uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 64) Show all publications
Zhang, S., Wang, B., Jiang, J., Wu, K., Guo, C. F. & Wu, Z. (2019). High-Fidelity Conformal Printing of 3D Liquid Alloy Circuits for Soft Electronics. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 11(7), 7148-7156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Fidelity Conformal Printing of 3D Liquid Alloy Circuits for Soft Electronics
Show others...
2019 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 7148-7156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Owing to the great deformability from fluid, liquid alloy-based soft electronics has inherent advantages over rigid-based ones for applications such as stretchable intelligence or soft robotics, where high fidelity of three-dimensional (3D) conformability or dynamic morphology is required. However, current fabrications heavily rely on planar techniques, which severely limit their great potential in such attracting applications. By tuning the wettability of liquid alloy on a soft substrate through a selective surface morphology modification, we present a flexography printing technique of liquid alloy circuits on both planar (from diverse materials) and 3D complex surfaces and investigate the tuning mechanism and the relation between liquid alloy wettability and surface morphology modification. In a demonstration, high-fidelity printing of liquid alloy circuits can be deployed not only on the outline but also on small pits of strawberry surface, and the circuits work well in a dynamic deformation. Furthermore, being compatible with current industry process, our technique can be highly potential for future mass manufacturing of liquid alloy-based soft electronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
Keywords
wettability tune, flexography printing, liquid alloy, conformal printing, surface morphology control
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379262 (URN)10.1021/acsami.8b20595 (DOI)000459642200049 ()30675789 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-15 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Wang, B., Wu, K., Hjort, K., Guo, C. & Wu, Z. (2019). High-Performance Liquid Alloy Patterning of Epidermal Strain Sensors for Local Fine Skin Movement Monitoring. SOFT ROBOTICS, 6(3), 414-421
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Performance Liquid Alloy Patterning of Epidermal Strain Sensors for Local Fine Skin Movement Monitoring
Show others...
2019 (English)In: SOFT ROBOTICS, ISSN 2169-5172, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 414-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, stretchable/epidermal electronics based on liquid alloys has attracted more and more attention, and various processing techniques have subsequently been developed to demonstrate diverse applications never seen before. However, to fully exploit its potential advantages, epidermal electronics is still searching for a technique meeting all demands on resolution, pattern complexity, and operational flexibility. In this study, we propose a technique that allows for complex and high-density patterns on thin stretchable substrates by combining ultraviolet laser patterning of a modified water-soluble mask, atomized spray deposition of liquid alloys on a flexible temporary substrate, lift-off by water dissolving, and finally, component integration and encapsulation. With this new technique, it was possible to make epidermal precision strain sensors with liquid alloy patterns of high density, which were capable of monitoring fine local skin movements such as the detailed process of wrinkle formation as well as the overall motion of the body part. In addition, this process is highly efficient and well controllable, with high potential for possible industrial automation and massive production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2019
Keywords
laser patterning soluble mask, liquid alloy patterning, epidermal strain sensor, two-dimensional strain sensor, local strain sensor, skin movement
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395561 (URN)10.1089/soro.2018.0008 (DOI)000462512600001 ()30917090 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-21 Created: 2019-10-21 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
