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Zetterberg, Pär
Publications (10 of 30) Show all publications
Bergqvist, C., Bjarnegård, E. & Zetterberg, P. (2017). The Gendered Leeway: Male Privilege, Internal and External Mandates, and Gender Equality Policy Change. Politics, Groups, and Identities, 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Gendered Leeway: Male Privilege, Internal and External Mandates, and Gender Equality Policy Change
2017 (English)In: Politics, Groups, and Identities, ISSN 2156-5503, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article addresses the question of why male politicians continue to be relatively unlikely to act in favor of gender-equality policy change, despite the advances in gender equality in recent decades. Drawing together literature on men and masculinities, feminist institutionalism and women’s substantive representation, we present a theoretical argument in which we distinguish between an internal and an external mandate to push for genderequality policy change. We argue that both these mandates apply to female politicians but not to their male colleagues. As a consequence, a gendered leeway exists: men have more leeway than women in political maneuvering. We illustrate this argument by analyzing high-ranked party representatives within the selflabelled feminist Swedish Social Democratic Party. This article contributes theoretically to the launching of a research agenda on the role of men in processes of gender-equality policy adoption.

Keywords
Gender equality, policy, men, masculinities, substantive representation, internal mandate, external mandate, feminist institutionalism
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314938 (URN)10.1080/21565503.2016.1229627 (DOI)
Projects
“So far, no further? Gender equality initiatives on the Swedish labor market”
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1350
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Bjarnegård, E. & Zetterberg, P. (2016). Gender Equality Reforms on an Uneven Playing Field: Candidate Selection and Quota Implementation in Electoral Authoritarian Tanzania. Government and Opposition, 51(3), 464-486
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender Equality Reforms on an Uneven Playing Field: Candidate Selection and Quota Implementation in Electoral Authoritarian Tanzania
2016 (English)In: Government and Opposition, ISSN 0017-257X, E-ISSN 1477-7053, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 464-486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates the dynamics that gender quota reforms create withinand between government and opposition parties in electoral authoritariandominant-party states. A dominant-party state regularly holds relativelycompetitive elections, but the political playing field is skewed in favour of thegovernment party. We investigate the circumstances under which genderquotas’ goal of furthering political gender equality within political parties canbe reconciled with parties’ electoral concerns. We address these issues byanalysing the implementation of reserved seats by the three largest parties inthe dominant-party state of Tanzania. The empirical analysis suggests that theuneven playing field leaves an imprint on the specific priorities parties makewhen implementing candidate selection reforms. Because of large resource gapsbetween parties, the ruling party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi – (CCM), is able toreconcile gender equality concerns with power-maximizing partisan strategies toa greater extent than the opposition parties.

Keywords
political parties, gender quotas, dominant-party states, Tanzania, gender equality, candidate selection, electoral authoritarianism
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-289265 (URN)10.1017/gov.2016.10 (DOI)000375947700006 ()
Projects
Political parties and women’s political representation: The role of bureaucratized candidate selection procedures
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2010- 1638
Available from: 2016-04-29 Created: 2016-04-29 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Lundin, M., Nordström-Skans, O. & Zetterberg, P. (2016). Leadership Experiences within Civil Organizations and Candidacy in Public Elections: Causal Evidence from a Quasi-Experimental Approach. Political Behavior, 38(2), 433-454
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leadership Experiences within Civil Organizations and Candidacy in Public Elections: Causal Evidence from a Quasi-Experimental Approach
2016 (English)In: Political Behavior, ISSN 0190-9320, E-ISSN 1573-6687, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Standing as a candidate in public elections has been characterized as the ultimate act of political participation. We test the hypothesis that acquiring office within civil organizations increases the probability of becoming a candidate in public elections. In order to take self-selection problems into account, we provide quasi-experimental evidence using election discontinuities, in which we compare the likelihood of being nominated for public office between closely ranked winners and losers in Swedish student union (SU) elections. Our original data cover 5,000 SU candidates and register data on their candidacies in public elections (1991–2010). The analysis provides support to the hypothesis: Students elected to SU councils were about 34 percent (6 percentage points) more likely to become a candidate in a public election than SU council candidates who were not elected. The causal impact is fairly stable over time. The analysis makes important contributions to two interrelated bodies of literature: First, it provides political recruitment literature with causal evidence that acquiring leadership experiences at arenas outside of representative democ­ratic institutions facilitate entry into election processes. Second, it provides strong evidence to an increasingly contested issue within political participation research by showing that certain organizational activities increase individuals’ political involvement.

