
Series
Armenians in Eastern Europe ; 3
Keywords
Armenian Studies, Georgian Studies, South Caucasus
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-287636 (URN)978-3-412-50155-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Berglund, C. (2016). Borders and Belonging: Nation-Building in Georgia's Armenian and Azerbaijani Ethno-Regions, 2004–2012. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Department of Government, Uppsala University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Borders and Belonging: Nation-Building in Georgia's Armenian and Azerbaijani Ethno-Regions, 2004–2012
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, scholars researching ethnic politics have approached the South Caucasus as a testing ground for theories of separatism and conflict. But the 2003 Rose Revolution brought a new generation of politicians to power in Georgia. President Mikheil Saakashvili distanced himself from the ethnic nationalism of the past, which had poisoned relations between Georgians and their Armenian and Azerbaijani compatriots. The incoming authorities instead sought to foster an inclusive nationalism, wherein belonging hinged on speaking the state language and all Georgian-speakers, regardless of origin, were to be equals.

This thesis investigates this nation-building project and its influence on the integration of Georgia's Armenian and Azerbaijani borderlands. I first examine the mode through which these peripheries were incorporated into post-Soviet Georgia. Since Armenians controlled "their own" domain to a greater extent than the Azerbaijanis, I infer that the former were absorbed along integralist and the latter along colonial lines. Moving to the time-period after the Rose Revolution, I next explore if Georgian officials and Georgian adolescents were tolerant towards Georgian-speaking minorities. With the help of elite interviews and a socio-linguistic experiment (n = 792), I reveal that officials and adolescents were open to integrated Armenians and Azerbaijanis alike. I then proceed to inspect the centre's nationalising agencies and their efforts to incentivise minorities to interact with Georgians, and to use the state language during these contacts. Last but not least, I turn to the reactions this nation-building project elicited in the borderlands. On the basis of interviews with local elites and a socio-linguistic experiment involving Armenian and Azerbaijani adolescents (n = 434; n = 483), I discovered sharp differences: Armenians reacted with defiance and Azerbaijanis with compliance.

These findings augment our knowledge of ethno-linguistic stereotypes in the Caucasus. They also demonstrate that inclusive nation-building projects can inspire minorities to integrate – despite adverse circumstances – but hint at one condition conducive to this end. Armenians perceived the state language as a battering ram against "their own" domain, while Azerbaijanis saw it as a tool to escape their isolation. This within-country comparison suggests that similar nation-building projects can trigger different reactions in integralist and colonial borderlands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of Government, Uppsala University, 2016. p. 255
Keywords
Ethnic conflicts, nation-building, borderlands, minorities, integration, language politics, matched-guise experiments, South Caucasus, Georgia
National Category
Political Science International Migration and Ethnic Relations Specific Languages Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300112 (URN)978-91-506-2586-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-10-07, Zootissalen, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Supported by grants from Sixten Gemzéus stiftelse, Studentkårens nordiska resestipendium, The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), Byzantinska resestipendiet, Sederholms för utrikes resor, Borbos Erik Hanssons stiftelse, Forskraftstiftelsen Theodor Adelswärds minne, Skytteanska stiftelsens resestipendium, and Rektors resebidrag från Wallenbergsstiftelsen.

Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-08-02 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Berglund, C. (2016). “Forward to David the Builder!”: Georgia's (re)turn to language-centered nationalism. Nationalities Papers, 44(4), 522-542
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Forward to David the Builder!”: Georgia's (re)turn to language-centered nationalism
2016 (English)In: Nationalities Papers, ISSN 0090-5992, E-ISSN 1465-3923, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 522-542Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

After the Rose Revolution, President Saakashvili tried to move away from the exclusionary nationalism of the past, which had poisoned relations between Georgians and their Armenian and Azerbaijani compatriots. His government instead sought to foster an inclusionary nationalism, wherein belonging was contingent upon speaking the state language and all Georgian speakers, irrespective of origin, were to be equals. This article examines this nation-building project from a top-down and bottom-up lens. I first argue that state officials took rigorous steps to signal that Georgian-speaking minorities were part of the national fabric, but failed to abolish religious and historical barriers to their inclusion. I next utilize a large-scale, matched-guise experiment (n = 792) to explore if adolescent Georgians ostracize Georgian-speaking minorities or embrace them as their peers. I find that the upcoming generation of Georgians harbor attitudes in line with Saakashvili's language-centered nationalism, and that current Georgian nationalism therefore is more inclusionary than previous research, or Georgia's tumultuous past, would lead us to believe.

Keywords
Georgia, nationalism, minorities, language, matched-guise experiment
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293607 (URN)10.1080/00905992.2016.1142519 (DOI)000383685400002 ()
Note

Field research was supported by grants from Sixten Gemzéus stiftelse, the Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), Forskraftstiftelsen Theodor Adelswärds Minne, Byzantiska resestipendiet, and Borbos Hanssons stipendiefond. 