An, H., Chen, L., Liu, X., Zhao, B., Zhang, H. & Wu, Z. (2019). Microfluidic contact lenses for unpowered, continuous and non-invasive intraocular pressure monitoring. Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, 295, 177-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microfluidic contact lenses for unpowered, continuous and non-invasive intraocular pressure monitoring
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 295, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a crucial physiological indicator of the visual system and play a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. However, the current handheld single measurement tools for IOP sensing cannot meet the future demands for glaucoma management. Thus, here we present the microfluidic contact lens sensors that could provide unpowered, continuous and non-invasive IOP monitoring. The microfluidic contact lens is comprised of a sensing layer of the micropatterned soft-elastomer and a hard plastic reference layer. The devices use the annular sensing chamber filled with the dyed liquid and a sensing microchannel as the IOP transducer. Resulting from the volume variance of the sensing chamber and caused by the deformation of the sensing layer under pressure, the IOP signal is detected as the displacement change of the dyed liquid's interface in the sensing channel, and in which, the displacement change can be optically observed by using the smart-phone camera. Based on the silicone rubber model eyeball, the sensing mechanism of the devices with different design parameters (the position of the sensing chambers and the dimension of the sensing channels) are explored by using the theoretical analyses and experimental investigations. The characteristics of these microfluidic contact lens sensors are tested, in which, the maximum sensitivity of the device (with the sensing chamber of 8.5 mm in diameter and the sensing channel of 100 x 40 um in size) can be achieved to 0.708 mm/mmHg in a working range of 0 (4) over tilde0 mmHg. Also, cyclical tests were conducted and indicated that the devices had a good reversibility and Long-term stability. Furthermore, the device (with the sensing chamber of 5.0 mm in diameter and the sensing channel of 150 x 40 urn in size) was test on the porcine eyes ex vivo, showing a sensitivity of 0.2832 mm/mmHg in a range of 8 (3) over tilde2 mmHg and, the device had a good reproducibility to its IOP change. This work provides a promising approach for unpowered, continuous and non-invasive monitoring of IOP.

Keywords
Intraocular pressure, Microfluidic contact lenses, Non-invasive, Unpowered, Sensing mechanism
National Category
Ophthalmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394273 (URN)10.1016/j.sna.2019.04.050 (DOI)000483635900020 ()
Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Wang, B., Xin, W., Hjort, K., Guo, C. & Wu, Z. (2019). Sandwiched Polyethylene Shrink Film Masking with Tunable Resolution and Shape for Liquid Alloy Patterning. ACS APPLIED POLYMER MATERIALS, 1(2), 145-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sandwiched Polyethylene Shrink Film Masking with Tunable Resolution and Shape for Liquid Alloy Patterning
Show others...
2019 (English)In: ACS APPLIED POLYMER MATERIALS, ISSN 2637-6105, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Among numerous patterning techniques, masked liquid alloy printing is one of the most promising techniques for scalable fabrication of liquid-alloy-based stretchable electronics. Like any other mask-based process, its resolution is often constrained by the quality of the mask, and the fabrication cost increases drastically with increased resolution. In this work, by introducing a sandwiched thermal shrink polymer film masking technique and a corresponding intermediate release agent, fine liquid alloy patterns were demonstrated by using a mechanical cutting plotter together with a common oven. The final resolution and shape of the mask could be tuned based on the anisotropy of the shrink polymer film and other operational parameters of the technique. After shrinkage, the width of the patterned liquid alloy lines and space in-between could be tuned to less than one third of the original cut pattern, to about 35 and 60 mu m, respectively, according to requirements. To better predict the final structure, several parameters were investigated experimentally and numerically. Finally, a liquid alloy strain sensor and three-dimensional conformal masking were demonstrated, showing the potential of the developed technique.

