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Fors, P. & Laaksoharju, M. (2019). An Intuition-Based Approach to Sustainable ICT: Insights from Eco-Ethica. In: Thomas Taro Lennerfors, Kiyoshi Murata (Ed.), Tetsugaku Companion to Japanese Ethics and Technology: (pp. 181-200). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Intuition-Based Approach to Sustainable ICT: Insights from Eco-Ethica
2019 (English)In: Tetsugaku Companion to Japanese Ethics and Technology / [ed] Thomas Taro Lennerfors, Kiyoshi Murata, Springer, 2019, p. 181-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter we draw on the Japanese philosopher Tomonobu Imamichi in order to further develop our understanding of the relationship between Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and ecological sustainability. Our main contribution is an intuition-based approach to design for sustainability, which, for instance, means to design ICT products in a way that invokes feelings of wastefulness or misuse if used in an unsustainable manner. In contrast to persuasive approaches – which have mainly focused on raising awareness, nudging decisions, or stimulating positive behavior through gamification – we rely on the human tendency to unconsciously and effortlessly formulate mental heuristics or intuitions, when exposed to consistent feedback. The claim is that people can learn to associate perceptual cues with environmental impact, and by that will be empowered to make more sustainable choices. Based on the implications of Imamichi’s Eco-ethica, we suggest that this approach can be more fruitful for encouraging sustainable choices than both awareness raising and behavior manipulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Series
Tetsugaku Companions to Japanese Philosophy, ISSN 2662-2181, E-ISSN 2662-219X ; 1
Keywords
ICT, Sustainability, Intuition-based, design, HCI, Imamichi, Eco-ethica
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Research subject
Ethics; Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372894 (URN)978-3-319-59025-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-59027-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-04-26Bibliographically approved
Granlund, I., Vriend, S. A., Benz, J., Azizah, R., Laaksoharju, M. & Obaid, M. (2018). A user-centered storytelling approach to design a language companion robotic agent. In: Proc. 6th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction: . Paper presented at HAI 2018, December 15–18, Southampton, UK (pp. 29-35). New York: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A user-centered storytelling approach to design a language companion robotic agent
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2018 (English)In: Proc. 6th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction, New York: ACM Press, 2018, p. 29-35Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Press, 2018
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377807 (URN)10.1145/3284432.3284434 (DOI)000457793300006 ()978-1-4503-5953-5 (ISBN)
Conference
HAI 2018, December 15–18, Southampton, UK
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Laaksoharju, M. (2018). Wabi-sabi in the design of ICT: aestheticising digital imperfections. In: Masayasu Takahashi (Ed.), Wabi-Sabi: Imperfection, incompleteness and impermanence in Organisational Life. Paper presented at ACSCOS/SCOS Conference (Australasian Caucus (ACSCOS) and Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism (SCOS))August 17-20 2018 Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan (pp. 162-163). Tokyo, Japan: Chiyoda Cres Co., Ltd.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wabi-sabi in the design of ICT: aestheticising digital imperfections
2018 (English)In: Wabi-Sabi: Imperfection, incompleteness and impermanence in Organisational Life / [ed] Masayasu Takahashi, Tokyo, Japan: Chiyoda Cres Co., Ltd. , 2018, p. 162-163Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

ICT is, at least in theory, promising perfection. It is the ideal vehicle for organisations that strive for predictability and efficiency. The correctness of algorithms can be proven, data can be verifiably accurate, and computations can be precise to any desired extent. However, in practice this is just a mirage. Any piece of software of reasonable complexity contains ​bugs​, data is often ​incomplete and erroneous​, and computations need to be approximated​ for practical reasons. The two first types of imperfections are caused by humans – by the programmers of the software and by the users who input information. The third type of imperfection is usually due either to the binary modelling of decimal numbers or limitations of computational resources. We can add a fourth type of imperfection, namely the small risk of random errors in the memory structures of computers, which is most often associated with ​cosmic radiation​.

The common reaction when an imperfection in ICT is noticed is to request it to be immediately fixed. This makes perfect sense in a utility-focused value system, but if we instead would approach the imperfection as wabi-sabi, we would perhaps be able to regard it as something more than a disturbing error. It could enrich the experience of using mundane organisational ICT systems by unveiling authorship and character. It could also serve as a reminder of our reliance on technology: the greater the negative effect of the imperfection, the more conceited was our reliance on an essentially fragile construction.