Available from: 2016-05-14 Created: 2016-05-14 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Driscoll, J., Berglund, C. & Blauvelt, T. (2016). Language hierarchies in Georgia: an experimental approach. Caucasus survey, 4(1), 44-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language hierarchies in Georgia: an experimental approach
2016 (English)In: Caucasus survey, ISSN 2376-1199, E-ISSN 2376-1202, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 44-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How do Georgian citizens of different nationalities evaluate people when they speak in different languages? This article presents the results of three sets of “matched-guise” experiments, a method long used by sociolinguists to evaluate attitudes to different language varieties and their speakers. The results are revealing of the language hierarchies that prevail in Tbilisi and in the southern border regions of Samtskhe-Javakheti and Kvemo Kartli (where Georgia's Armenian and Azerbaijani populations are concentrated). Our results suggest that social rewards for linguistic assimilation from one national group to another are very low in both rural and urban parts of Georgia. These findings show that with linguistic assimilation unrewarded, contemporary language hierarchies leave room for Russian to be sustained as a bridge language between communities. The results also show that native speakers of English are afforded higher social status than native speakers of Russian in Tbilisi.

Keywords
Georgia, language, linguistic assimilation, matched-guise, multiethnicity, minorities, Russian, English
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277149 (URN)10.1080/23761199.2015.1120021 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-02-17 Created: 2016-02-17 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Berglund, C. & Blauvelt, T. (2016). Redefining the Nation: From Ethnic Fragmentation to Civic Integration?. In: Ghia Nodia (Ed.), 25 Years of Independent Georgia: Achievements and Unfinished Projects (pp. 11-55). Tbilisi: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung & Ilia State University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Redefining the Nation: From Ethnic Fragmentation to Civic Integration?
2016 (English)In: 25 Years of Independent Georgia: Achievements and Unfinished Projects / [ed] Ghia Nodia, Tbilisi: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung & Ilia State University Press , 2016, p. 11-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tbilisi: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung & Ilia State University Press, 2016
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299073 (URN)
Note

As Georgia disentangled itself from the Soviet Union, divisive nationalist doctrines pitted minorities against titulars and laid the seeds for ethnic conflicts that tore the state apart. The pyrrhic independence attained under Zviad Gamsakhurdia’s chauvinistic leadership left a toxic legacy for his successors, from Eduard Shevardnadze to Mikheil Saakashvili and onwards.This chapter traces their attempts to redefine Georgian-ness in a more inclusive direction, and the minorities’ reactions to this – sometimes half-hearted and often controversial – process. Has Georgia’s state motto, Strength in Unity, evolved from wishful thinking into a statement of fact?

Available from: 2016-07-13 Created: 2016-07-13 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Dragojevic, M., Berglund, C. & Blauvelt, T. K. (2015). Attitudes Toward Tbilisi- and Mingrelian-Accented Georgian Among Georgian Youth: On the Road to Linguistic Homogenization?. Journal of language and social psychology, 34(1), 90-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attitudes Toward Tbilisi- and Mingrelian-Accented Georgian Among Georgian Youth: On the Road to Linguistic Homogenization?
2015 (English)In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two matched-guise studies examined language attitudes among Georgian youth towards two varieties of spoken Georgian: Tbilisi-accented Georgian (standard variety) and Mingrelian-accented Georgian (nonstandard variety). Study 1, conducted in Tbilisi, found that listeners (N = 106) attributed more status and solidarity to the standard variety, regardless of self-reported regional identity (Tbiliseli, Mingrelian, Other). Study 2, conducted in Samegrelo, found that self-identified Mingrelians (N = 96) attributed more status and solidarity to the standard variety, regardless of language use at home. Together, these findings suggest that Mingrelians may be undergoing a generational shift in their language attitudes in favor of linguistic homogenization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2015
Keywords
language attitudes, stereotyping, vitality, status, solidarity
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-231089 (URN)10.1177/0261927X14555191 (DOI)000345964800005 ()
Available from: 2014-09-03 Created: 2014-09-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Berglund, C. & Engvall, J. (2015). How Georgia Stamped Out Corruption on Campus. Washington D.C.: Foreign Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Georgia Stamped Out Corruption on Campus
2015 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington D.C.: Foreign Policy, 2015
Series
Foreign Policy
Keywords
Corruption, Reform, Higher Education
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266440 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2017-11-01
Berglund, C. (2014). 'Forward to David the Builder!' Armenians and Azerbaijanis under Georgia's Civic Nationalism. In: : . Paper presented at 19th Annual World Convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities (ASN). New York
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'Forward to David the Builder!' Armenians and Azerbaijanis under Georgia's Civic Nationalism
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Following the Rose Revolution, President Saakashvili sought to transcend the ethnic nationalism that had poisoned relations between Georgians and the country's Armenian and Azerbaijani minorities. A civic nation was to be forged by encouraging minorities to learn the state language. But for the Armenians and Azerbaijanis to see incentives in doing so, it is necessary that all Georgian-speakers be treated as equals - regardless of residual ethnic features. After examining official policies and rhetoric as well as attitudes among adolescent Georgians, this article concludes that previous scholars have underestimated the civic-ness of nationalism in Saakashvili's Georgia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: , 2014
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-224191 (URN)
Conference
19th Annual World Convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities (ASN)
Note

Winner of the Best Doctoral Paper Award in the Caucasus / Russia / Ukraine category.

Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2018-01-11
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9923-0775

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