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Hallqvist, Johan
Publications (10 of 153) Show all publications
Drevin, J., Hallqvist, J., Sonnander, K., Rosenblad, A., Pingel, R. & Bjelland, E. K. (2019). Childhood abuse and unplanned pregnancies: a cross-sectional study of women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood abuse and unplanned pregnancies: a cross-sectional study of women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
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2019 (English)In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To study if childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse are determinants for having an unplanned pregnancy, if the categories of abuse interact, and if a potential bias due to the selection of the participants (collider stratification bias) could explain the effect of childhood abuse.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SETTING: The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and uses data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway.

SAMPLE: Women participating in the MoBa for the first time, ≥18 years of age who responded to questions regarding childhood abuse and pregnancy planning (n = 76 197).

METHODS: Data were collected using questionnaires. We conducted analyses using modified Poisson regressions and the relative excess risks due to interaction (RERI). Sensitivity analyses were performed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: An unplanned pregnancy (yes/no).

RESULTS: Exposure to childhood emotional (adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.14, 95% CI 1.10-1.19), physical (adjusted RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18) and sexual (adjusted RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.14-1.27) abuse increased the risk of having an unplanned pregnancy. The effects could not be explained by the collider stratification bias. The different combinations of categories of abuse did not show any interaction effects.

CONCLUSIONS: Childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuses separately increase the risk of having an unplanned pregnancy. The results indicate that victims of childhood abuse are in greater need of support to achieve their reproductive goals.

TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Childhood abuse increases the risk of having an unplanned pregnancy. #reproductivehealth #epitwitter.

Keywords
MoBa, The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, abortion, child abuse, family planning services, induced, preconception care, pregnancy, unplanned
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-402741 (URN)10.1111/1471-0528.16037 (DOI)31802594 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-01-18 Created: 2020-01-18 Last updated: 2020-03-02
Diderichsen, F., Hallqvist, J. & Whitehead, M. (2019). Differential vulnerability and susceptibility: how to make use of recent development in our understanding of mediation and interaction to tackle health inequalities. International Journal of Epidemiology, 48(1), 268-274
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential vulnerability and susceptibility: how to make use of recent development in our understanding of mediation and interaction to tackle health inequalities
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 268-274Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses the concepts of vulnerability and susceptibility and their relevance for understanding and tackling health inequalities. Tackling socioeconomic inequalities in health is based on an understanding of how an individual's social position influences disease risk. Conceptually, there are two possible mechanisms (not mutually exclusive): there is either some cause(s) of disease that are unevenly distributed across socioeconomic groups (differential exposure) or the effect of some cause(s) of disease differs across groups (differential effect). Since differential vulnerability and susceptibility are often used to denote the latter, we discuss these concepts and their current use and suggest an epidemiologically relevant distinction. The effect of social position can thus be mediated by causes that are unevenly distributed across social groups and/or interact with social position. Recent improvements in the methodology to estimate mediation and interaction have made it possible to calculate measures of relevance for setting targets and priorities in policy for health equity which include both mechanisms, i.e. equalize exposure or equalize effects. We finally discuss the importance of differential susceptibility and vulnerability for the choice of preventive strategies, including approaches that target high-risk individuals, whole populations and vulnerable groups.

Keywords
Health equity, disease susceptibility, vulnerability, socioeconomic factors, public health policy
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382670 (URN)10.1093/ije/dyy167 (DOI)000463862500035 ()30085114 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-05-07 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Lytsy, P., Hallqvist, J., Alexanderson, K. & Åhs, A. (2019). Gender differences in healthcare management of depression: aspects of sick leave and treatment with psychoactive drugs in a Swedish setting. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 73(7), 441-450
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender differences in healthcare management of depression: aspects of sick leave and treatment with psychoactive drugs in a Swedish setting
2019 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 441-450Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate whether women and men diagnosed with depressive disorder were managed equally in terms of being sick-leave certified and being prescribed psychoactive drugs.

Materials and methods: Data from all patients diagnosed with depression during 2010-2015 in Uppsala county, Sweden (n = 19 448) were used to investigate associations between gender and issued sick-leave certificate, prescriptions of anti-depressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives, and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy referrals, at different time points up till 180 days after diagnosis.

Results: At diagnosis date, 50.1% were prescribed antidepressants; 14.2% anxiolytics; 13.3% hypnotics or sedatives. Corresponding proportion regarding issue of sick-leave certificate among working aged (18-64 years) was 16.6%. Men had higher odds than women of being prescribed antidepressants (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.09-1.24); anxiolytics (1.10; 95% CI 1.02-1.21), hypnotics and sedatives (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00-1.19) and lower odds (among those aged 18-64 years) of being sick-leave certified (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.82-0.98) in adjusted regression models. There were subtle changes in ORs for outcomes at 3- and 6-month follow-up periods.

Conclusions: Men had somewhat higher odds of being prescribed psychoactive drugs and slightly lower odds of being sick-leave certified as compared to women at date when diagnosed with depression. The absolute differences were, however, small and the overall conclusion is that women and men with current diagnosed depressive episode/recurrent depressive disorder are generally managed likewise regarding sick leave and psychoactive treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Depression, sick leave, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives, antidepressants
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-396117 (URN)10.1080/08039488.2019.1649723 (DOI)000480558800001 ()31403826 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-31 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Bean, C. G., Virtanen, M., Westerlund, H., Berg, N., Hallqvist, J. & Hammarström, A. (2019). Group activity participation at age 21 and depressive symptoms during boom and recession in Sweden: a 20-year follow-up. European Journal of Public Health, 29(3), 475-481
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group activity participation at age 21 and depressive symptoms during boom and recession in Sweden: a 20-year follow-up
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 475-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Organized group activities (e.g. sports or arts clubs) have long been noted as important developmental settings for youth, yet previous studies on the relationships between participation and mental health outcomes have focused on short-term effects among school-aged adolescents. The subsequent period of life, emerging adulthood, has been largely overlooked despite being another important life stage where individuals face new existential challenges and may benefit from group activity participation. The potential for macroeconomic conditions to modify these relationships has also not been considered.

Methods: Participants (n = 1654) comprise two cohorts, born in either 1965 (n = 968) or 1973 (n = 686), from the same middle-sized industrial town in Northern Sweden. Both cohorts completed detailed questionnaires at age 21 (macroeconomic boom for Cohort 65, recession for Cohort 73) and approximately 20 years follow-up (age 43 for Cohort 65, age 39 for Cohort 73). General linear models were used to assess concurrent and prospective associations between regular group activity participation and depressive symptoms, as well as the potential interaction with boom/recession.

Results: After controlling for sociodemographic factors, regular group activity participation at age 21 was associated with lower depressive symptoms, both concurrently and at follow-up. Those exposed to recession at age 21 reported higher depressive symptoms at the time but there was no interaction between cohort (boom/recession) and group activity participation.

Conclusions: Regular group activity participation during emerging adulthood is associated with lower depressive symptoms uniformly in times of boom and recession. Beneficial effects of such participation may contribute to better mental health over 20 years.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362022 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cky201 (DOI)000486962600020 ()30265293 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 259-2012-37Västerbotten County Council, VLL-355661
Available from: 2018-09-28 Created: 2018-09-28 Last updated: 2020-01-27Bibliographically approved
Hermansson, J., Boggild, H., Hallqvist, J., Karlsson, B., Knutsson, A., Nilsson, T., . . . Gadin, K. G. (2019). Interaction between Shift Work and Established Coronary Risk Factors. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 10(2), 57-65, Article ID PII 1466.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction between Shift Work and Established Coronary Risk Factors
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 2008-6520, E-ISSN 2008-6814, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 57-65, article id PII 1466Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

Shift work is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causes have not yet been fully established. It has been proposed that the coronary risk factors are more hazardous for shift workers, resulting in a potential interaction effect with shift work.

Objective:

To analyse interaction effects of work schedule and established risk factors for coronary artery disease on the risk of myocardial infarction.

Methods:

This analysis was conducted in SHEEP/VHEEP, a case-control study conducted in two counties in Sweden, comprising all first-time cases of myocardial infarction among men and women 45-70 years of age with controls stratified by sex, age, and hospital catchment area, totalling to 4648 participants. Synergy index (SI) was used as the main outcome analysis method for interaction analysis.

Results:

There was an interaction effect between shift work and physical inactivity on the risk of myocardial infarction with SI of 2.05 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.92) for male shift workers. For female shift workers, interaction effects were found with high waist-hip ratio (SI 4.0, 95% CI 1.12 to 14.28) and elevated triglycerides (SI 5.69, 95% CI 1.67 to 19.38).

Conclusion:

Shift work and some established coronary risk factors have significant interactions.

Keywords
Cardiovascular diseases, Epidemiology, Risk factors, Shift work schedule, Synergy
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383480 (URN)10.15171/ijoem.2019.1466 (DOI)000466504000003 ()31041922 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-16 Created: 2019-05-16 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Bean, C., Pingel, R., Hallqvist, J., Berg, N. & Hammarström, A. (2019). Poor peer relations in adolescence, social support in early adulthood, and depressive symptoms in later adulthood: evaluating mediation and interaction using four-way decomposition analysis. Annals of Epidemiology, 29, 52-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Poor peer relations in adolescence, social support in early adulthood, and depressive symptoms in later adulthood: evaluating mediation and interaction using four-way decomposition analysis
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2019 (English)In: Annals of Epidemiology, ISSN 1047-2797, E-ISSN 1873-2585, Vol. 29, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Supportive social relations are associated with good mental health, yet few studies have considered the prospective importance of adolescent peer relations for adult mental health and the potential mechanisms involved.

Methods: Participants (n=941) were sourced from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a prospective study comprising school students aged 16 in 1981. Integrating life course epidemiology with four-way decomposition analysis, this paper considers the controlled direct effect of poor peer relations at age 16 on depressive symptoms at age 43, the pure indirect effect mediated by the availability of social support at age 30, and potential interactions between the exposure and the mediator.

Results: After controlling for gender, baseline depressive symptoms and parental socioeconomic position, poor peer relations at age 16 were associated with depressive symptoms at age 43, largely irrespective of social support at age 30. Nonetheless, poor peer relations in adolescence were associated with poorer social support at age 30, and mediation accounted for a modest proportion (pure indirect effect 10%) of the association between poor peer relations and depressive symptoms at age 43.

Conclusions: Policies to foster constructive peer relations for adolescents at school are encouraged; such policies may promote both the availability of social support and better mental health across the life course.

Keywords
Adolescent, Adult, Mental health, Interpersonal relations, Peer group, Social support, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364744 (URN)10.1016/j.annepidem.2018.10.007 (DOI)000457352500008 ()30578124 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 259-2012-37
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2020-01-27Bibliographically approved
Sundström, J., Söderholm, M., Söderberg, S., Alfredsson, L., Andersson, M., Bellocco, R., . . . Wiberg, B. (2019). Risk factors for subarachnoid haemorrhage: a nationwide cohort of 950 000 adults.. International Journal of Epidemiology, 48(6), 2018-2025
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk factors for subarachnoid haemorrhage: a nationwide cohort of 950 000 adults.
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 2018-2025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, with high mortality rate and substantial disability among survivors. Its causes are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate risk factors for SAH using a novel nationwide cohort consortium.

METHODS: We obtained individual participant data of 949 683 persons (330 334 women) between 25 and 90 years old, with no history of SAH at baseline, from 21 population-based cohorts. Outcomes were obtained from the Swedish Patient and Causes of Death Registries.

RESULTS: During 13 704 959 person-years of follow-up, 2659 cases of first-ever fatal or non-fatal SAH occurred, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 9.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) (7.4-10.6)/100 000 person-years] in men and 13.8 [(11.4-16.2)/100 000 person-years] in women. The incidence rate increased exponentially with higher age. In multivariable-adjusted Poisson models, marked sex interactions for current smoking and body mass index (BMI) were observed. Current smoking conferred a rate ratio (RR) of 2.24 (95% CI 1.95-2.57) in women and 1.62 (1.47-1.79) in men. One standard deviation higher BMI was associated with an RR of 0.86 (0.81-0.92) in women and 1.02 (0.96-1.08) in men. Higher blood pressure and lower education level were also associated with higher risk of SAH.

CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH is 45% higher in women than in men, with substantial sex differences in risk factor strengths. In particular, a markedly stronger adverse effect of smoking in women may motivate targeted public health initiatives.

