uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Strand, M. (2017). The Passing-On Problem in Damages and Restitution under EU Law (1ed.). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Passing-On Problem in Damages and Restitution under EU Law
2017 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

“Passing-on” occurs when harm or loss incurred by a business is passed on to burden that business’s customers, ie the next level of the supply chain. This book offers analyses of various aspects of passing-on in EU law damages and restitution. Three main legal issues triggered by passing-on are identified: (1) Will downstream claimants have access to bring an action for damages or restitution before the competent court? (2) Will downstream claimants be able to demonstrate sufficient proximity to the original harmful act or unjustified transaction? (3) Will a possibility for claimants to pass on the harm or loss be relevant to the estimation of the award? These issues are assessed within the contexts of actions for damages and restitution against the EU, a Member State, and private individuals. Reasoned suggestions for consistent approaches to passing-on are offered both in the course of discussions and in the final conclusions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017 Edition: 1
Series
Elgar European Law and Practice
Keywords
EU law, passing-on, private enforcement, damages law, restitution law, indirect purchasers, EU-rätt, övervältring, skadeståndsrätt, restitution
National Category
Law
Research subject
European (Integration) Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300170 (URN)10.4337/9781786430182 (DOI)978 1 78643 017 5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-08-04 Created: 2016-08-04 Last updated: 2017-02-06
Strand, M. (2016). Beyond the Competition Damages Directive: What Room for Competition Law Restitution?. In: Maria Bergström, Marios C Iacovides and Magnus Strand (Ed.), Harmonising EU Competition Litigation: The New Directive and Beyond (pp. 279-293). Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond the Competition Damages Directive: What Room for Competition Law Restitution?
2016 (English)In: Harmonising EU Competition Litigation: The New Directive and Beyond / [ed] Maria Bergström, Marios C Iacovides and Magnus Strand, Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd, 2016, p. 279-293Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this article, it is discussed under what circumstances the nullity effect provided for in EU competition law could give rise to an action for restitution for victims of a competition law infringement, and to what extent such restitutionary actions could contribute to the effective enforcement of competition law.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd, 2016
Series
Swedish Studies in European Law ; 8
Keywords
EU law, competition, damages, nullity, restitution, EU-rätt, konkurrens, skadestånd, nullitetsverkan, restitution, återbetalning
National Category
Law
Research subject
European (Integration) Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-256616 (URN)9781849467629 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-06-24 Last updated: 2017-09-07
Strand, M. (2016). EU law and interest on damages for infringements of competition law: a comparative report: Sweden. San Domenico di Fiesole: European University Institute
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EU law and interest on damages for infringements of competition law: a comparative report: Sweden
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This long working paper (EUI interest study) explores the differences between national legal systems and assesses whether they are EU law compliant when it comes to the calculation of interest on damages resulting from antitrust infringements. The first chapter of the working paper addresses three issues: the principles that emerge from the case law of the CJEU when assessing the compliance of national rules in damages actions; the principles that emerge from EU legislation and the case law of the CJEU when considering the notion of interest payments; an assessment, based on the EU law system, of thirteen member state approaches to interest. The subsequent chapters are national reports which form the basis for the assessment to be found in chapter 1. We note that many legal systems require some reconsideration of the national approach to interest to ensure that claimants are afforded full compensation. This study comes at a time when the 28 EU member States are in the process of implementing Directive 2014/104/EU, without however being very specific on the calculation of interest. In presenting the specific features of thirteen national regimes, this working document provides guidance to all interested parties on the scope of interest as fundamental part of the EU right to full compensation. It might prove especially useful to judges in cases that call for the application of foreign laws to damages claims. This EUI interest study has been initiated and supported by CDC Cartel Damage Claims Consulting SCRL, Brussels with the aim to extend the study to the legal systems of all other EU Member States. It seeks to raise awareness of the substantial differences and potentially significant consequences thereof for the right to full compensation of damages following infringements of competition law.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Domenico di Fiesole: European University Institute, 2016. p. 21
Series
EUI Working Papers, ISSN 1725-6739 ; LAW 2016/11
Keywords
EUI interest study; Private enforcement of competition law; Right to full compensation; Accrual of interest on damages amounts; Principle of effectiveness, EU-rätt, konkurrensrätt, civilprocess, skadestånd, ränta
National Category
Law
Research subject
European (Integration) Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282622 (URN)
Note

Projektet har understötts av CDC Cartel Damage Claims Consulting SCRL med syfte att sprida medvetenhet om olikheter mellan de nationella rättsordningarna och dessa olikheters konsekvenser för rätten till full ersättning vid konkurrensskada.

Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2016-04-06
Strand, M., Bergström, M. & Iacovides, M. C. (Eds.). (2016). Harmonising EU Competition Litigation: The New Directive and Beyond (1ed.). Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Harmonising EU Competition Litigation: The New Directive and Beyond
2016 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This volume in the Swedish Studies in European Law series, produced by the Swedish Network for European Legal Studies, heralds the new harmonized regime of private enforcement of EU competition law. In 2013, the Commission issued a communication and practical guide to the quantification of harm in antitrust litigation, and a recommendation on collective redress. In 2014, the long-awaited Directive on actions for damages for infringements of EU competition law was finally adopted. In 2015, the Commission is expected to issue guidelines on the passing-on of overcharges. This book examines these recent developments and offers the perspectives of judges, officials, practitioners and academia.

 

With a preface by Judge Carl Wetter of the General Court, the book explores five different themes. In section one the main policy issues and challenges are presented. In section two  the new regime is placed in the bigger picture of recent EU law developments. In section three the nexus between private enforcement and transparency is investigated. A comparative perspective is offered in section four by looking into private enforcement in five Member State jurisdictions. Finally, issues relating to causation, harm and indirect purchasers are explored in section five.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd, 2016. p. 343 Edition: 1
Series
Swedish Studies in European Law ; 8
Keywords
EU law, competition law, private enforcement, damages, EU-rätt, konkurrensrätt, civilprocess, skadestånd
National Category
Law
Research subject
European (Integration) Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282619 (URN)978-1-84946-762-9 (ISBN)
Note

Bokens utgivning är finansierad av Svenska Nätverket för Europarättsforskning.

Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2016-04-06
Strand, M. (2014). Indirect Purchasers, Passing-On and the New Directive on Competition Law Damages. European Competition Journal, 10(2), 361-386
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indirect Purchasers, Passing-On and the New Directive on Competition Law Damages
2014 (English)In: European Competition Journal, ISSN 1744-1056, E-ISSN 1757-8396, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 361-386Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims to report and to analyse the approach chosen in the upcoming directive on damages for a breach of competition law, and accompanying instruments, to the position of indirect purchasers. It is argued that the directive should have included a main rule of access to court for indirect purchasers, and it is suggested that it could have included a specific rebuttable presumption for causation in order to facilitate actions by indirect purchasers. It is explained that the new regime focuses on compensatory heads of damages, ruling out punitive as well as restitutionary damages. With regard to passing-on, it is noticed that the availability of a defence of passing-on is explicitly endorsed in Article 13, and that indirect purchasers are provided with some latitude in establishing passing-on to them in Article 14. Overall, it is concluded that the directive leaves many open ends that promise a future of legal development in private enforcement of competition law.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd, 2014
Keywords
competition law, EU law, damages, passing-on, indirect purchasers
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society)
Research subject
European (Integration) Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-231012 (URN)10.5235/17441056.10.2.361 (DOI)
Projects
The problem of 'passing-on' in private enforcement of EU law
Available from: 2014-09-02 Created: 2014-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Strand, M. (2012). Case C-398/09, Lady & Kid A/S and others v. Skatteministeriet, Judgment of the Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) of 6 September 2011, nyr.. Common market law review, 49(1), 381-400
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Case C-398/09, Lady & Kid A/S and others v. Skatteministeriet, Judgment of the Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) of 6 September 2011, nyr.
2012 (English)In: Common market law review, ISSN 0165-0750, E-ISSN 1875-8320, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 381-400Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2012
Keywords
EU law, restitution, repayment of illegal charges, internal market, tax law
National Category
Law
Research subject
European (Integration) Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167504 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Lind, A.-S. & Strand, M. (2011). A New Proportionality Test for Fundamental Rights?: The Joined Cases C-92/09 and C-93/09 Volker und Markus Schecke GbR (C-92/09) and Hartmut Eifert (C-93/09) v. Land Hessen. Stockholm: SIEPS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Proportionality Test for Fundamental Rights?: The Joined Cases C-92/09 and C-93/09 Volker und Markus Schecke GbR (C-92/09) and Hartmut Eifert (C-93/09) v. Land Hessen
2011 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the joined cases C-92/09 and C-93/09 Volker und Markus Schecke GbR (C-92/09) and Hartmut Eifert (C-93/09) v. Land Hessen Judgment of 9 November 2010, not yet published, the Court of Justice of the European Union (Court of Justice) was called upon to balance the right to respect of private life in general, and to the protection of personal data in particular, protected by Articles 7 and 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the Charter), against the principle of transparency stated in Articles 1 and 10 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and in Article 15 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

