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Publications (10 of 57) Show all publications
Wångdahl, J., Lytsy, P., Mårtensson, L. & Westerling, R. (2018). Comprehensive health literacy is associated with experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - A Swedish cross-sectional study. Paper presented at 1st World Congress on Migration, Ethnicity, Race and Health, 17-19 May 2018, Edinburgh.. European Journal of Public Health, 28, 136-136
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive health literacy is associated with experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - A Swedish cross-sectional study
2018 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 136-136Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358417 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cky048.075 (DOI)000432430700391 ()
Conference
1st World Congress on Migration, Ethnicity, Race and Health, 17-19 May 2018, Edinburgh.
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Zhou, B., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bixby, H., Danaei, G., Hajifathalian, K., . . . Cisneros, J. Z. (2018). Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(3), 872-883i
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 872-883iArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure.

Methods

We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20–29 years to 70–79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure.

Results

In 2005–16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association.

Conclusions

Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018
Keywords
Blood pressure, hypertension, population health, global health, non-communicable disease
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361286 (URN)10.1093/ije/dyy016 (DOI)000438342200023 ()29579276 (PubMedID)
Funder
Wellcome trust, 101506/Z/13/Z
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Wångdahl, J., Westerling, R., Lytsy, P. & Mårtensson, L. (2018). Experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - focus group discussions with Arabic and Somali speaking refugees in Sweden. European Journal of Public Health, 28, 135-136
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - focus group discussions with Arabic and Somali speaking refugees in Sweden
2018 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 135-136Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358415 (URN)000432430700389 ()
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Wångdahl, J., Lytsy, P., Mårtensson, L. & Westerling, R. (2018). Poor health and refraining from seeking healthcare are associated with limited comprehensive health literacy among refugees: a Swedish cross-sectional study. International Journal of Public Health, 63(3), 409-419
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Poor health and refraining from seeking healthcare are associated with limited comprehensive health literacy among refugees: a Swedish cross-sectional study
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 409-419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to explore the distributions of comprehensive health literacy (CHL), general health, psychological well-being and having refrained from seeking healthcare among refugees in Sweden. Further objectives were to examine associations between CHL and the above mentioned factors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 refugees speaking Arabic, Dari and Somali. Participants in the civic orientation course in Sweden responded to a questionnaire. CHL was measured using the HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate potential associations.

Results: The majority of the respondents had limited CHL, and about four of ten had reported poor health and/or having refrained from seeking healthcare. Limited CHL was associated with having reported poor health and having refrained from seeking healthcare. 

Conclusions: A considerable proportion of the refugees in Sweden have limited CHL, and report less than good health and impaired well-being, or that they have refrained from seeking healthcare. Further, CHL is associated with the above mentioned factors. Efforts are needed to promote refugees' CHL, optimal health seeking behavior, and health.

Keywords
health literacy, general health, psychological well-being, refrained from healthcare, refugees
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333397 (URN)10.1007/s00038-017-1074-2 (DOI)000428236500012 ()29480325 (PubMedID)
Note

The study was co-financed by the County Administrative Board in Stockholm.

Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2018-06-20Bibliographically approved
Andersén, Å., Larsson, K., Lytsy, P., Berglund, E., Kristiansson, P. & Anderzén, I. (2018). Strengthened General Self-Efficacy with Multidisciplinary Vocational Rehabilitation in Women on Long-Term Sick Leave: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of occupational rehabilitation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strengthened General Self-Efficacy with Multidisciplinary Vocational Rehabilitation in Women on Long-Term Sick Leave: A Randomised Controlled Trial
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2018 (English)In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose To investigate the effects of two vocational rehabilitation interventions on self-efficacy, for women on long-term sick leave ≥ 1 year due to chronic pain and/or mental illness. Methods This study uses data from a randomised controlled trial consisting of two phases and comprising 401 women on long-term sick leave. They were allocated to either (1) a multidisciplinary team assessment and multimodal intervention (TEAM), (2) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), or (3) control group. Data were collected through repeated measurements from self-reported questionnaires before intervention, 6 and 12 months later and registry data. Data from measurements of general self-efficacy, sociodemographics, anxiety and depression were analysed with linear regression analyses. Results During the intervention period, the women in the TEAM group’s self-efficacy mean increased from 2.29 to 2.74. The adjusted linear regression model, which included group allocation, sociodemographics, self-efficacy pre-treatment, anxiety and depression showed increased self-efficacy for those in the TEAM intervention at 12 months (B = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.41). ACT intervention had no effect on self-efficacy at 12 months (B = 0.02, 95% CI − 0.16 to 0.19). The results in the adjusted model also showed that higher self-efficacy at pre-treatment was associated with a higher level of self-efficacy at 12 months (B = 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.81). Conclusion A multidisciplinary team assessment and multimodal intervention increased self-efficacy in women on sick leave for an extremely long time (mean 7.8 years) who had a low mean level of self-efficacy prior to inclusion. Thus, self-efficacy needs to be addressed in vocational rehabilitation.

