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Elwin, Ebba
Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Juslin, P., Elwin, E., Guath, M., Millroth, P. & Nilsson, H. (2016). Sequential and myopic: On the use of feedback to balance cost and utility in a simulated electricity efficiency task. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 28(1), 106-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sequential and myopic: On the use of feedback to balance cost and utility in a simulated electricity efficiency task
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 106-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While there is extensive research on feedback, little research is aimed at the use of feedback to optimise conflicting goals. A task modelled after In Home Displays for providing feedback about electricity cost was designed to investigate the effects of feedback frequency, detail, and stability, when participants try to balance cost and utility. Frequent feedback proved to be advantageous in a deterministic system, but feedback aggregated over time was advantageous in a system with noisy feedback. Surprisingly, performance was better with noisy feedback, where the probabilism, in effect, acted as a filter, highlighting the applications that are most important for the cost and the utility. Computational modelling suggested that the best-fitting model assumes that the participants are sequential, considering one goal at a time, first satisfying the cost budget, only thereafter trying to maximise the utility, and reflexive, myopically responding primarily to the feedback explicitly available on a given trial.

Keywords
Feedback, optimisation, goal conflict, cognitive myopia, energy efficiency
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-274420 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2015.1095192 (DOI)000367337800008 ()
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2016-01-21 Created: 2016-01-21 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
Guath, M., Millroth, P., Juslin, P. & Elwin, E. (2015). Optimizing Electricity Consumption: A Case of Function Learning. Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, 21(4), 326-341
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing Electricity Consumption: A Case of Function Learning
2015 (English)In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 326-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A popular way to improve consumers' control over their electricity consumption is by providing outcome feedback on the cost with in-home displays. Research on function learning, however, suggests that outcome feedback may not always be ideal for learning, especially if the feedback signal is noisy. In this study, we relate research on function learning to in-home displays and use a laboratory task simulating a household to investigate the role of outcome feedback and function learning on electricity optimization. Three function training schemes (FTSs) are presented that convey specific properties of the functions that relate the electricity consumption to the utility and cost. In Experiment 1, we compared learning from outcome feedback with 3 FTSs, 1 of which allowed maximization of the utility while keeping the budget, despite no feedback about the total monthly cost. In Experiment 2, we explored the combination of this FTS and outcome feedback. The results suggested that electricity optimization may be facilitated if feedback learning is preceded by a brief period of function training.

Keywords
function learning, electricity consumption, electricity optimization, in-home displays
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-272132 (URN)10.1037/xap0000056 (DOI)000366318200002 ()26460677 (PubMedID)
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2016-01-12 Created: 2016-01-12 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Elwin, E. (2013). Living and Learning: Reproducing Beliefs in Selective Experience. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26(4), 327-337
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living and Learning: Reproducing Beliefs in Selective Experience
2013 (English)In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 327-337Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People's decisions shape their experience. For example, a recruitment officer decides between job applicants and cannot evaluate the suitability of rejected applicants. The selection decisions thus affect the content of the officer's experience of suitable and unsuitable applicants, and experiential learning is achieved from a selective sample of experiences. It is suggested that people's beliefs are sensitive to the content of the experienced sample, but the mind cannot adjust for the selectivity of the sample even when it results from the individual's own decisions. Two experiments with a recruitment task showed that incorrect prior beliefs survive experiential learning when the beliefs are reproduced and thus appear to be confirmed, in actual experience. When the task was to achieve high performance, incorrect prior beliefs persisted because they were reproduced in a smaller sample of selected job applicants. In contrast, when the task was focused on learning, a greater number of applicants were selected, and a more representative experience therefore revised incorrect beliefs. The actual content of the experienced sample is thus crucial for the persistence, as well as for the revision, of incorrect beliefs. Further, as predicted by the hypothesis of constructivist coding, when feedback was absent for rejected applicants, participants constructed internal feedback in line with the expectation that the rejected applicant was unsuitable. Thus, when fewer applicants were hired, participants came to believe that the actual proportion of suitable applicants was low. Finally, the implications for efforts to reduce bias and improve experiential learning are discussed.

Keywords
sampling, selective feedback, experiential learning, confirmation bias, constructivist coding
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209463 (URN)10.1002/bdm.1770 (DOI)000324298400002 ()
Available from: 2013-10-24 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Henriksson, M. P., Elwin, E. & Juslin, P. (2010). What is Coded into Memory in the Absence of Outcome Feedback?. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36(1), 1-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is Coded into Memory in the Absence of Outcome Feedback?
2010 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Although people often have to learn from environments with scarce and highly selective outcome feedback, the question of how non-feedback trials are represented in memory and affect later performance has received little attention in models of learning and decision making. In this article, the Generalized Context Model (R. M. Nosofsky, 1986) is used as a vehicle to test contrasting hypotheses about the coding of non-feedback trials. Data across 3 experiments with selective decision-contingent and selective outcome-contingent feedback provide support for the hypothesis of constructivist coding (E. Elwin, P. Juslin, H. Olsson, & T. Enkvist, 2007), according to which the outcomes on non-feedback trials are coded with the most likely outcome, as inferred by the individual. The relation to sampling-based approaches to judgment, and the adaptive significance of constructivist coding, are discussed.

Keywords
selective feedback, constructivist coding, generalized context model, base-rate bias
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106876 (URN)
Available from: 2009-07-08 Created: 2009-07-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Elwin, E.Living and Learning: The Interplay between Beliefs, Sampling Behaviour, and Experience.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living and Learning: The Interplay between Beliefs, Sampling Behaviour, and Experience
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effects on performance of selective feedback contingent on the decisions of the individual were investigated, and the prediction that negative effects of selective feedback are mediated by sampling behaviour that produces a sample of experience that apparently confirms an initial incorrect belief. Empirical results demonstrated that negative effects on performance of selective feedback were small. However, when participants were offered an incorrect prior assumption concerning the likely outcomes of their decisions, and the aim was to produce good outcomes, selective feedback lead to a restrictive sample of experiences that confirmed the incorrect assumption. Consequently, mistaken beliefs persisted, even after accurately perceived and interpreted extensive experience. In contrast, when the decision maker was encouraged to sample more liberally, objective experience allowed the revision of an incorrect assumption. Finally, the estimated base-rates of participants with selective feedback supported the predictions from constructivist coding.

Keywords
sampling, selective feedback, experiential learning, confirmation bias, constructivist coding
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106878 (URN)
Available from: 2009-07-08 Created: 2009-07-08 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
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