Keywords
Stroke, cohort study, epidemiology
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Lung Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401342 (URN)10.1093/ije/dyz163 (DOI)31363756 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-01-07 Created: 2020-01-07 Last updated: 2020-03-25Bibliographically approved
Bean, C., Virtanen, P., Virtanen, M., Berg, N., Hallqvist, J. & Hammarström, A. (2019). Youth participation in Active Labour Market Programs (ALMPs) during boom/recession and mental health: a 20-year follow-up. In: : . Paper presented at APS Health Psychology Conference. Adelaide, Australia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youth participation in Active Labour Market Programs (ALMPs) during boom/recession and mental health: a 20-year follow-up
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Adelaide, Australia: , 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392696 (URN)
Conference
APS Health Psychology Conference
Available from: 2019-09-08 Created: 2019-09-08 Last updated: 2020-01-27
Quintana, H. K., Janszky, I., Kanar, A., Gigante, B., Druid, H., Ahlbom, A., . . . Leander, K. (2018). Comorbidities in relation to fatali of first myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular pathology, 32, 32-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comorbidities in relation to fatali of first myocardial infarction
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2018 (English)In: Cardiovascular pathology, ISSN 1054-8807, E-ISSN 1879-1336, Vol. 32, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Present knowledge concerning potential associations between comorbidities and the fatality of a first myocardial infarction (MI) is limited.

Aim: To identify comorbidities in 45-70-year-old individuals who suffered a first MI and died within 7 days in Stockholm County from 1992-1994. In addition, to assess how each of the comorbidities identified, as well as the number of hospitalizations during the 10-year period prior to the MI, was associated with MI fatality.

Methods: The data collected on our inception cohort of 1984 first Ml, of which 524 were fatal within 7 days, were primarily self-reported, proxy-reported by questionnaire and/or extracted from comprehensive national registers. Comorbidilies among fatal cases with a prevalence >2% were identified. Risk ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) for the association of Ml fatality with number of prior hospitalizations and specific comorbidities were calculated using binomial regression with log link. A structured review of autopsy reports on fatal cases was performed in order to identify additional indicators of comorbidities.

Results: After adjusting for sex, age and disposable income, the number of previous hospitalizations was associated with 7-day Ml fatality. Of the comorbidities identified as prevalent in fatal cases, the following were associated with 7-day fatality in crude analysis: epilepsy, heart failure, stroke, alcoholism, cancer, renal diseases, asthma, psychiatric diseases, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indicators of comorbidities identified from autopsy data included a silent MI, severe atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta, and hepatic steatosis. Adjustments for sex and age (although not possible for epilepsy and alcoholism), did not substantially alter results.

Conclusions: Our current findings indicate that in connection with a first MI, particular attention should be paid to those with repeated prior hospitalizations and/or epilepsy, heart failure, stroke, alcoholism, cancer, renal diseases, asthma, psychiatric diseases, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2018
Keywords
Myocardial infarction, Fatality, Comorbiclity
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341324 (URN)10.1016/j.carpath.2017.11.002 (DOI)000419095700006 ()29175662 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareStockholm County CouncilSwedish Heart Lung Foundation, 2015-0562
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
Hermansson, J., Hallqvist, J., Karlsson, B., Knutsson, A. & Gadin, K. G. (2018). Shift work, parental cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction in males. Occupational Medicine, 68(2), 120-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shift work, parental cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction in males
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2018 (English)In: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 120-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Shift work has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is a need for more studies to determine whether there is an interaction between shift work and other risk factors of CVD, thereby increasing the risk of CVD in shift workers. Aims To discern whether shift work and parental mortality from myocardial infarction (MI) or sudden cardiac death (SCD) interact to increase the risk of MI in men. Methods A case-control dataset was used to assess interaction between shift work and parental history of CVD, using death from MI or SCD, or death before age 65, on an additive scale. Results were reported as relative excess risk due to interaction, attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) and synergy index (SI). Results There was an interaction between shift work and paternal mortality from MI or SCD, when both factors were present [SI = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02. 5.6 and AP = 0.4; 95% CI 0.08. 0.73]. Conclusions Paternal mortality from MI or SCD interacts with shift work to increase the risk of MI in men.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, case-control study, heredity, interaction, risk factor
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352738 (URN)10.1093/occmed/kqy008 (DOI)000429448800010 ()29444274 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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