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Isaksson, R. (2019). Creating a sense of urgency for sustainable development: Testing two system models. Journal of Cleaner Production, 227, 1173-1184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating a sense of urgency for sustainable development: Testing two system models
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1173-1184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In spite of good coverage of sustainability and sustainable development both in scientific journals and other publications, humanity is on a steady unsustainable track consuming more than is produced. Understanding of change needs, does not seem to convert into sufficient change action. Sustainability issues are often complex, interdependent and hard to comprehend, indicating that sustainable development, in addition to change willingness, requires a holistic perspective. Seeing and understanding systems - systems thinking - is important. This implies that sense-making of systems and of sustainable development is important as a prerequisite for change. Possibilities of realising synergies between quality management and sustainable development are often discussed but do often not seem to be fully realised. This paper tests two system models from Quality Management in the context of sustainability in cement manufacturing and building material production. The indicative results suggest that the proposed system models are able to describe and identify improvement opportunities that could be used to create interest for change.

National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-388753 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.177 (DOI)000470939600100 ()
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, R. & Buregyeya, A. (2019). Describing building sustainability innovation potential: Block making in Tanzania and Uganda. In: Jacques Martin (Ed.), Proceedings of 22nd Excellence in Services International Conference, Thessaloniki (Greece) | 29-30 August 2019: . Paper presented at Excellence in Services International Conference Thessaloniki (Greece), 29-30 August. 2019..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Describing building sustainability innovation potential: Block making in Tanzania and Uganda
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of 22nd Excellence in Services International Conference, Thessaloniki (Greece) | 29-30 August 2019 / [ed] Jacques Martin, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose. This paper describes opportunities for sustainable building in East Africa. Previous research indicates that cement is often poorly used in the commonly used concrete blocks.  Better use of cement and thereby lower costs and a lower carbon footprint might be achieved by substituting solid blocks with hollow ones while sustaining functional requirements. This work could further be advanced by a business model that promotes affordability and a lowered carbon footprint of blocks produced at building site. 

Methodology. Block manufacturing processes in Tanzania and Uganda are described.  Sustainability performance as price and carbon footprint per wall m2 are assessed and compared for solid and hollow concrete/sandcrete blocks. 

Findings. The results from Uganda indicate that there is a clear economic and environmental advantage in using hollow blocks compared to solid blocks. There seems to be innovation potential to be realised both in choice of product and improvement of manufacturing processes. The preliminary findings indicate that costs per m2 of wall could for 6 inch blocks of the same functional quality be reduced with some 20% and the carbon footprint with 40% when using hollow blocks instead of solid ones. In Tanzania only a carbon footprint saving potential of about 30% has been inferred. 

Practical implications. The results indicate that in order to assess overall global improvement potential, sustainability needs to be understood on the operational level. 

Originality/value. The results contribute to the development of more sustainable building blocks in the context of East Africa.

Keywords
Sustainability; concrete; sandcrete; hollow block; cement productivity; Africa
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395340 (URN)
Conference
Excellence in Services International Conference Thessaloniki (Greece), 29-30 August. 2019.
Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-11-04Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, R. (2019). Excellence for sustainability – maintaining the license to operate. Total quality management and business excellence (Online)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Excellence for sustainability – maintaining the license to operate
2019 (English)In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Companies increasingly work in a global context and need to be relevant in it. In addition to focus on customers, companies need to identify and attend to the needs of various stakeholders. The quality principle of customer focus has been used for identifying stakeholders, their needs and how to manage them. The Planetary Boundaries, the UN Sustainable Development Goals and The Natural Step have been used to identify performance targets for stakeholder needs. Results indicate that People and Planet could be defined as the main stakeholders and that these stakeholders could be further detailed in order to more easily link them with company business. Critical Planet stakeholders could be such as the Atmosphere and Biosphere. Based on the Pareto principle, People needs focus should be on alleviating poverty with a highest priority given to those living in extreme poverty. Absolute and relative indicators for sustainability performance with focus on core stakeholders have been proposed. The indication is that a paradigm shift from Profit to Planet and People focus is needed. The proposed strategy is to combine customer wants focus with a focus on defined critical stakeholder needs.

Keywords
sustainability, excellence, stakeholder, paradigm, license to operate, SDG, planetary boundaries
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389503 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2019.1593044 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-16 Created: 2019-07-16 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, R. & Babatunde, O. (2019). Opportunities for improved sustainability in house building: The case of Dar es Salaam. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 11(4), 457-463
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunities for improved sustainability in house building: The case of Dar es Salaam
2019 (English)In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, ISSN 2042-1338, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 457-463Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The combination of a growing population and economic development in Africa will form strong drivers for building growth. Buildings drive energy consumption and carbon emissions. On the material side, cement is the driver for cost and carbon emissions. A cement productivity index is proposed. Results from a case study in Dar es Salaam show that cement is poorly used in the main application of sandcrete blocks. The relative cement productivity is < 30% compared to ordinary concrete. The main problem is the design of the blocks. Mostly, only some 5% of cement by weight is used. However, the sand matrix often needs up to 10% of water for good compaction. This means that the w/c ratio is always high in the mixes, which leads to low cement productivity. One first step could be going from solid to hollow blocks, which would enable increasing the cement content and improving cement productivity up to 50% of the defined benchmark. However, there is resistance to hollow blocks in the market. Alternative solutions, such as soil-stabilized earth, should also be looked into. For realizing the full cement strength potential, other affordable concrete solutions need to be developed for the market.

Keywords
sandcrete, sand and cement, cement sustainability, cement productivity, building value, Africa
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389506 (URN)10.1080/20421338.2017.1409456 (DOI)000474797600008 ()
Available from: 2019-07-16 Created: 2019-07-16 Last updated: 2019-09-11Bibliographically approved
Ranängen, H., Cöster, M., Isaksson, R. & Garvare, R. (2018). From global goals and planetary boundaries to public governance: A framework for prioritizing organizational sustainability activities. Sustainability, 10(8), Article ID 2741.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From global goals and planetary boundaries to public governance: A framework for prioritizing organizational sustainability activities
2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 2741Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A particular challenge in the work to realize the global goals for sustainable development is to find ways for organizations to identify and prioritize organizational activities that address these goals. There are also several sustainability initiatives, guidelines and tools to consider when planning, working with and reporting on sustainable development. Although progress has been made, little has been written about how organizations rise to and manage the challenge. The paper explores how organizations address sustainable development, which sustainability aspects they prioritize and whether previous research can improve the priority process by using materiality analysis approach. Methods: A case study approach was chosen. Data was collected by interactive workshops and documentation. The participating organizations were two Swedish municipalities; Results: The municipalities have introduced a number of sustainability aspects into their organizational governance, especially in terms of society, human rights and the environment. A materiality analysis was conducted to determine the relevance and significance of sustainability aspects. The result shows that climate action, biodiversity and freshwater use are aspects that should be prioritized; Conclusion: The materiality analysis methodology chosen for prioritizing of sustainability aspects was useful and easy to work with. However, the sustainability aspect matrix and the risk assessment have to be updated regularly in order to form an effective base for the materiality analysis

National Category
Business Administration Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357356 (URN)10.3390/su10082741 (DOI)000446767700157 ()
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, M. & Isaksson, R. (2018). Making sense of quality philosophies. Total quality management and business excellence (Online), 29(11-12), 1452-1465
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making sense of quality philosophies
2018 (English)In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 29, no 11-12, p. 1452-1465Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to improve sense-making of different quality philosophies using a quality system model. We have chosen Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, Lean Management and ISO 9000 as typical quality philosophies. The chosen model is based on describing a system as consisting of purpose, principles, methodologies and tools. This model is extended to include a roll-out process and a management process for each philosophy. The main results indicate that the proposed model presents a way of describing, comparing and interpreting quality philosophies. The major implication of the study is that it provides a way to describe and define quality philosophies. The study makes a contribution to Quality Management in proposing a model for describing a quality philosophy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018
Keywords
quality philosophy, quality models, sense-making, TQM, ISO 9000, Lean Six Sigma, Lean Management
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362864 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2016.1266245 (DOI)000441675100010 ()
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2018-10-11Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, R. & Kinabo, L. (2018). Modelling and Measuring Excellence for Sustainability: Examples from building in Tanzania. In: Jacques Marting (Ed.), Conference proceedings of Le Cnam 21th Excellence in Services International Conference Paris (France) , 30 and 31 August 2018: . Paper presented at 21th Excellence in Services International Conference Paris (France), 30 and 31 August 2018 (pp. 395-412).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and Measuring Excellence for Sustainability: Examples from building in Tanzania
2018 (English)In: Conference proceedings of Le Cnam 21th Excellence in Services International Conference Paris (France) , 30 and 31 August 2018 / [ed] Jacques Marting, 2018, p. 395-412Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose. In a resource-limited world it is logical that business excellence should focus on sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to exemplify areas of synergy between Quality and Sustainability.

Methodology. The starting point has been in identified vital few stakeholders and their needs on the global level. These needs have then been exemplified in building processes in Dar es Salaam Tanzania using quality principles, practices and tools.

Findings. By transforming the quality principle of customer focus into stakeholder needs focus and by redefining main stakeholders as Planet and People, conditions are created to operationalize sustainable development. Sustainability in the studied system has been defined as affordable building materials with a low carbon footprint. Cement drives both building costs and the carbon footprint. This means that cement productivity compared to price and to the carbon footprint can be used as indicators for sustainability excellence. Cement productivity in concrete is defined as compressive strength divided by cement percentage and expressed as Mega Pascal*tons. Based on a defined benchmark, cement productivity can be expressed relatively. The cement productivity in the studied system is only at 20%. Using well grounded vital few performance indicators in absolute and relative terms enables using principles, practices and tools from quality management to support sustainable development.

Practical implications. Focus on needs satisfaction compared to only footprints could in the cement industry reduce the need for Carbon Capture and Storage

Originality/value. The results present a radically different view of sustainability based on focus on critical stakeholder needs.

Keywords
Sustainability; quality; stakeholder; process; model; building
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380639 (URN)9788890432781 (ISBN)
Conference
21th Excellence in Services International Conference Paris (France), 30 and 31 August 2018
Available from: 2019-03-30 Created: 2019-03-30 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, R. & Cöster, M. (2018). Testing a Maturity Grid for Assessing Sustainability Reports. In: : . Paper presented at The 11th Performance Measurement Association Conference, Performance Measurement and Management in a Globally Networked World (PMA 2018), 23-26 September 2018, Warsaw, Poland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing a Maturity Grid for Assessing Sustainability Reports
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sustainability reporting could be seen as output of sustainability performance management. This paper tests a maturity grid assessing the reporting structure quality of 39 sustainability reports - Are the right sustainability impacts reported and is the performance reported in the right way for easy interpretation? Students and one of the authors carry out the assessment. Results indicate a low level of maturity and that it is difficult to make sense of sustainability reports. Results from carbon emission reporting indicate that only some 10% of the reports provide usable results. A new version of the maturity grid has been proposed.

Keywords
Sustainability, Reporting, Maturity Grid, Model
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368004 (URN)
Conference
The 11th Performance Measurement Association Conference, Performance Measurement and Management in a Globally Networked World (PMA 2018), 23-26 September 2018, Warsaw, Poland
Available from: 2018-12-02 Created: 2018-12-02 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Mrema, A. & Isaksson, R. (2016). Cement Performance in Sand Cement Blocks – A Case Study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In: Advances in Cement and Concrete Technology in Africa (ACCTA) conference January 27-29, 2016 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania http://www.accta2016.bam.de/en/home/index.htm: . Paper presented at Advances in Cement and Concrete Technology in Africa (ACCTA) conference January 27-29, 2016 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (pp. 383-391).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cement Performance in Sand Cement Blocks – A Case Study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
2016 (English)In: Advances in Cement and Concrete Technology in Africa (ACCTA) conference January 27-29, 2016 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania http://www.accta2016.bam.de/en/home/index.htm, 2016, p. 383-391Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Tanzania a large part of the building material products, especially in Dar es Salaam, consist of solid sand cement blocks - sandcrete. The objective of the investigation was to determine cement performance in these sandcrete blocks and to relate results to a defined best performance. The purpose was to assess how well the cement compressive strength potential has been utilised and to identify factors affecting the performance. Results indicate that only about 30% of the inherent cement compressive strength potential is used and that the main problem is the design of the sandcrete blocks. Mostly solid six-inch blocks consisting of cement sand and water are used in Dar es Salaam. The compressive strength requirement is relatively low which leads to a low cement content. Proper compaction of the sand cement blocks requires high amounts of water leading to high water cement ratios with these often being over 1. This then leads to that only about 30% of the cement building potential is used. Since cement drives price and the carbon footprint the situation is far from ideal. One possible improvement would be to change from solid to hollow blocks, which would enable a lower water to cement ratio.

Keywords
Sandcrete, sand cement blocks, water to cement ratio, carbon footprint, sand quality, compressive strength, sand bulk density.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-326687 (URN)
Conference
Advances in Cement and Concrete Technology in Africa (ACCTA) conference January 27-29, 2016 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Available from: 2017-07-22 Created: 2017-07-22 Last updated: 2017-08-03Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, R. (2016). Process based system models for detecting opportunities and threats: the case of World Cement Production. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 8(3), 246-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process based system models for detecting opportunities and threats: the case of World Cement Production
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 246-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Visualising change needs could be complex. One way of sense - making is to use process based system models. G lobal warming require s major changes in many fields and especially for cement manufacturing, which represents a growing portion of manmade carbon emissions . The industry has proposed measures for change , but it is diff icult to assess how good these are and more sense - making is needed to clarify the situation. Purpose The purpose is to visualise opportunities and threats for global cement manufacturing in the context of global warming, using a process based system mode l . Methodology Available data for cement manufacturing and for carbon emissions are combined both historically and as predictions based on chosen Key Performance Indicators. These indicators are related to a chosen process based system model. Findings The results indicate that the global cement industry doe s not have a viable plan for how to reduce carbon emissions sufficiently to comply with the objectives of maintaining global warming below 2°C . The application of the process based system model indica tes that it has the ability to visualise important opportunities and threats at the level of global processes. Practical implications The challenges of the world cement industry with reducing ca rbon emissions are highlighted. This information could be use ful as a driver for change. Originality/value Th e paper provides insights into process based improvement work related to cement industry carbon emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Sustainability, Global warming, Process, Carbon emissions, Process-based systems, Cement manufacturing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310069 (URN)10.1108/IJQSS-05-2016-0043 (DOI)000413090500001 ()
Available from: 2016-12-09 Created: 2016-12-09 Last updated: 2018-02-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6487-5522

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