The Court of Justice approached this problem within the context of a reference for a preliminary ruling under Article 267 TFEU. This reference, however, took the form of an indirect challenge to certain EU law provisions that, in the view of the applicants, violated the right to respect of private life and of the protection of personal data.

In this analysis the method of the Court of Justice when balancing diverging or even opposing interests protected by EU law will be scrutinised. The authors are critical of the Court’s reasoning, which they consider put too little weight on the fundamental interest of transparency in the case at hand. The analysis is structured as follows. First, in section 1, the arguments of the Applicants and the respondent State respectively will be summarised, followed by the main reasoning of the Court. In section 2, the question of how to balance fundamental rights and general interests will be analysed, taking as the point of departure the question of proportionality as described by the Court. The conclusions are presented in the final section 3.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SIEPS, 2011. p. 12
Series
European Policy Analysis ; 2011:7epa
Keywords
EU, EU law, constitutional law, transparency, personal data, privacy, EU, EU-rätt, konstitutionell rätt, personuppgifter, offentlighetsprincipen
National Category
Law
Research subject
Public Law; Constitutional Law; European (Integration) Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158803 (URN)
Note
This analysis was written for the Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies and is also available at http://www.sieps.se/sites/default/files/2011_7epa.pdfAvailable from: 2011-09-15 Created: 2011-09-15 Last updated: 2017-02-08Bibliographically approved
Strand, M. (2010). Approaching the Defence of Passing On: Arguments, Language and Discourse. Paper presented at Summer School 2010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaching the Defence of Passing On: Arguments, Language and Discourse
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper examines some methodological issues that have arisen when analysing the problem of passing on. The problem of passing on is a special problem of measuring an award of damages or restitution in a commercial situation where the injury or expense incurred may have been passed on down the chain of distribution. A defendant may under such circumstances invoke the defence of passing on, claiming that an award of damages or restitution, as the case may be, would under such circumstances constitute a windfall or unjustified enrichment of the claimant. Across jurisdictions, courts have chosen diametrically opposite approaches to the problem of passing on, making it an interesting object of legal study.

In my doctoral thesis, I intend to analyse patterns of argumentation around the problem of passing on in European Union law. Arguments will primarily be extracted from the reasons given by the Court of Justice of the European Union for the approach it has chosen. Other materials will be examined for comparison and discussion.

The analysis is intended to have three tiers. Firstly, argumentations will be more exactly defined and examined. This will involve the methodological problem of trying to define arguments that may be vague. It is argued that what is vague must be treated as vague, although interpretative methods should be used to suggest plausible definitions and to delineate, when possible, the interpretive space surrounding them. Secondly, the patterns thus defined will be examined and compared. This will involve the methodological problem of analysing wordplay and identifying connotations carried by legal concepts fundamental to our understanding of the problem of passing on. Thirdly, the impact of legal context will be assessed. This will involve the methodological problem of understanding larger legal discourses and identifying argumentation patterns fundamental to those legal discourses. It will also involve the methodological problem of assessing the interaction between wordplay surrounding the problem of passing on, the argumentation patterns of the legal discourse in which the problem of passing on has arisen, and the factual circumstances of individual cases.

Keywords
passing on, legal semantics, legal discourse theory
National Category
Law and Society Law and Society
Research subject
European (Integration) Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133955 (URN)
Conference
Summer School 2010
Available from: 2010-11-19 Created: 2010-11-19 Last updated: 2010-11-19Bibliographically approved
Lind, A.-S. & Strand, M. (2010). EU-rättsliga frågor kring arbetsmodellerna till ny yttrandefrihetsgrundlag.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EU-rättsliga frågor kring arbetsmodellerna till ny yttrandefrihetsgrundlag
2010 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]
  • Rapporten tillämpar främst EU-rättslig metod och presenterar risker. I de fall risker noterats finns förslag till åtgärder.
  • Lissabonfördraget öppnar nya möjligheter att aktivt värna om den svenska grundlagsskyddade yttrandefriheten.
  • Det finns en risk för konflikt mellan modellerna och EU:s dataskyddsdirektiv. Möjligen behövs en ny hänvisning till PuL i grundlagen för de fall då yttranden inte med stöd i dataskydds­direktivets artikel 9 kan undantas från direktivets tillämpnings­område.
  • Ansvarsmodellens krav på ansvarig utgivare med svenskt hemvist riskerar att stå i strid med EU-rättens krav på fri rörlighet för varor och tjänster. Vi föreslår därför en komplettering till ansvars­modellen.
  • Det är inte möjligt att nå trygg förvissning om att en viss grundlagsreglering av yttrandefriheten är förenlig med EU-rätten.
  • Vid en eventuell konflikt bör svenska domstolar inhämta förhands­avgörande, men bör då också ställa sina frågor till EU-domstolen på ett sätt som värnar den svenska grundlagen. Domstolarna har också ur svensk synvinkel möjlighet att med hänvisning till svensk grundlag frångå den handlingslinje som följer av ett givet förhands­avgörande.
Publisher
p. 57
Keywords
EU, EU-rätt, konstitutionell rätt, tryckfrihet, yttrandefrihet
National Category
Law
Research subject
Public Law; European (Integration) Law; Constitutional Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158801 (URN)
Note
Rapporten är ställd till Yttrandefrihetskommittén, en parlamentarisk kommitté, och finns tillgänglig på http://www.sou.gov.se/yttrandefrihet/.Available from: 2011-09-15 Created: 2011-09-15 Last updated: 2017-02-08
Strand, M. (2010). The Defence of Passing On: Loss, Gain and the Award of Damages in Private Enforcement of Competition Law. Uppsala: Juridiska fakulteten, Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Defence of Passing On: Loss, Gain and the Award of Damages in Private Enforcement of Competition Law
2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper analyses the approach taken to the defence of passing on in the European Commission White Paper on Damages actions for breach of the EC antitrust rules, issued 2 April, 2008, and the American Modernization Commission’s Report and Recommendations, issued in April, 2007. Focus is on normative reasons presented by the European and American reports, respectively, for allowing defendants to invoke the defence of passing on against claims for damages for a breach of competition law.

It is argued that as it is excessively difficult to assess who in the chain of distribution has absorbed any portion of an overcharge, it may be necessary to choose between a risk of awarding too little compensation and a risk of awarding too much compensation. It is concluded that it will serve the interest of deterrence best to risk awarding too much compensation.

It is questioned whether a claimant is unjustly enriched when receiving too much compensation. It is further questioned whether it is important to protect defendants against being liable in multiple damages. Finally, it is concluded that if liability in multiple damages is to be avoided, another solution than the one in the European Commission White Paper should be found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Juridiska fakulteten, Uppsala universitet, 2010. p. 22
Series
Uppsala Faculty of Law Working Paper ; 2010:5
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
European (Integration) Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121662 (URN)
Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-26 Last updated: 2013-05-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2302-0392

Search in DiVA

Show all publications