Keywords
Chronic pain, Mental illness, Multidisciplinary rehabilitation, Self-efficacy, Sick leave, Vocational rehabilitation, Women
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339109 (URN)10.1007/s10926-017-9752-8 (DOI)29318421 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Lytsy, P. (2017). Creating falseness - How to establish statistical evidence of the untrue. Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, 23(5), 923-927
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating falseness - How to establish statistical evidence of the untrue
2017 (English)In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 923-927Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Null hypothesis significance testing is the typical statistical approach in search of the truthfulness of hypotheses. This method does not formally consider the prior credence in the hypothesis, which affects the chances of reaching correct conclusions. When scientifically implausible or empirically weakly supported hypotheses are tested, there is an increased risk that a positive finding in a test in fact is false positive. This article argues that when scientifically weakly supported hypotheses are tested repeatedlysuch as when studying the clinical effects of homeopathythe accumulation of false positive study findings will risk providing false evidence also in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. False positive findings are detrimental to science and society, as once published, they accumulate persistent untrue evidence, which risks giving rise to nonpurposive research programmes, policy changes, and promotion of ineffective treatments. The problems with false positive findings are discussed, and advice is given on how to minimize the problem. The standard of evidence of a hypothesis should depend not only on the results of statistical analyses but also on its a priori support. Positive findings from studies investigating hypotheses with poor theoretical and empirical foundations should be viewed as tentative until the results are replicated and/or the hypothesis gains more empirical evidence supporting it as likely to be true.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2017
Keywords
epidemiology, randomized controlled trials, statistics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337086 (URN)10.1111/jep.12823 (DOI)000411864200003 ()28960726 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-01-31Bibliographically approved
Lytsy, P., Carlsson, L. & Anderzén, I. (2017). Effectiveness of two vocational rehabilitation programmes in women with long-term sick leave due to pain syndrome or mental illness: 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 49(2), 170-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness of two vocational rehabilitation programmes in women with long-term sick leave due to pain syndrome or mental illness: 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial
2017 (English)In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Mental illness and chronic pain are common reasons for long-term sick leave, typically more so for women. This study investigated the effects on return to work of 2 vocational rehabilitation programmes. Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 308 women were allocated to treatment with acceptance and commitment therapy, to multidisciplinary assessment and individualized rehabilitation interventions, or to a control group. Return-to-work at 12 months was assessed as: (i) returning to health insurance; (ii) number of reimbursed health insurance days during follow-up; (iii) self-reported change in working hours; (iv) a composite measure of self-reported change in work-related engagement. Results: The mean age of the Swedish study population was 48.5 years (standard deviation (SD) 6.3 years) and the mean time on sick leave 7.5 years (SD 3.2 years). There were no significant differences in reimbursed days or returning to the health insurance at 12 months. The multidisciplinary assessment and individualized rehabilitation interventions group, compared with control, reported a significant increase in working hours per week, as well as a significant increase in work-related engagement. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary assessments and individual rehabilitation interventions may improve the chance of return-to-work in women with long-term sick leave due to pain condition or mental illness.

Keywords
return to work, vocational rehabilitation, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, acceptance and commitment therapy, chronic pain
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317212 (URN)10.2340/16501977-2188 (DOI)000396799000010 ()28101560 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Social Insurance Agency
Available from: 2017-03-11 Created: 2017-03-11 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
Wångdahl, J., Lytsy, P., Westerling, R. & Mårtensson, L. (2017). Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at U4 Cluster Conference Social Sciences, Economics and Law (SSEL), Uppsala, 29-30 May, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Health Care Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342969 (URN)
Conference
U4 Cluster Conference Social Sciences, Economics and Law (SSEL), Uppsala, 29-30 May, 2017
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-02-23
Wångdahl, J., Lytsy, P., Westerling, R. & Mårtensson, L. (2017). Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at International Conference on Communication in Healthcare & Health Literacy Annual Research Conference (ICCH/HAARC) 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333778 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Communication in Healthcare & Health Literacy Annual Research Conference (ICCH/HAARC) 2017
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2018-02-23
Wångdahl, J., Lytsy, P., Westerling, R. & Mårtensson, L. (2017). Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at U4 Cluster Conference Social Sciences, Economics and Law (SSEL), 29-30 May, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333772 (URN)
Conference
U4 Cluster Conference Social Sciences, Economics and Law (SSEL), 29-30 May, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2018-02-23
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1949-6299

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