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Publications (10 of 110) Show all publications
Hu, Q., Chen, S., Zhang, S.-L., Solomon, P. & Zhang, Z. (2020). Effects of Substrate Bias on Low-Frequency Noise in Lateral Bipolar Transistors Fabricated on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate. IEEE Electron Device Letters, 41(1), 4-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Substrate Bias on Low-Frequency Noise in Lateral Bipolar Transistors Fabricated on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate
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2020 (English)In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 4-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This letter presents a systematic study of how the substrate bias (Vsub) modulation affects the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and low-frequency noise (LFN) of lateral bipolar junction transistors (LBJTs) fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator(SOI) substrate. The current gain (β) of npn LBJTs at low base voltage can be greatly improved bya positive Vsub as a result of enhanced electron injection into the base near the buried oxide (BOX)/silicon interface. However, an excessive positive Vsub may also adversely affect the LFN performance by amplifying the noise generated as a result of carrier trapping and detrapping at that interface. Our results provide a practical guideline for improving both β and the overall noise performance when using our LBJT as a local signal amplifier.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397212 (URN)10.1109/LED.2019.2953362 (DOI)000507305400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SSF ICA 12-0047Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , FFL15-0174Swedish Research Council, VR 2014-5588Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2020-02-27Bibliographically approved
Xu, X., Makaraviciute, A., Abdurakhmanov, E., Werneling, F., Li, S., Danielson, U. H., . . . Zhang, Z. (2020). Estimating Detection Limits of Potentiometric DNA sensors Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Analyses. ACS Sensors, 5(1), 217-224
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating Detection Limits of Potentiometric DNA sensors Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Analyses
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2020 (English)In: ACS Sensors, E-ISSN 2379-3694, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 217-224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the signals of potentiometric-based DNA ion-selective field effect transistor (ISFET) sensors differ largely from report to report, a systematic revisit to this method is needed. Herein, the hybridization of the target and the probe DNA on the sensor surface and its dependence on the surface probe DNA coverage and the ionic strength were systematically investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The maximum potentiometric DNA hybridization signal that could be registered by an ISFET sensor was estimated based on the SPR measurements, without considering buffering effects from any side interaction on the sensing electrode. We found that under physiological solutions (200 to 300 mM ionic strength), the ISFET sensor could not register the DNA hybridization events on the sensor surface due to Debye screening. Lowering the salt concentration to enlarge the Debye length would at the same time reduce the surface hybridization efficiency, thus suppressing the signal. This adverse effect of low salt concentration on the hybridization efficiency was also found to be more significant on the surface with higher probe coverage due to steric hindrance. With the method of diluting buffer, the maximum potentiometric signal generated by the DNA hybridization was estimated to be only around 120 mV with the lowest detection limit of 30 nM, occurring on a surface with optimized probe coverage and in the tris buffer with 10 mM NaCl. An alternative method would be to achieve high-efficiency hybridization in the buffer with high salt concentration (1 M NaCl) and then to perform potentiometric measurements in the buffer with low salt concentration (1 mM NaCl). Based on the characterization of the stability of the hybridized DNA duplexes on the sensor surface in low salt concentration buffer solutions, the estimated maximum potentiometric signal could be significantly higher using the alternative method. The lowest detection limit for this alternative method was estimated to be around 0.6 nM. This work can serve as an important quantitative reference for potentiometric DNA sensors.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397806 (URN)10.1021/acssensors.9b02086 (DOI)000510079300029 ()31833355 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , ICA 12-0047Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , FFL15-0174Swedish Research Council, VR 2014-5588Wallenberg Foundations
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2020-03-20Bibliographically approved
Zeng, S., Li, S., Utterström, J., Wen, C., Selegård, R., Zhang, S.-L., . . . Zhang, Z. (2020). Mechanism and kinetics of lipid bilayer formation in solid-state nanopores. Langmuir, 36(6), 1446-1453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanism and kinetics of lipid bilayer formation in solid-state nanopores
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2020 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 1446-1453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid-state nanopores provide a highly versatile platform for rapid electrical detection and analysis of single molecules. Lipid bilayer coating of the nanopores can reduce nonspecific analyte adsorption to the nanopore sidewalls and increase the sensing selectivity by providing possibilities for tethering specific ligands in a cell-membrane mimicking environment. However, the mechanism and kinetics of lipid bilayer formation from vesicles remain unclear in the presence of nanopores. In this work, we used a silicon-based, truncated pyramidal nanopore array as the support for lipid bilayer formation. Lipid bilayer formation in the nanopores was monitored in real time by the change in ionic current through the nanopores. Statistical analysis revealed that a lipid bilayer is formed from the instantaneous rupture of individual vesicle upon adsorption in the nanopores, differing from the generally agreed mechanism that lipid bilayer forms at a high vesicle surface coverage on a planar support. The dependence of the lipid bilayer formation process on the applied bias, vesicle size, and concentration was systematically studied. In addition, the nonfouling properties of the lipid bilayer coated nanopores were demonstrated during long single-stranded DNA translocation through the nanopore array. The findings indicate that the lipid bilayer formation process can be modulated by introducing nanocavities intentionally on the planar surface to create active sites or changing the vesicle size and concentration.

National Category
Physical Chemistry Biophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-399725 (URN)10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b03637 (DOI)000514759200008 ()31971393 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-6300Swedish Research Council, 2017-04475Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2017/430Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2015.0127Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2016.0231
Available from: 2019-12-16 Created: 2019-12-16 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
Zeng, S. (2019). A nanopore array of individual addressability enabled by integrating microfluidics and a multiplexer. IEEE Sensors Journal, 20(3), 1558-1563
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A nanopore array of individual addressability enabled by integrating microfluidics and a multiplexer
2019 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1558-1563Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid-state nanopores (SSN) are of significant potential as a versatile tool for chemical sensing, biomolecule inspection, nanoparticle detection, etc. High throughput characterization of SSN in an arrayed format is highly desired for a wide range of applications. Herein, we demonstrate a novel design to integrate an SSN array with microfluidics and a multiplexer. Ionic current measurement on each nanopore can then be individually addressed fluidically and/or electrically with minimum cross talk (electric leakage). This integration provides a scalable platform for automated high-throughput, low-cost, and rapid electrical characterization potentially of a large number of SSN.

Keywords
individual addressability, integration, microfluidics, multiplexer, solid-state nanopores
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397405 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2019.2947713 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-6300
Available from: 2019-11-20 Created: 2019-11-20 Last updated: 2020-01-29Bibliographically approved
Zhang, Z. (2019). A novel gate junction design for low noise Si Nanowire ISFET Sensor application. In: : . Paper presented at China Semiconductor Technology International Conference (CSTIC).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel gate junction design for low noise Si Nanowire ISFET Sensor application
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390142 (URN)
Conference
China Semiconductor Technology International Conference (CSTIC)
Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05
Wen, C., Li, S., Zeng, S., Zhang, Z. & Zhang, S.-L. (2019). Autogenic analyte translocation in nanopores. Nano Energy, 60, 503-509
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autogenic analyte translocation in nanopores
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2019 (English)In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 60, p. 503-509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanopores have been widely studied for power generation and single-molecule detection. Although the power level generated by a single nanopore based on electrolyte concentration gradient is too low to be practically useful, such a power level is found sufficient to drive analyte translocation in nanopores. Here, we explore the simultaneous action of a solid-state nanopore as a nanopower generator and a nanoscale biosensor by exploiting the extremely small power generated to drive the analyte translocation in the same nanopore device. This autogenic analyte translocation is demonstrated using protein and DNA for their distinct shape, size and charge. The simple device structure allows for easy implementation of either electrical or optical readout. The obtained nanopore translocation is characterized by typical behaviors expected for an ordinary nanopore sensor powered by an external source. Extensive numerical simulation confirms the power generation and power level generated. It also reveals the fundamentals of autogenic translocation. As it requires no external power source, the sensing can be conducted with simple readout electronics and may allow for integration of high-density nanopores. Our approach demonstrated in this work may pave the way to practical high-throughput single-molecule nanopore sensing powered by the distributed energy harvested by the nanopores themselves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384648 (URN)10.1016/j.nanoen.2019.03.092 (DOI)000467774100056 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-6300Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare, 2016/39
Available from: 2019-06-07 Created: 2019-06-07 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Zeng, S., Wen, C., Li, S., Chen, X., Chen, S., Zhang, S.-L. & Zhang, Z. (2019). Controlled size reduction and its underlying mechanism to form solid-state nanopores via electron beam induced carbon deposition. Nanotechnology, 30(45), Article ID 455303.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlled size reduction and its underlying mechanism to form solid-state nanopores via electron beam induced carbon deposition
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2019 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 30, no 45, article id 455303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid-state nanopores have drawn considerable attention for their potential applications in DNA sequencing and nanoparticle analysis. However, fabrication of nanopores, especially those of diameter below 30 nm, requires sophisticated techniques. Here, a versatile method to controllably reduce the diameter of prefabricated large-size pores down to sub-30 nm without greatly increasing the effective pore depth from the original membrane thickness is shown. This method exploits carbon deposition achieved via hydrocarbon evaporation, induced by an incident beam of electrons, and subsequent dissociation of hydrocarbon to solid carbon deposits. The carbon deposition employs a conventional scanning electron microscope equipped with direct visual feedback, along with a stable hydrocarbon source nearby the sample. This work systematically studies how electron beam accelerating voltage, imaging magnification, initial pore size and membrane composition affect the process of pore size reduction. Secondary electrons generated in the membrane material are confirmed to be the main cause of the dissociation of hydrocarbon. Thicker carbon deposited on one side than on the other of the membrane results in an asymmetric nanopore shape and a rectifying ionic transport. A physico-phenomenological model combined with Monte Carlo simulations is proposed to account for the observed carbon deposition behaviors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
solid-state nanopore, pore size reduction, electron beam induced carbon deposition, secondary electrons, effective pore depth, rectifying behavior
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394045 (URN)10.1088/1361-6528/ab39a2 (DOI)000483100000001 ()31394513 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-6300Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , FFL15-0174
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Chen, X., Chen, S., Hu, Q., Zhang, S.-L., Solomon, P. & Zhang, Z. (2019). Device noise reduction for Silicon nanowire field-effect-transistor based sensors by using a Schottky junction gate. ACS sensors, 4(2), 427-433
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Device noise reduction for Silicon nanowire field-effect-transistor based sensors by using a Schottky junction gate
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2019 (English)In: ACS sensors, ISSN 2379-3694, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 427-433Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The sensitivity of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) based nanoscale sensors is ultimately limited by noise induced by carrier trapping/detrapping processes at the gate oxide/semiconductor interfaces. We have designed a Schottky junction gated silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-SJGFET) sensor, where the Schottky junction replaces the noisy oxide/semiconductor interface. Our sensor exhibits significantly reduced noise, 2.1×10-9 V2µm2/Hz at 1 Hz, compared to reference devices with the oxide/semiconductor interface operated at both inversion and depletion modes. Further improvement can be anticipated by wrapping the nanowire by such a Schottky junction thereby eliminating all oxide/semiconductor interfaces. Hence, a combination of the low-noise SiNW-SJGFET sensor device with a sensing surface of the Nernstian response limit holds promises for future high signal-to-noise ratio sensor applications.

