uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Kenward, Ben
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 23) Show all publications
Lindskog, M., Rogell, M., Kenward, B. & Gredebäck, G. (2019). Discrimination of Small Forms in a Deviant-Detection Paradigm by 10-month-old Infants. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article ID 1032.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discrimination of Small Forms in a Deviant-Detection Paradigm by 10-month-old Infants
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1032Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using eye tracking, we investigated if 10-month-old infants could discriminate between members of a set of small forms based on geometric properties in a deviant-detection paradigm, as suggested by the idea of a core cognitive system for Euclidian geometry. We also investigated the precision of infants’ ability to discriminate as well as how the discrimination process unfolds over time. Our results show that infants can discriminate between small forms based on geometrical properties, but only when the difference is sufficiently large. Furthermore, our results also show that it takes infants, on average, <3.5 s to detect a deviant form. Our findings extend previous research in three ways: by showing that infants can make similar discriminative judgments as children and adults with respect to geometric properties; by providing a first crude estimate on the limit of the discriminative abilities in infants, and finally; by providing a first demonstration of how the discrimination process unfolds over time.

Keywords
geometry, eye-tracking, infants, deviant-detection, small forms
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383453 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01032 (DOI)000467849200001 ()31156498 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2012.0120Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P15-0430:1
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Juvrud, J., Bakker, M., Kaduk, K., DeValk, J. M., Gredebäck, G. & Kenward, B. (2019). Longitudinal Continuity in Understanding and Production of Giving-Related Behavior From Infancy to Childhood. Child Development, 90(2), e182-e191
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal Continuity in Understanding and Production of Giving-Related Behavior From Infancy to Childhood
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 90, no 2, p. e182-e191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Infants have an early understanding of giving (the transfer of an item by one agent to another), but little is known about individual differences in these abilities or their developmental outcomes. Here, 9-month-olds (N = 59) showing clearer neural processing (Event-related potential, ERP) of a give-me gesture also evidenced a stronger reaction (pupil dilation) to an inappropriate response to a give-me gesture, and at 2 years were more likely to give in response to a give-me gesture. None of the differences in understanding and production of giving-related behaviors were associated with other sociocognitive variables investigated: language, gaze-following, and nongiving helping. The early developmental continuity in understanding and production of giving behavior is consistent with the great importance of giving for humans throughout the life span.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-370001 (URN)10.1111/cdev.13131 (DOI)000460664900001 ()30102423 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
Forslund, T., Kenward, B., Granqvist, P., Gredebäck, G. & Brocki, K. C. (2017). Diminished ability to identify facial emotional expressions in children with disorganized attachment representations. Developmental Science, 20(6), Article ID e12465.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diminished ability to identify facial emotional expressions in children with disorganized attachment representations
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 20, no 6, article id e12465Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of children's ability to identify facial emotional expressions has long been suggested to be experience dependent, with parental caregiving as an important influencing factor. This study attempts to further this knowledge by examining disorganization of the attachment system as a potential psychological mechanism behind aberrant caregiving experiences and deviations in the ability to identify facial emotional expressions. Typically developing children (= 105, 49.5% boys) aged 6–7 years (= 6 years 8 months, SD = 1.8 months) completed an attachment representation task and an emotion identification task, and parents rated children's negative emotionality. The results showed a generally diminished ability in disorganized children to identify facial emotional expressions, but no response biases. Disorganized attachment was also related to higher levels of negative emotionality, but discrimination of emotional expressions did not moderate or mediate this relation. Our novel findings relate disorganized attachment to deviations in emotion identification, and therefore suggest that disorganization of the attachment system may constitute a psychological mechanism linking aberrant caregiving experiences to deviations in children's ability to identify facial emotional expressions. Our findings further suggest that deviations in emotion identification in disorganized children, in the absence of maltreatment, may manifest in a generally diminished ability to identify emotional expressions, rather than in specific response biases.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310371 (URN)10.1111/desc.12465 (DOI)000413901000011 ()27966280 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 412-2012-1222