National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-270193 (URN)10.1007/s11109-015-9320-x (DOI)000374964200008 ()
Projects
Kåren och karriären: Kausala effekter av studentpolitiskt engagemang
Funder
Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), 148/09
Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Bjarnegård, E. & Zetterberg, P. (2016). Political Parties and Gender Quota Implementation: The Role of Bureaucratized Candidate Selection Processes. Comparative politics, 48(3), 393-417
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Political Parties and Gender Quota Implementation: The Role of Bureaucratized Candidate Selection Processes
2016 (English)In: Comparative politics, ISSN 0010-4159, E-ISSN 2151-6227, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 393-417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article scrutinizes the role of political parties in gender quota implementation. First, it theoretically specifies and operationalizes the concept of bureaucratization in relation to candidate selection. Second, it examines whether parties with bureaucratized selection procedures are better at implementing legally mandated candidate quotas than other parties. We measure implementation as the number of women candidates and women elected (the latter measuring implementation of the spirit of quota laws). Using unique data on almost 100 Latin American parties, the analysis shows that once quotas are in place, parties with bureaucratized selection procedures put substantially more women on their candidate lists than other parties. However, these parties are only better at implementing the letter of the law: they do not get more women elected.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281307 (URN)10.5129/001041516818254400 (DOI)000373031300006 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P10-0801:1
Available from: 2016-03-22 Created: 2016-03-22 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Krook, M. L. & Zetterberg, P. (Eds.). (2015). Gender Quotas and Women's Representation: New directions in research. Abingdon and New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender Quotas and Women's Representation: New directions in research
2015 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Electoral gender quotas have emerged as one of the most critical political reforms of the last two decades, having now been introduced in more than 130 countries worldwide. The recent and global nature of these developments has sparked both scholarly and popular interest in the in which these quotas are designed, as well as their origins and effects.

This volume seeks to expand these existing agendas to forge new directions in research on gender quotas and political representation. The topics considered include new paths to adoption, as well as – in the wake of quota introduction – changes in the dynamics of candidate selection, the status and role of women in legislative institutions, and the impact that women have on policy-making. Expanding the scope of quota studies, the contributions also address trends in different political parties and different levels of government, the effectiveness of quotas in democratic and non-democratic settings, and whether there might be non-quota mechanisms that could be pursued together with, or in lieu of, gender quotas in order to increase women’s political representation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2015. p. 122
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260127 (URN)978-1-138-90742-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-08-17 Created: 2015-08-17 Last updated: 2015-08-17Bibliographically approved
Abdelzadeh, A., Zetterberg, P. & Ekman, J. (2015). Procedural fairness and political trust among young people: Evidence from a panel study on Swedish high school students. Acta Politica, 50(3), 253-278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Procedural fairness and political trust among young people: Evidence from a panel study on Swedish high school students
2015 (English)In: Acta Politica, ISSN 0001-6810, E-ISSN 1741-1416, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 253-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The role of ‘fair’ institutions in developing democratic legitimacy has received increased attention. Citizens who perceive – on basis of past experiences – that they are being treated fairly by authorities have been held to have greater trust in political institutions. However, previous studies on the relationship between procedural fairness and political trust have not paid sufficient attention to individuals with limited first-hand experiences of authorities. We examine the relationship on an authority that virtually all individuals meet early in life: the school. Using structural equation modeling on unique panel data covering 1,500 Swedish adolescents (ages ranging from 13 to 17), we find a reciprocal relationship: personal encounters with school authorities shape young people’s political trust; however, the images that adolescents get of the political system (through family, peers, media, etc.) have also consequences on their perceptions about the authorities they encounter in their daily lives. The analysis increases our understanding of how individuals form their political allegiances by showing that the relationship between fairness and trust is more dynamic than has previously been suggested: neither an accumulated set of experiences of authorities nor formal ties with political institutions (as voters, etc.) are required for a relationship to emerge. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015
Keywords
Procedural fairness, political trust, reciprocal, school, adolescents, Sweden, structural equation modeling
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260379 (URN)10.1057/ap.2014.22 (DOI)000359176500001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

This study was made possible by access to data from the Political Socialization Program, a longitudinal research program at YeS (Youth & Society) at Örebro University, Sweden. Responsible for the planning, implementation, and financing of the collection of data in this project were Professors Erik Amnå, Mats Ekström, Margaret Kerr, and Håkan Stattin. The data collection was supported by grants from the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation. Moreover, the participation of Pär Zetterberg in the writing of this study was made possible by a grant from the Swedish Research Council.

Available from: 2015-08-13 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Krook, M. L. & Zetterberg, P. (2014). Electoral quotas and political representation: Comparative perspectives. International Political Science Review, 35(1), 3-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electoral quotas and political representation: Comparative perspectives
2014 (English)In: International Political Science Review, ISSN 0192-5121, E-ISSN 1460-373X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electoral quotas have emerged as one of the critical political reforms of the last two decades, affecting a widerange of representative processes. However, the evidence is not yet conclusive with regard to what quotas‘mean’ more broadly, either for politics at large or for the empowerment of group members. Taking up thischallenge, this special issue brings together articles that collectively expand the current research agenda totheorise and assess the wider impact of electoral quotas. A unifying theme is the use of comparative researchstrategies to illuminate dynamics indicating the possibilities and limits of what quotas can achieve. Thisintroductory article reviews the existing literature and then details the research strategies and theoretical andempirical findings of the articles that follow, concluding with directions for future research and implicationsof this work for connecting central debates within political science.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-215610 (URN)10.1177/0192512113508422 (DOI)000330793200001 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2014-01-15 Created: 2014-01-15 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Krook, M. L. & Zetterberg, P. (2014). Introduction: Gender quotas and women's representation - New directions in research. Representation: Journal of Representative Democracy, 50(3), 287-294
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction: Gender quotas and women's representation - New directions in research
2014 (English)In: Representation: Journal of Representative Democracy, ISSN 0034-4893, E-ISSN 1749-4001, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 287-294Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234520 (URN)10.1080/00344893.2014.951168 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-10-20 Created: 2014-10-20 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Bjarnegård, E. & Zetterberg, P. (2014). Why are Representational Guarantees Adopted for Women and Minorities?: Comparing Constituency Formation and Electoral Quota Design Within Countries. Representation: Journal of Representative Democracy, 50(3), 307-320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why are Representational Guarantees Adopted for Women and Minorities?: Comparing Constituency Formation and Electoral Quota Design Within Countries
2014 (English)In: Representation: Journal of Representative Democracy, ISSN 0034-4893, E-ISSN 1749-4001, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 307-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the underlying motives for ensuring the political inclusion of marginalised groups. More specifically, it analyses whether laws guaranteeing representation are designed differently for women and minorities and, if so, whether these differences correspond to normative arguments for group representation. We use a novel research strategy by comparing quota designs in all countries that have adopted quotas for both groups. Theoretically, we reconceptualise the relevant distinction between quota types by focusing on whether a special constituency is created or not. We identify substantial differences in quota design between the two groups. Minorities tend to be guaranteed representation through the creation of special constituencies, whereas gender quotas more commonly imply integration into pre-existing constituencies. The analysis largely supports those who argue that quotas for minorities aim to increase the autonomy of the group in question while gender quotas are adopted with the intention to integrate women into the political system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232743 (URN)10.1080/00344893.2014.951171 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-210-1638
Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Bergqvist, C., Bjarnegård, E. & Zetterberg, P. (2013). Analyzing Failure, Understanding Success: A Research Strategy for Explaining Gender Equality Policy Adoption. NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 21(4), 280-295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing Failure, Understanding Success: A Research Strategy for Explaining Gender Equality Policy Adoption
2013 (English)In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 280-295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the major challenges within feminist research is to understand the conditions under which gender equality policies are adopted. This article addresses the issue from a methodological point of view: it suggests that previous research on gender equality policy adoption has mostly focused on “successful” cases, and it presents a research strategy for systematically analysing opposition and “failed” attempts at gender equality policy adoption, that is, reform attempts that have not become laws or regulations. A closer analysis of failure is important for understanding success: we cannot be sure that the factors identified as conducive to gender equality reform are really missing in unsuccessful reform attempts unless we pay explicit attention to such attempts. The research strategy suggests three issues that should be addressed: (1) specify and select “unsuccessful” cases, (2) focus explicitly on resistance to the reform proposal, and (3) conduct a dynamic analysis of the strategies of proponents and opponents. We illustrate the research strategy by making use of a failed attempt at reform in the Swedish labour market: the individualization of the parental leave system.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-214077 (URN)10.1080/08038740.2013.855661 (DOI)
Projects
Hit men inte längre? Om jämställdhetsinitiativ på svensk arbetsmarknad.
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2014-01-07 Created: 2014-01-07 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
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