An undesired imperfection in code could be remedied in a way that leaves no trace of it ever having occurred, but that also means that the artifact’s history is lost. Tracelessly fixing an error deprives us of experiencing the maturation of an artifact and binds us in a non-temporal present in which development is a result rather than a process.

Wabi-sabi has been addressed to some extent in design research (e.g. Tasaknaki & Fernaeus, 2016). However, this research has focused largely on the visible and tangible features of technology – not on the hidden binary, algorithmic mechanics of ICT and how these impact organisations – but within the domain of digital games there is a clear example of wabi-sabi in a subculture that reveres imperfections – glitches – for what they reveal about the construction of a game and for the hidden affordances that they offer (see e.g. Stryder7x). This subculture could be categorised as striving toward hedonic goals but some lessons for professional organisations could still be gleaned by studying its dynamics.

In the current society there is a widespread tendency to value increasing productivity and efficiency, with little concern for how this impairs human experiencing. Aestheticising digital imperfections may be an avenue to better appreciate human fallibility, the (digital) material, and chance as inevitable characteristics of digital artefacts. From a rational point of view, contemplation over the ubiquitous imperfections could very well teach ICT-powered organisations to become more resilient and less vulnerable to technological breakdowns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo, Japan: Chiyoda Cres Co., Ltd., 2018
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394021 (URN)
Conference
ACSCOS/SCOS Conference (Australasian Caucus (ACSCOS) and Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism (SCOS))August 17-20 2018 Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hirsch, L., Björsell, A., Laaksoharju, M. & Obaid, M. (2017). Investigating design implications towards a social robot as a memory trainer. In: Proc. 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction: . Paper presented at HAI 2017, October 17–20, Bielefeld, Germany (pp. 5-10). New York: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating design implications towards a social robot as a memory trainer
2017 (English)In: Proc. 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, New York: ACM Press, 2017, p. 5-10Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Most currently existing tools for cognitive memory therapy require physical interaction or at least the presence of another person. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether a social robot might be an acceptable solution for a more inclusive therapy for people with memory disorder and severe physical limitations. Applying a user-centered design approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with five healthcare professionals; four medical doctors and a psychologist, in three iterations followed by a focus group activity. An analysis of the collected data suggests several implications for design with an emphasis on embodiment, social skills, interaction, and memory training exercises.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Press, 2017
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335360 (URN)10.1145/3125739.3125755 (DOI)000463009800003 ()978-1-4503-5113-3 (ISBN)
Conference
HAI 2017, October 17–20, Bielefeld, Germany
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-04378
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
Deneke, J., Lehane, D., Kandler, A., Menchini, T., Laaksoharju, M. & Obaid, M. (2017). Using rapid prototyping to explore design implications for a pill-dispensing social agent. In: Proc. 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction: . Paper presented at HAI 2017, October 17–20, Bielefeld, Germany (pp. 53-59). New York: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using rapid prototyping to explore design implications for a pill-dispensing social agent
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2017 (English)In: Proc. 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, New York: ACM Press, 2017, p. 53-59Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The process of managing one's daily intake of medication has been shown to be error-prone for a variety of reasons. In this paper, we explore, through a rapid prototyping approach, the design implications for a social robotic agent intended for dispensing medicine. The process started with initial interviews with medical experts to allow for a better understanding of the design space. Their input helped us realise a low-fidelity, animal-like, robotic prototype for pill-dispensing. We report initial impressions of the prototype from four pharmacists. Based on those findings, we present design implications categorised into: look and feel, social role, desired task, and the agent's presence in a home environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Press, 2017
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335359 (URN)10.1145/3125739.3125754 (DOI)000463009800009 ()978-1-4503-5113-3 (ISBN)
Conference
HAI 2017, October 17–20, Bielefeld, Germany
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
Vieritz, H., Ullrich, C., Isaksson, E., Schmitz, H.-C., von der Heiden, B., Borau, K., . . . Laaksoharju, M. (2015). Case Study 1: Using widget bundles for formal learning in higher education. In: Responsive Open Learning Environments: Outcomes of Research from the ROLE Project (pp. 79-113). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Case Study 1: Using widget bundles for formal learning in higher education
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2015 (English)In: Responsive Open Learning Environments: Outcomes of Research from the ROLE Project, Springer, 2015, p. 79-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275765 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-02399-1_4 (DOI)978-3-319-02398-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-11-05 Created: 2016-02-05 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Kavathatzopoulos, I. & Laaksoharju, M. (2015). Etik och medicinteknik. In: Fredrik Nikolajeff (Ed.), Medicinteknikdagarna 2015: . Paper presented at Medicinteknikdagarna 2015; 13–14 oktober 2015, Uppsala (pp. 94-94). Uppsala: Svensk Förening för Medicinsk Teknik och Fysik (MTF), Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Etik och medicinteknik
2015 (Swedish)In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2015 / [ed] Fredrik Nikolajeff, Uppsala: Svensk Förening för Medicinsk Teknik och Fysik (MTF), Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala universitet , 2015, p. 94-94Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

De nya metoder för att diagnostisera och behandla sjukdomar och de nya möjligheter som den medicinska teknologin och då inte minst informationsteknologin erbjuder, ställer beslutsfattarna inom vården inför nya typer av etiska beslutssituationer. Förbättrade metoder för diagnosticering ger information som inte alltid har önskvärda konsekvenser, exempelvis abort av barn av oönskat kön. De nya möjligheterna att behandla sjukdomstillstånd som tidigare uppfattats som hopplösa innebär allvarliga och svåra val då liv kan komma att vägas mot samhällskostnad. Ny medicinteknik kan kräva snabbt beslutsfattande där eftertanke inte hinns med vilket ställer frågan om teknikleverantörens ansvar på sin spets. Den nya internetsjukvården, dvs. de nya möjligheter till medicinsk konsultation och information som skapats genom Internet ger upphov till nya relationer mellan vårdgivare och patient och aktualiserar därmed också frågor om ansvar och etik.

Tekniken ger oss nya möjligheter för diagnos och terapi men även för organiseringen av vården, t ex patientjournaler och distansvård, men tekniken innebär också risker i form av feldiagnoser, skador i vården, intrång på patientintegritet, etc. Dialysolyckan i Linköping och konflikten om elektroniska patientjournaler är talande exempel. Det är viktigt att medicinteknik fungerar så som det är tänkt och att vårdpersonal, patienter och allmänhet litar på och accepterar tekniken. Annars kan vi inte dra nytta av det tekniken har att erbjuda.

Det är också viktigt att vårdpersonal och alla användare av medicinteknik förstår hur den fungerar och vilka effekter den kan ha, och att de har kompetensen att hantera problem som kan uppstå vid användning, även icke tekniska sådana. Etiken är därför en mycket viktig aspekt i medicinteknikutvecklingen. Det är nödvändigt att integrera etiska bedömningar i utformningen av medicinsk teknik och förbereda vårdpersonal, patienter och alla berörda för en etisk användning.

Om etiken är viktig för medicinsk teknik blir den intressanta frågan hur ska vi lyckas integrera etiken i forskning, utveckling, design, och användning av medicinteknik. Det vanligaste angreppsättet är att försöka anpassa tekniken till viktiga moraliska principer och regler. Om det fungerar är detta det snabbaste och enklaste sättet att bygga etisk medicinteknik. Det finns dock flera frågor med detta angreppsätt, t ex vilken princip som ska gälla och vilken tolkning som ska tillämpas i designen av medicinteknik. Det kan också upplevas som att etiken fungerar enbart begränsande i utvecklingsarbetet.

Vi föreslår ett angreppsätt baserat på klassisk etikfilosofi. Vi skiftar fokus från det normativa innehållet till utvecklings- och användningsprocessen. Det viktiga blir att fokusera på hur vi skapar den kunskap vi behöver och hur ansvar kan fördelas när vi designar etisk medicinsk teknik. Detta öppnar upp för skapande av olika metoder och verktyg samt stöd för användares etiska kompetensutveckling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Svensk Förening för Medicinsk Teknik och Fysik (MTF), Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala universitet, 2015
Keywords
Medicinteknik, etik, teknikanvändning, teknikutveckling, utveckling, utbildning
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Medical and Health Sciences Ethics
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268313 (URN)
Conference
Medicinteknikdagarna 2015; 13–14 oktober 2015, Uppsala
Projects
ETHCOMP
Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Kavathatzopoulos, I., Lennerfors, T., Laaksoharju, M., Asai, R. & Björk, I. (2015). Etikutbildning för ingenjörer: Övningar, verktyg, metoder. In: Stefan Pålsson (Ed.), 5:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges Ingenjörsutbildningar: . Paper presented at 5:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges Ingenjörsutbildningar; 18–19 november 2015, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Uppsala universitet (pp. 30-31). Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Etikutbildning för ingenjörer: Övningar, verktyg, metoder
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2015 (Swedish)In: 5:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges Ingenjörsutbildningar / [ed] Stefan Pålsson, Uppsala universitet, 2015, p. 30-31Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

En utbildning i etik som ska träna studenter att själva hantera etiska problem måste utgå ifrån klassisk filosofi och från etikpsykologisk forskning i problemlösning och beslutsfattande. Utbildningen ska koncentrera sig på praktiskt arbete och seminarier med egna verkliga etiska dilemman. Målet är utveckling av förmågan att lösa etiska problem, tolka och tillämpa viktiga principer och regler, och delta aktivt i dialog med andra intressenter. I workshopen kommer vi att visa metoder, verktyg och övningar som vi använder i våra etikkurser för ingenjörer och teknologer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala universitet, 2015
Keywords
Ingenjörsutbildning, etik, didaktik, utbildning, kurs, övning, verktyg, metod
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Ethics Didactics Pedagogy Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268314 (URN)
Conference
5:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges Ingenjörsutbildningar; 18–19 november 2015, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Uppsala universitet
Projects
ETHCOMP
Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Laaksoharju, M. (2014). Designing for Autonomy. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for Autonomy
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, two problems are addressed.

The first problem is how designers of computerized artifacts come to understand what they should design. In order to improve their chances for solving the right problem, it is suggested to adopt a deductive theorizing protocol, based on falsification, as it is expressed in philosophy as well as in psychological research on problem solving and decision making.

It requires a shift in the role that designers take in communication with users; rather than considering users as objects of study, the designers' understanding is being scrutinized, by users.

To accomplish this, an explication of the designers' understanding is necessary to formulate: a Theory of Use, which should account for the assumptions that the designers make about the users and the use situation. It should also be focused on what the designers understand to be the qualities of a good solution. These assumptions and qualities should be formulated as statements that are falsifiable by the users. Through this, the designers can, in a systematic way, get feedback on how well they have understood what they are designing for. Furthermore, the Theory of Use becomes the requirements against which subsequent design hypotheses are evaluated.

The second problem is how to determine if a computerized artifact is appropriate for a given purpose. To guide such an evaluation, it is suggested to focus on the autonomy of the artifact's users. This is based on the philosophical and psychological conclusion that autonomy is necessary for human well-being, which is not explicitly taken into account in current design practice.

The proposed Theory of Use protocol also gives designers the autonomy they need for developing their understanding and expertise. It is intended to improve and guide communication with users, targeting the most important facet of design: the designers' understanding of what they are designing for. Moreover, the protocol puts users in control over what is developed for them, and lets them have the final say on how their lives are designed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. p. 191
Series
Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-2516 ; 105
Keywords
design method, design philosophy, user-centered design, theorizing, falsification, interaction design, hypothesis, mental models, autonomy
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221877 (URN)978-91-554-8932-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-05-16, Room 2446, Polacksbacken, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-25 Created: 2014-04-06 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Laaksoharju, M. & Kavathatzopoulos, I. (2013). Democracy, human fallibility and ICT. In: The possibilities of ethical ICT: . Paper presented at ETHICOMP 2013 (pp. 295-301). Kolding: University of Southern Denmark
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy, human fallibility and ICT
2013 (English)In: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, p. 295-301Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Participation of citizens in matters of policy is important for a well-functioning democracy. Many scholars have suggested deliberative democracy as a suitable model for this. However, concern for groups with weak interest in participating raise some doubt whether this really will be more democratic in the end. In this essay we outline a theoretical model for designing ICT systems so that they stimulate and train democratic dialogue. The model is based on psychological research on decision making and a definition of democracy as a dialectic process, and can be applied to practically any forum where ideas are exchanged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kolding: University of Southern Denmark, 2013
Keywords
participative democracy, delibarative democracy, collaborative decision making
National Category
Ethics Philosophy Human Computer Interaction Media and Communication Technology Human Aspects of ICT Political Science Psychology
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207623 (URN)978-87-92646-72-9 (ISBN)
Conference
ETHICOMP 2013
Projects
ETHCOMP
Available from: 2013-09-17 Created: 2013-09-17 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2580-899x

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