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Shutts, K., Kenward, B., Falk, H., Ivegran, A. & Fawcett, C. (2017). Early preschool environments and gender: Effects of gender pedagogy in Sweden. Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), 162, 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early preschool environments and gender: Effects of gender pedagogy in Sweden
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 162, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To test how early social environments affect children's consideration of gender, 3- to 6-year-old children (N = 80) enrolled in gender-neutral or typical preschool programs in the central district of a large Swedish city completed measures designed to assess their gender-based social preferences, stereotypes, and automatic encoding. Compared with children in typical preschools, a greater proportion of children in the gender-neutral school were interested in playing with unfamiliar other-gender children. In addition, children attending the gender-neutral preschool scored lower on a gender stereotyping measure than children attending typical preschools. Children at the gender-neutral school, however, were not less likely to automatically encode others' gender. The findings suggest that gender-neutral pedagogy has moderate effects on how children think and feel about people of different genders but might not affect children's tendency to spontaneously notice gender.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2017
Keywords
Children, Gender, Attitudes, Stereotypes, Encoding, Socialization
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331206 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2017.04.014 (DOI)000405539800001 ()28551105 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2011-1785
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
Kenward, B., Koch, F.-S., Forssman, L., Brehm, J., Tidemann, I., Sundqvist, A., . . . Gredebäck, G. (2017). Saccadic Reaction Times in Infants and Adults: Spatiotemporal Factors, Gender, and Interlaboratory Variation. Developmental Psychology, 53(9), 1750-1764
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Saccadic Reaction Times in Infants and Adults: Spatiotemporal Factors, Gender, and Interlaboratory Variation
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 1750-1764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Saccade latency is widely used across infant psychology to investigate infants' understanding of events. Interpreting particular latency values requires knowledge of standard saccadic RTs, but there is no consensus as to typical values. This study provides standard estimates of infants' (n = 194, ages 9 to 15 months) saccadic RTs under a range of different spatiotemporal conditions. To investigate the reliability of such standard estimates, data is collected at 4 laboratories in 3 countries. Results indicate that reactions to the appearance of a new object are much faster than reactions to the deflection of a currently fixated moving object; upward saccades are slower than downward or horizontal saccades; reactions to more peripheral stimuli are much slower; and this slowdown is greater for boys than girls. There was little decrease in saccadic RTs between 9 and 15 months, indicating that the period of slow development which is protracted into adolescence begins in late infancy. Except for appearance and deflection differences, infant effects were weak or absent in adults (n = 40). Latency estimates and spatiotemporal effects on latency were generally consistent across laboratories, but a number of lab differences in factors such as individual variation were found. Some but not all differences were attributed to minor procedural differences, highlighting the importance of replication. Confidence intervals (95%) for infants' median reaction latencies for appearance stimuli were 242 to 250 ms and for deflection stimuli 350 to 367 ms.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336880 (URN)10.1037/dev0000338 (DOI)000414264000012 ()28682097 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-1913Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0875EU, European Research Council, 283763Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW.2012.0120
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
Lindskog, M., Gredebäck, G., Marciszko, C., Kenward, B. & Fransson, M. (2015). A Measure of Individual Differences in Numerosity Discriminaton in Infants Using Eye-tracking. In: : . Paper presented at Presentation at the biennial meeting of the Society for Reserach in Child Development (SRCD) Philadelphia, USA. March 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Measure of Individual Differences in Numerosity Discriminaton in Infants Using Eye-tracking
Show others...
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284544 (URN)
Conference
Presentation at the biennial meeting of the Society for Reserach in Child Development (SRCD) Philadelphia, USA. March 2015.
Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2017-01-25
Lindskog, M., Gredebäck, G., Marciszko, C., Kenward, B. & Fransson, M. (2015). Development of Geometric Acuity in Infants. In: : . Paper presented at Presentation at the biennial meeting of the Society for Reserach in Child Development (SRCD) Philadelphia, USA. March 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Geometric Acuity in Infants
Show others...