Keywords
masking, shrink film, resolution tuning, 3D conformal masking, liquid alloy patterning
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392067 (URN)10.1021/acsapm.8b00010 (DOI)000476966600007 ()
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
An, H., Chen, L., Liu, X., Zhao, B., Ma, D. & Wu, Z. (2018). A method of manufacturing microfluidic contact lenses by using irreversible bonding and thermoforming. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 28(10), Article ID 105008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method of manufacturing microfluidic contact lenses by using irreversible bonding and thermoforming
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 28, no 10, article id 105008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present the development of microfluidic contact lenses, which is based on the advantages of wearable microfluidics and can have great potential in the ophthalmology healthcare field. The development consists of two parts; the manufacturing process and the usability tests of the devices. In the manufacturing process, we firstly extended silane coupling and surface modification to irreversibly bond plastic membranes with microchannel-molded silicone rubber, to form the plastic-PDMS plane assemblies, and then molded the plane into a contact lens by thermoforming. We systematically investigated the effects of thermoforming factors, heating temperatures and the terrace die's sphere radius on channels by using the factorial experiment design. In addition, various tests were conducted to verify the usability of the devices. Through blockage and leakage tests, the devices were proved to be feasible, with no channel-blockages and could stand high pressures. Through a wearing test, the contact lenses were confirmed to be harmless on the living body. Furthermore, by performing the manipulating test, the device was proved to be liquid-controllable. These works provide a foundation for the applications of microfluidic contact lenses in ophthalmology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018
Keywords
microfluidic contact lenses, thermoforming, factorial experiment, contact lens
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361480 (URN)10.1088/1361-6439/aaceb7 (DOI)000438633900002 ()
Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Deng, P., Fu, C.-J. & Wu, Z. (2018). High purity and viability cell separation of a bacterivorous jakobid flagellate based on a steep velocity gradient induced soft inertial force. RSC Advances, 8(62), 35512-35520
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High purity and viability cell separation of a bacterivorous jakobid flagellate based on a steep velocity gradient induced soft inertial force
2018 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 62, p. 35512-35520Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cell separation is one of the key limiting factors for precise analysis of non-axenic microbial lab cultures or environmental samples, and it remains a challenge to isolate target cells with high purity and viability via high-throughput cell sorting. During the past decade, hydrodynamic microfluidic platforms have attracted great attention in cell preparation for their high efficiency, robust performance and low cost. Here, we employ the use of a low-velocity sheath flow with high viscosity near the wall and a high-velocity sheath flow with low viscosity on the other side of the sample flow in a soft inertial separation chip. This not only prevents hard interactions between cells and chip walls but, in comparison to previous inertial separation methods, generates a significant increase in deflection of large cells while keeping the small ones in the original flow. We first conducted experiments on a mixture of small and large fluorescent particles (1.0 and 9.9 m, respectively) and removed over 99% of the small particles. The separation efficiency was then tested on a culture of a bacterivorous jakobid flagellate, Seculamonas ecuadoriensis fed on the live bacterium, Klebsiella sp. Using our microfluidic chip, over 94% of live bacteria were removed while maintaining high jakobid cell viability. For comparison, we also conducted size-based cell sorting of the same culture using flow cytometry, which is widely used as a rapid and automated separation tool. Compared with the latter, our chip showed more than 40% higher separation efficiency. Thus, our device provides high purity and viability for cell separation of a sensitive cell sample (jakobid cells). Potentially, the method can be further used for applications in diagnostics, biological analyses and environmental assessment of mixed microbial samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2018
National Category
Cell Biology Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369444 (URN)10.1039/c8ra05328f (DOI)000448348900021 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-04378
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Wu, Z., Zhang, S., Vorobyev, A., Gamstedt, E. K., Wu, K., Guo, C. & Jeong, S. H. (2018). Seamless modulus gradient structures for highly resilient, stretchable system integration. MATERIALS TODAY PHYSICS, 4, 28-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seamless modulus gradient structures for highly resilient, stretchable system integration
Show others...
2018 (English)In: MATERIALS TODAY PHYSICS, ISSN 2542-5293, Vol. 4, p. 28-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hybrid system integration of rigid components into stretchable systems is often necessary when targeting for valuable functions in various scenarios. Among them, (Young's) modulus gradient structures for system integration demonstrate excellent mechanical performance when stretched. However, the mechanical reliability is still limited under large deformation due to the inherent interface between materials of different modulus. Here, a seamless transition between heterogeneous moduli parts made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based elastomers is presented for stretchable system integration by simply tuning their modulus via introducing a small amount of an additive into some parts of the substrate. These gradient structures not only provide a high stretchability (similar to 250%) for the overall system, but also improve the resilience of the system (can be stretched up to 50,000 cycles from 0 to 150% global strain) at the same time. The seamless modulus gradient structures provide a simple and effective way of allowing highly resilient and stretchable system integration for various soft intelligent systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
Keywords
Seamless modulus gradient structure, Resilience, Stretchability, System integration
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361000 (URN)10.1016/j.mtphys.2018.02.002 (DOI)000437313500005 ()
Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Cruz, J., Zadeh, S. H., Graells, T., Andersson, M., Malmström, J., Wu, Z. G. & Hjort, K. (2017). High pressure inertial focusing for separating and concentrating bacteria at high throughput. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 27(8), Article ID 084001.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High pressure inertial focusing for separating and concentrating bacteria at high throughput
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 27, no 8, article id 084001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inertial focusing is a promising microfluidic technology for concentration and separation of particles by size. However, there is a strong correlation of increased pressure with decreased particle size. Theory and experimental results for larger particles were used to scale down the phenomenon and find the conditions that focus 1 mu m particles. High pressure experiments in robust glass chips were used to demonstrate the alignment. We show how the technique works for 1 mu m spherical polystyrene particles and for Escherichia coli, not being harmful for the bacteria at 50 mu l min(-1). The potential to focus bacteria, simplicity of use and high throughput make this technology interesting for healthcare applications, where concentration and purification of a sample may be required as an initial step.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017
Keywords
bacteria separation, particle separation, inertial focusing, high pressure, glass chips, PDMS, microfluidic channel
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Other Materials Engineering Analytical Chemistry Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329919 (URN)10.1088/1361-6439/aa6b14 (DOI)000404540500001 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 644669
Available from: 2018-02-22 Created: 2018-02-22 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
Jeong, S. H., Cruz, J., Chen, S., Gravier, L., Liu, J., Wu, Z., . . . Zhang, Z.-B. (2017). Stretchable thermoelectric generators metallized with liquid alloy. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 9(18), 15791-15797
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stretchable thermoelectric generators metallized with liquid alloy
Show others...
2017 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 18, p. 15791-15797Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conventional thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are normally hard, rigid, and flat. However, most objects have curvy surfaces, which require soft and even stretchable TEGs for maximizing efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. Here, soft and stretchable TEGs using conventional rigid Bi2Te3 pellets metallized with a liquid alloy is reported. The fabrication is implemented by means of a tailored layer-by-layer fabrication process. The STEGs exhibit an output power density of 40.6 mu W/cm(2) at room temperature. The STEGs are operational after being mechanically stretched-and-released more than 1000 times, thanks to the compliant contact between the liquid alloy interconnects and the rigid pellets. The demonstrated interconnect scheme will provide a new route to the development of soft and stretchable energy-harvesting avenues for a variety of emerging electronic applications.

National Category
Energy Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281213 (URN)10.1021/acsami.7b04752 (DOI)000401307100064 ()28453282 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , EM11-0002, SE13-0061Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-5596
Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2017-07-04Bibliographically approved
Liu, Z., Xu, W., Hou, Z. & Wu, Z. (2016). A Rapid Prototyping Technique for Microfluidics with High Robustness and Flexibility. Micromachines, 7(11), Article ID 201.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Rapid Prototyping Technique for Microfluidics with High Robustness and Flexibility
2016 (English)In: Micromachines, ISSN 2072-666X, E-ISSN 2072-666X, Vol. 7, no 11, article id 201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In microfluidic device prototyping, master fabrication by traditional photolithography is expensive and time-consuming, especially when the design requires being repeatedly modified to achieve a satisfactory performance. By introducing a high-performance/cost-ratio laser to the traditional soft lithography, this paper describes a flexible and rapid prototyping technique for microfluidics. An ultraviolet (UV) laser directly writes on the photoresist without a photomask, which is suitable for master fabrication. By eliminating the constraints of fixed patterns in the traditional photomask when the masters are made, this prototyping technique gives designers/researchers the convenience to revise or modify their designs iteratively. A device fabricated by this method is tested for particle separation and demonstrates good properties. This technique provides a flexible and rapid solution to fabricating microfluidic devices for non-professionals at relatively low cost.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308592 (URN)10.3390/mi7110201 (DOI)000389131500008 ()
Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-28 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3719-406x

Search in DiVA

Show all publications