Keywords
Noise reduction, schottky junction gate, silicon nanowire, field-effect transistor, low frequency noise, ion sensor
National Category
Nano Technology Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-374776 (URN)10.1021/acssensors.8b0139 (DOI)000459836400021 ()30632733 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SSF ICA 12-0047Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , FFL15-0174Swedish Research Council, VR 2014-5588Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-04-03Bibliographically approved
Tran, T., Jablonka, L., Bruckner, B., Rund, S., Roth, D., Sortica, M. A., . . . Primetzhofer, D. (2019). Electronic interaction of slow hydrogen and helium ions with nickel-silicon systems. Physical Review A: covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information, 100(3), Article ID 032705.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic interaction of slow hydrogen and helium ions with nickel-silicon systems
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2019 (English)In: Physical Review A: covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information, ISSN 2469-9926, E-ISSN 2469-9934, Vol. 100, no 3, article id 032705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electronic stopping cross sections (SCSs) of nickel, silicon, and nickel-silicon alloys for protons and helium (He) ions are studied in the regime of medium- and low-energy ion scattering, i.e., for ion energies in the range from 500 eV to 200 keV. For protons, at velocities below the Bohr velocity the deduced SCS is proportional to the ion velocity for all investigated materials. In contrast, for He ions nonlinear velocity scaling is observed in all investigated materials. Static calculations using density functional theory (DFT) available from the literature accurately predict the SCS of Ni and Ni-Si alloy in the regime with observed velocity proportionality. At higher energies, the energy dependence of the deduced SCS of Ni for protons and He ions agrees with the prediction by recent time-dependent DFT calculations. The measured SCS of the Ni-Si alloy was compared to the SCS obtained from Bragg's rule based on SCS for Ni and Si deduced in this study, yielding good agreement for protons, but systematic deviations for He projectiles, by almost 20%. Overall, the obtained data indicate the importance of nonadiabatic processes such as charge exchange for proper modeling of electronic stopping of, in particular, medium-energy ions heavier than protons in solids.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394745 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevA.100.032705 (DOI)000485188600002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 821-2012-5144Swedish Research Council, 2017-00646_9Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF14-0053
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Chen, X., Chen, S., Zhang, S.-L., Solomon, P. & Zhang, Z. (2019). Low-Noise Schottky Junction Trigate Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Transistor for Charge Sensing. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 66(9), 3994-4000
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Noise Schottky Junction Trigate Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Transistor for Charge Sensing
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 3994-4000Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (SiNWFETs) are of great potential as a high-sensitivity charge sensor. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an SiNWFET sensor is ultimately limited by the intrinsic device noise generated by carrier trapping/detrapping processes at the gate oxide/silicon interface. This carrier trapping/detrapping-induced noise can be significantly reduced by replacing the noisy oxide/silicon interface with a Schottky junction gate (SJG) on the top of the SiNW. In this paper, we present a tri-SJG SiNWFET (Tri-SJGFET) with the SJG formed on both the top surface and the two sidewalls of the SiNW so as to enhance the gate control over the SiNW channel. Both experiment and simulation confirm that the additional sidewall gates in a narrow Tri-SJGFET indeed can confine the conduction path within the bulk of the SiNW channel away from the interfaces and significantly improve the immunity to the traps at the bottom buried oxide/silicon interface. Therefore, the optimal low-frequency noise performance can be achieved without the need for any substrate bias. This new gating structure holds promises for further development of robust SiNWFET-based charge sensors with low noise and low operation voltage.

Keywords
Silicon nanowire field-effect transistor, Schottky junction, trigate, sensor, low-frequency noise, charge sensing
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380971 (URN)10.1109/TED.2019.2930067 (DOI)000482583200046 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SSF FFL15-0174Swedish Research Council, VR 2014-5588Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

Title in thesis list of papers: Low Noise Schottky Junction Tri-gate Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Transistor for Charge Sensing

Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4317-9701

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