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Cesta, C. E., Johansson, A. L. V., Hreinsson, J., Rodriguez-Wallberg, K. A., Olofsson, J. I., Holte, J., . . . Iliadou, A. N. (2018). A prospective investigation of perceived stress, infertility-related stress, and cortisol levels in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: influence on embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 97(3), 258-268
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A prospective investigation of perceived stress, infertility-related stress, and cortisol levels in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: influence on embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate
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2018 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 258-268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Women undergoing fertility treatment experience high levels of stress. However, it remains uncertain if and how stress influences in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcome. This study aimed to investigate whether self-reported perceived and infertility-related stress and cortisol levels were associated with IVF cycle outcomes.

Material and methods

A prospective cohort of 485 women receiving fertility treatment was recruited from September 2011 to December 2013 and followed until December 2014. Data were collected by online questionnaire prior to IVF start and from clinical charts. Salivary cortisol levels were measured. Associations between stress and cycle outcomes (clinical pregnancy and indicators of oocyte and embryo quality) were measured by logistic or linear regression, adjusted for age, body mass index, education, smoking, alcohol and caffeine consumption, shiftwork and night work.

Results

Ultrasound verified pregnancy rate was 26.6% overall per cycle started and 32.9% per embryo transfer. Stress measures were not associated with clinical pregnancy: when compared with the lowest categories, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest categories of the perceived stress score was 1.04 (95% CI 0.58-1.87), infertility-related stress score was OR = 1.18 (95% CI 0.56-2.47), morning and evening cortisol was OR = 1.18 (95% CI 0.60-2.29) and OR = 0.66 (95% CI 0.34-1.30), respectively.

Conclusions

Perceived stress, infertility-related stress, and cortisol levels were not associated with IVF cycle outcomes. These findings are potentially reassuring to women undergoing fertility treatment with concerns about the influence of stress on their treatment outcome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
In vitro fertilization, IVF outcome, stress, cortisol, embryo quality
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350064 (URN)10.1111/aogs.13280 (DOI)000426055500004 ()29250769 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 259679Swedish Research Council, K2011-69X-21871-01-6Swedish Research Council, SIMSAM 340-2013-5867
Available from: 2018-05-03 Created: 2018-05-03 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
Eckerdal, P., Georgakis, M. K., Kollia, N., Wikström, A.-K., Högberg, U. & Skalkidou, A. (2018). Delineating the association between mode of delivery and postpartum depression symptoms: A  longitudinal study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 97(3), 301-311, Article ID 29215162.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delineating the association between mode of delivery and postpartum depression symptoms: A  longitudinal study
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2018 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 301-311, article id 29215162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Although a number of perinatal factors have been implicated in the etiology of postpartum depression, the role of mode of delivery remains controversial. Our aim was to explore the association between mode of delivery and postpartum depression, considering the potentially mediating or confounding role of several covariates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a longitudinal-cohort study in Uppsala, Sweden, with 3888 unique pregnancies followed up postpartum, the effect of mode of delivery (spontaneous vaginal delivery, vacuum extraction, elective cesarean section, emergency cesarean section) on self-reported postpartum depression symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale >/=12) at 6 weeks postpartum was investigated through logistic regression models and path analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 13%. Compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery, women who delivered by emergency cesarean section were at higher risk for postpartum depression 6 weeks after delivery in crude (odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.04-2.01) but not in adjusted analysis. However, the path analysis revealed that emergency cesarean section and vacuum extraction were indirectly associated with increased risk of postpartum depression, by leading to postpartum complications, self-reported physical symptoms postpartum, and therefore a negative delivery experience. In contrast, history of depression and fear of delivery increased the odds of postpartum depression and led more frequently to elective cesarean section; however, it was associated with a positive delivery experience. CONCLUSIONS: Mode of delivery has no direct impact on risk of postpartum depression; nevertheless, several modifiable or non-modifiable mediators are present in this association. Women delivering in an emergency setting by emergency cesarean section or vacuum extraction, and reporting negatively experienced delivery, constitute a high-risk group for postpartum depression.

Keywords
Postpartum depression, cesarean section, delivery experience, mode of delivery, vacuum extraction
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343030 (URN)10.1111/aogs.13275 (DOI)000426055500009 ()
Projects
Basic
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 523-2014-2342Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2018-02-25 Created: 2018-02-25 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
Elenis, E., Skalkidou, A., Skoog Svanberg, A., Sydsjö, G., Stavreus-Evers, A. & Åkerud, H. (2018). HRG C633T polymorphism and risk of gestational hypertensive disorders: a pilot study. BMC Medical Genetics, 19, Article ID 44.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>HRG C633T polymorphism and risk of gestational hypertensive disorders: a pilot study
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2018 (English)In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 19, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Preeclampsia and gestational hypertensive disorders are thought to occur due to endothelial cell dysfunction and abnormal placentation, triggered by angiogenesis-related factors yet undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a genetic polymorphism (SNP) of Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), HRG C633T SNP, is associated with gestational hypertensive disorders.

Methods: It was performed a nested case-control study from the BASIC Cohort of Uppsala University Hospital comprising 92 women diagnosed with gestational hypertensive disorders without other comorbidities and 200 women with full term uncomplicated pregnancies, all genotyped regarding HRG C633T SNP.

Results: The genetic analysis of the study sample showed that C/C genotype was more prevalent among controls. The presence of the T-allele showed a tendency towards an increased risk of gestational hypertensive disorders. After clustering the study participants based on their genotype, it was observed that the odds for gestational hypertensive disorders among heterozygous C/T or homozygous T/T carriers were higher compared to homozygous C/C carriers [OR 1.72, 95% CI (1.04-2.84)]. The association remained significant even after adjustment for maternal age, BMI and parity.

Conclusions: The HRG C633T genotype seems to be associated with gestational hypertensive disorders, and as part of a greater algorithm, might contribute in the future to the prediction of the individual susceptibility to the condition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2018
Keywords
Angiogenesis, Gestational hypertensive disorders, HRG, HRG C633T SNP, Preeclampsia
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351434 (URN)10.1186/s12881-018-0550-8 (DOI)000427996000001 ()29540166 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, D0277902Swedish Research Council, D0277901
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Iliadis, S. I., Skalkidou, A., Ranstrand, H., Georgakis, M. K., Axfors, C. & Papadopoulos, F. (2018). Self-Harm Thoughts Postpartum as a Marker for Long-Term Morbidity. Frontiers In Public Health, 6, Article ID 34.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Harm Thoughts Postpartum as a Marker for Long-Term Morbidity
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 6, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Postpartum depression predisposes to maternal affective and somatic disorders. It is important to identify which women are at an increased risk of subsequent morbidity and would benefit from an intensified follow-up. Self-harm thoughts (SHTs), with or without other depressive symptomatology, might have prognostic value for maternal health beyond the postpartum period. Aim: This study is to investigate the somatic and psychiatric morbidity of postpartum women with SHTs, with or without other depressive symptoms, over a 7-year follow-up period. Materials and methods: The subjects for this study are derived from a population based Swedish cohort of women who gave birth at Uppsala University Hospital (May 2006-June 2007) and who answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 5 days, 6 weeks, and 6 months postpartum. Three groups were included: women reporting SHTs (SHT group, n = 107) on item 10 of the EPDS; women reporting depressive symptoms, i.e., EPDS >= 12 at 6 weeks and/or 6 months postpartum, without SHTs (DEP group, n = 94); and randomly selected controls screening negatively for postpartum depression (CTL group, n = 104). The number of diagnostic codes for somatic and psychiatric morbidity according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems system, and the number of medical interventions were retrieved from medical records over 7 years following childbirth and were used as the outcome measures, together with any prescription of antidepressants and sick leave during the follow-up. Results: The SHT group had the highest psychiatric morbidity of all groups and more somatic morbidity than controls. Affective disorders were more common in the SHT and the DEP groups compared with controls, as well as antidepressant prescriptions and sick leave. One-fifth of women with SHTs did not screen positive for depressive symptoms; nevertheless, they had more somatic and psychiatric morbidity than the control group. Conclusion: Women reporting thoughts of self-harm in the postpartum period are at an increased risk of somatic and psychiatric morbidity during a follow-up of 7 years after delivery, and this increased risk may not be fully attributed to depressive symptoms. Results underline the importance of screening for self-harm symptoms postpartum and point to a need for individualized follow-up.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018
Keywords
self-harm, postpartum depression, maternal morbidity, pregnancy, postpartum period, psychiatric morbidity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348914 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2018.00034 (DOI)000425815300001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 523-2014-2342Swedish Society for Medical Research (SSMF), SLS-250581Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, MMW2011.0115
Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Axfors, C., Sylvén, S., Ramklint, M. & Skalkidou, A. (2017). Adult attachment's unique contribution in the prediction of postpartum depressive symptoms, beyond personality traits. Journal of Affective Disorders, 222, 177-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adult attachment's unique contribution in the prediction of postpartum depressive symptoms, beyond personality traits
2017 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 222, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

Personality traits such as neuroticism can help identify pregnant women at risk of postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS). However, it is unclear whether attachment style could have an additional contribution to this risk elevation. This study aimed to examine the overlap of adult attachment insecurity and neuroticism/trait anxiety as PPDS predictors, taking into account baseline depressive symptoms.

Methods:

A Swedish population-based sample of pregnant women reported on adult attachment and either neuroticism (n = 1063) or trait anxiety (n = 555). Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and at six weeks and six months postpartum. Correlations between attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were calculated. Generalized linear models of PPDS tested the effect of attachment anxiety and avoidance, adjusting for neuroticism/trait anxiety and baseline depression. Logistic regression models with combined high attachment anxiety and-neuroticism/trait anxiety visualized their value as risk factors beyond antenatal depression.

Results:

Attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were highly correlated (r = .55.77). Attachment anxiety exerted a partially independent effect on PPDS at six weeks (p < .05) and at six months (p < .05) adjusting for neuroticism. Among antenatally non-depressed, combined high attachment anxiety and high neuroticism or trait anxiety was predictive of PPDS at both assessment points. Limitations: Low acceptance rate, exclusive use of self-reports.

Conclusions:

Beyond personality, attachment anxiety had a small independent effect on the risk of PPDS. Combining items of adult attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety could prove useful in antenatal screening for high risk of PPDS.

Keywords
Adult attachment, Neuroticism, Trait anxiety, Personality, Pregnancy, Postpartum depression
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333735 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2017.07.005 (DOI)000407657100027 ()28709025 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2017-11-20Bibliographically approved
Hellgren, C., Comasco, E., Skalkidou, A. & Sundström Poromaa, I. (2017). Allopregnanolone levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the allopregnanolone synthesis pathway. Hormones and Behavior, 94, 106-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Allopregnanolone levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the allopregnanolone synthesis pathway
2017 (English)In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 94, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid whose levels rise throughout gestation, putatively stabilizes antenatal mood. The present study aimed to investigate associations of plasma allopregnanolone to antenatal depressive symptoms, as well as to genetic and obstetric factors. Allopregnanolone plasma levels from 284 pregnant women were measured around gestational week 18. Haplotype tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in the aldo-keto reductase family 1, members C2 and C4 (AKR1C2, AKR1C4), and steroid 5 alpha-reductase 1 and 2 (SRD5A1, and SRD5A2) genes were genotyped in a larger sample of pregnant women (n=1351). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered via web-questionnaires in gestational weeks 17 and 32. Demographic and obstetric data was retrieved from web-questionnaires and medical records. There was no association between allopregnanolone levels and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, no associations between allopregnanolone level and synthesis pathway genotypes were found after accounting for multiple comparisons. However, exploratory analyses suggested that the women who were homozygous for the minor allele of the AKR1C2 polymorphism rs1937863 had nominally lower allopregnanolone levels and lower depression scores in gestational week 17, but also the highest increase in depression scores between week 17 and 32. Additionally, higher body mass index was associated with lower allopregnanolone levels. The results do not support second trimester plasma allopregnanolone as a mood stabilizing factor. However, we speculate that AKR1C2 variation may alter the susceptibility to depressive symptoms through effects on central allopregnanolone synthesis. Another implication of this study is that the relationship between neuroactive steroids and obesity in pregnancy deserves to be investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330915 (URN)10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.06.008 (DOI)000411168400012 ()28666923 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-10-06 Created: 2017-10-06 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Salih Joelsson, L., Tydén, T., Wanggren, K., Georgakis, M. K., Stern, J., Berglund, A. & Skalkidou, A. (2017). Anxiety and depression symptoms among sub-fertile women, women pregnant after infertility treatment, and naturally pregnant women. European psychiatry, 45, 212-219
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anxiety and depression symptoms among sub-fertile women, women pregnant after infertility treatment, and naturally pregnant women
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2017 (English)In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 45, p. 212-219Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Infertility has been associated with psychological distress, but whether these symptoms persist after achieving pregnancy via assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains unclear. We compared the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms between women seeking for infertility treatment and women who conceived after ART or naturally.

Methods

Four hundred and sixty-eight sub-fertile non-pregnant women, 2972 naturally pregnant women and 143 women pregnant after ART completed a questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. The Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A≥8) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS≥12) were used for assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were applied to explore associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms.

Results

The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among sub-fertile, non-pregnant women (57.6% and 15.7%, respectively) were significantly higher compared to women pregnant after ART (21.1% and 8.5%, respectively) and naturally pregnant women (18.8% and 10.3%, respectively). History of psychiatric diagnosis was identified as an independent risk factor for both anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of at least one unhealthy lifestyle behavior (daily tobacco smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, BMI≥25, and regular physical exercise < 2 h/week) was also associated with anxiety (Prevalence Ratio, PR: 1.24; 95%CI: 1.09–1.40) and depressive symptoms (PR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04–1.49).

Conclusions

Women pregnant after ART showed no difference in anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to naturally pregnant women. However, early psychological counseling and management of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors for sub-fertile women may be advisable, particularly for women with a previous history of psychiatric diagnosis.

Keywords
anxiety, depression, infertility, assisted reproductive technology, pregnancy
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338378 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.07.004 (DOI)000414461300029 ()28957789 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
Iliadis, S. I., Comasco, E., Hellgren, C., Kollia, N., Sundström Poromaa, I. & Skalkidou, A. (2017). Associations between a polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene, neuroticism and postpartum depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 207, 141-147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between a polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene, neuroticism and postpartum depression
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 207, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene and neuroticism, as well as the possible mediatory role of neuroticism in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depressive symptoms.

METHODS: 769 women received questionnaires containing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six weeks postpartum and demographic data at pregnancy week 17 and 32 and at six weeks postpartum, as well as the Swedish universities Scales of Personality at pregnancy week 32.

RESULTS: Linear regression models showed an association between the GG genotype and depressive symptoms. When neuroticism was introduced in the model, it was associated with EPDS score, whereas the association between the GG genotype and EPDS became borderline significant. A path analysis showed that neuroticism had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and EPDS score.

LIMITATIONS: The use of the EPDS, which is a self-reporting instrument.

CONCLUSIONS: Neuroticism was associated with the polymorphism and had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depression. This finding elucidates the genetic background of neuroticism and postpartum depression.

Keywords
Depression, Endophenotype, Neuroticism, Polymorphism, Postpartum
National Category
Psychiatry Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309058 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2016.09.030 (DOI)000389088600021 ()27721188 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-02 Created: 2016-12-02 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Gambadauro, P., Iliadis, S. I., Bränn, E. & Skalkidou, A. (2017). Conception by means of in vitro fertilization is not associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum. Fertility and Sterility, 108(2), 325-332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conception by means of in vitro fertilization is not associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum
2017 (English)In: Fertility and Sterility, ISSN 0015-0282, E-ISSN 1556-5653, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 325-332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To study whether conception by means of in vitro fertilization (IVF) is associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum.

Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: University hospital.

Patient(s): A total of 3,283 women with singleton pregnancies receiving antenatal care and delivering in Uppsala from 2010 to 2015.

Intervention(s): A web-based self-administered structured questionnaire including sociodemographic, clinical and pregnancy-related items, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was delivered at 17 and 32 gestational weeks and at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >= 12) and EPDS scores.

Result(s): A total of 167 women (5%) had conceived via IVF and 3,116 (95%) had a spontaneous pregnancy. IVF mothers were more frequently >= 35 years of age (46.1% vs. 22.6%) and primiparous (71.7% vs. 49.9%) and had a higher cesarean delivery rate (22.4% vs. 14.2%). Demographic and clinical characteristics were otherwise similar between the two groups. Significant depressive symptoms were reported by 12.8%, 12.4%, 13.8%, and 11.9% of women at 17 and 32 gestational weeks and 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, respectively. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and the EPDS scores during pregnancy and postpartum were similar between women conceiving spontaneously or through IVF. The mode of conception was not associated with significant depressive symptoms at any time point, even when adjusting for several possible confounders in multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Conclusion(s): Despite the psychologic distress characterizing subfertility and its treatment, conception by means of IVF is not associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2017
Keywords
In vitro fertilization, assisted reproductive technologies, pregnancy complications, depression, postpartum depression
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333706 (URN)10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.06.006 (DOI)000406694900028 ()28651958 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Swedish Medical AssociationMarianne and Marcus Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, Å., Skalkidou, A., Hellgren, C., Gingnell, M., Ekselius, L., Willebrand, M. & Sundström Poromaa, I. (2017). Different patterns of attentional bias in antenatal and postpartum depression. Brain and Behavior, 7(11), Article ID e00844.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different patterns of attentional bias in antenatal and postpartum depression
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2017 (English)In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 7, no 11, article id e00844Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundBiased information processing in attention, memory, and interpretation is proposed to be central cognitive alterations in patients with major depressive disorder, but studies in women with peripartum depression are scarce. Because of the many similarities with depression in nonperipartum states as regards symptom profile and risk factors, we hypothesized that women with antenatal and postpartum depression would display attentional bias to negatively and positively valenced words. MethodsOne hundred and seventy-seven pregnant and 157 postpartum women were included. Among these, 40 suffered from antenatal depressive disorder and 33 from postpartum depressive disorder. An emotional Stroop task with neutral, positive, negative, and negatively valenced obstetric words was used. ResultsNo significant difference in emotional interference scores was noted between women with antenatal depression and nondepressed pregnant women. In contrast, women with postpartum depression displayed shorter reaction times to both positive (p=.028) and negative (p=.022) stimuli, compared with neutral words. Pregnant women on antidepressant treatment displayed longer reaction times to negatively valenced obstetric words in comparison with untreated depressed women (p=.012), and a trend toward greater interference in comparison with controls (p=.061). ConclusionsIn contrast with the hypothesis, we found no evidence of attentional bias to emotionally valenced stimuli in women with untreated peripartum depression. However, the shorter reaction times to emotional stimuli in women with postpartum depression may indicate emotional numbing, which in turn, is a functional impairment that may have repercussions for child development and well-being. Our findings emphasize the need to identify and treat women with postpartum depression at the earliest possible time point to ensure swift recovery and support for the family.

Keywords
antenatal depression, attentional bias, emotional Stroop, postpartum depression, pregnancy, women
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342913 (URN)10.1002/brb3.844 (DOI)000416063200009 ()29201545 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4935-7532

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