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284545 (URN)
Conference
Presentation at the biennial meeting of the Society for Reserach in Child Development (SRCD) Philadelphia, USA. March 2015.
Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2017-01-25
Kenward, B. & Östh, T. (2015). Five-Year-Olds Punish Antisocial Adults. Aggressive Behavior, 41(5), 413-420
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Five-Year-Olds Punish Antisocial Adults
2015 (English)In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 413-420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The human tendency to impose costs on those who have behaved antisocially towards third parties (third-party punishment) has a formative influence on societies, yet very few studies of the development of this tendency exist. In most studies where young children have punished, participants have imposed costs on puppets, leaving open the question as to whether young children punish in real third-party situations. Here, five-year-olds were given the opportunity to allocate desirable or unpleasant items to antisocial and neutral adults, who were presented as real and shown on video. Neutral individuals were almost always allocated only desirable items. Antisocial individuals were instead usually allocated unpleasant items, as long as participants were told they would give anonymously. Most participants who were instead told they would give in person did not allocate unpleasant items, although a minority did so. This indicates that the children interpreted the situation as real, and that whereas they genuinely desired to punish antisocial adults, they did not usually dare do so in person. Boys punished more frequently than girls. The willingness of preschoolers to spontaneously engage in third-party punishment, occasionally even risking the social costs of antagonizing an anti-social adult, demonstrates a deep-seated early-developing punitive sentiment in humans. Aggr. Behav. 41: 413-420, 2015.

Keywords
third-party punishment, preschoolers, children, antisocial behavior
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264852 (URN)10.1002/ab.21568 (DOI)000361808600002 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P2008-01039:1
Available from: 2015-10-19 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Kenward, B., Hellmer, K., Winter, L. S. & Eriksson, M. (2015). Four-year-olds' strategic allocation of resources: Attempts to elicit reciprocation correlate negatively with spontaneous helping. Cognition, 136, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four-year-olds' strategic allocation of resources: Attempts to elicit reciprocation correlate negatively with spontaneous helping
2015 (English)In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 136, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Behaviour benefitting others (prosocial behaviour) can be motivated by self-interested strategic concerns as well as by genuine concern for others. Even in very young children such behaviour can be motivated by concern for others, but whether it can be strategically motivated by self-interest is currently less clear. Here, children had to distribute resources in a game in which a rich but not a poor recipient could reciprocate. From four years of age participants strategically favoured the rich recipient, but only when recipients had stated an intention to reciprocate. Six- and eight-year-olds distributed more equally. Children allocating strategically to the rich recipient were less likely to help when an adult needed assistance but was not in a position to immediately reciprocate, demonstrating consistent cross-task individual differences in the extent to which social behaviour is self- versus other-oriented even in early childhood. By four years of age children are capable of strategically allocating resources to others as a tool to advance their own self-interest.

Keywords
Prosocial behaviour, Self-interested social behaviour, Resource distribution, Helping, Preschoolers
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248438 (URN)10.1016/j.cognition.2014.11.035 (DOI)000349882600001 ()25490123 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-02 Created: 2015-03-30 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Koch, B., Kenward, B., Fawcett, C. & Gredebäck, G. (2015). Introducing Live Eye-tracking with Motion-capture for Automatically Tracked Areas of Interest (AOI): An Application in the Study of Infant Social Cognition. In: : . Paper presented at Action Development: From Infancy to Adulthood. International Symposium on Action Research, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. September 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing Live Eye-tracking with Motion-capture for Automatically Tracked Areas of Interest (AOI): An Application in the Study of Infant Social Cognition
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284543 (URN)
Conference
Action Development: From Infancy to Adulthood. International Symposium on Action Research, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. September 2015.
Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2017-01-25
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications