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Goude, Anders
Publications (10 of 43) Show all publications
Nguyen, V.-D., Jansson, J., Goude, A. & Hoffman, J. (2019). Direct Finite Element Simulation of the turbulent flow past a vertical axis wind turbine. Renewable energy, 135, 238-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct Finite Element Simulation of the turbulent flow past a vertical axis wind turbine
2019 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 135, p. 238-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is today a significant interest in harvesting renewable energy, specifically wind energy, in offshore and urban environments. Vertical axis wind turbines get increasing attention since they are able to capture the wind from any direction. They are relatively easy to install and to transport, cheaper to build and maintain, and quite safe for humans and birds. Detailed computer simulations of the fluid dynamics of wind turbines provide an enhanced understanding of the technology and may guide design improvements. In this paper, we simulate the turbulent flow past a vertical axis wind turbine for a range of rotation angles in parked and rotating conditions. We propose the method of Direct Finite Element Simulation in a rotating ALE framework, abbreviated as DFS-ALE. The simulation results are validated against experimental data in the form of force measurements. It is found that the simulation results are stable with respect to mesh refinement and that the general shape of the variation of force measurements over the rotation angles is captured with good agreement.

Keywords
Turbulent simulation, VAWT, DFS-ALE, FEniCS-HPC
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379015 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2018.11.098 (DOI)000459365600021 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P40435-1EU, Horizon 2020, 731063
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Mendoza, V. & Goude, A. (2019). Improving farm efficiency of interacting vertical‐axis wind turbines through wake deflection using pitched struts. Wind Energy, 22(4), 538-546
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving farm efficiency of interacting vertical‐axis wind turbines through wake deflection using pitched struts
2019 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 538-546Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents a numerical study of the obtained performance and the resulting flow field between two interacting large scale vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs), under the influence of a deflected wake through the struts pitching of the upwind turbine. The configuration consists of two VAWTs aligned in the direction of the incoming flow in which a wide range of fixed struts pitching angles in the upwind turbine have been investigated. The main goal is to evaluate the influence of the wake deflection on the turbines performance while they are operating at their optimal tip speed ratio (TSR), and to reproduce the most relevant phenomena involved in the flow pattern of the interacting wake. Arrangements with cross-stream offsets have also been tested for quantifying the contribution of this modification into the overall performance. For this purpose, an actuator line model (ALM) has been implemented using the open-source CFD library OpenFOAM in order to solve the governing equations and to calculate the resulting flow. The Large eddy simulation (LES) approach is considered to reproduce the turbulence flow effects. A preliminary study to identify the optimal TSR of the interacting downwind turbine has been investigated.

Keywords
actuator line model (ALM), dynamic stall model (DSM), large eddy simulation (LES), vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), wake deflection
National Category
Energy Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348692 (URN)10.1002/we.2305 (DOI)000461904600008 ()
Funder
StandUp for Wind
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Mendoza, V., Bachant, P., Ferreira, C. & Goude, A. (2019). Near-Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Turbine Using an Actuator Line Model. Wind Energy, 22(2), 171-188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Near-Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Turbine Using an Actuator Line Model
2019 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 171-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, the near‐wake generated for a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) was simulated using an actuator line model (ALM) in order to validate and evaluate its accuracy. The sensitivity of the model to the variation of the spatial and temporal discretization was studied and showed a bigger response to the variation in the mesh size as compared with the temporal discretization. The large eddy simulation (LES) approach was used to predict the turbulence effects. The performance of Smagorinsky, dynamic k‐equation, and dynamic Lagrangian turbulence models was tested, showing very little relevant differences between them. Generally, predicted results agree well with experimental data for velocity and vorticity fields in representative sections. The presented ALM was able to characterize the main phenomena involved in the flow pattern using a relatively low computational cost without stability concerns, identified the general wake structure (qualitatively and quantitatively), and the contribution from the blade tips and motion on it. Additionally, the effects of the tower and struts were investigated with respect to the overall structure of the wake, showing no significant modification. Similarities and discrepancies between numerical and experimental results are discussed. The obtained results from the various simulations carried out here can be used as a practical reference guideline for choosing parameters in VAWTs simulations using the ALM.

Keywords
actuator line model, dynamic stall model, near wake simulation, vawt, vertical axis wind turbine
National Category
Energy Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348688 (URN)10.1002/we.2277 (DOI)000455955800002 ()
Funder
StandUp for Wind
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Mendoza, V., Chaudhari, A. & Goude, A. (2019). Performance and wake comparison of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines under varying surface roughness conditions. Wind Energy, 22(4), 458-472
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance and wake comparison of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines under varying surface roughness conditions
2019 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 458-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A numerical study of both a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with similar size and power rating is presented. These large scale turbines have been tested when operating stand-alone at their optimal tip speed ratio (TSR) within a neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The impact of three different surface roughness lengths on the turbine performance is studied for the both turbines. The turbines performance, the response to the variation in the surface roughness of terrain, and the most relevant phenomena involved on the resulting wake were investigated. The main goal was to evaluate the differences and similarities of these two different types of turbine when they operate under the same atmospheric flow conditions. An actuator line model (ALM) was used together with the large eddy simulation (LES) approach for predicting wake effects, and it was implemented using the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. This model was first validated using wind tunnel measurements of power coefficients and wake of interacting HAWTs, and then employed to study the wake structure of both full scale turbines. A preliminary study test comparing the forces on a VAWT blades against measurements was also investigated. These obtained results showed a better performance and shorter wake (faster recovery) for an HAWT compared with a VAWT for the same atmospheric conditions.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348690 (URN)10.1002/we.2299 (DOI)000461904600002 ()
Funder
StandUp for Wind
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Goude, A. & Engblom, S. (2018). A general high order two-dimensional panel method. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 60, 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A general high order two-dimensional panel method
2018 (English)In: Applied Mathematical Modelling, ISSN 0307-904X, E-ISSN 1872-8480, Vol. 60, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Computational Mathematics Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343974 (URN)10.1016/j.apm.2018.02.010 (DOI)000434005400001 ()
Projects
UPMARCeSSENCE
Available from: 2018-02-21 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
Forslund, J., Goude, A. & Thomas, K. (2018). Validation of a Coupled Electrical and Hydrodynamic Simulation Model For A Vertical Axis Marine Current Energy Converter. Energies, 11(11), Article ID 3067.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of a Coupled Electrical and Hydrodynamic Simulation Model For A Vertical Axis Marine Current Energy Converter
2018 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 3067Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper validates a simulation model that couples an electrical model in Simulink with a hydrodynamic vortex-model by comparing with experimental data. The simulated system is a vertical axis current turbine connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator in a direct drive configuration. Experiments of load and no load operation were conducted to calibrate the losses of the turbine, generator and electrical system. The power capture curve of the turbine has been simulated as well as the behaviour of a step response for a change in tip speed ratio. The simulated results agree well with experimental data except at low rotational speed where the accuracy of the calibration of the drag losses is reduced.

Keywords
marine current energy converter, control system, vertical axis turbine, permanent magnet synchronous generator, load control, vortex model, coupled model
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267944 (URN)10.3390/en11113067 (DOI)000451814000205 ()
Funder
StandUpÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)Vattenfall ABSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyVattenfall ABJ. Gust. Richert stiftelse
Note

Funders: Bixia Miljöfond

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Rossander, M., Goude, A. & Eriksson, S. (2017). Critical Speed Control for a Fixed Blade Variable Speed Wind Turbine. Energies, 10(11), Article ID 1699.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical Speed Control for a Fixed Blade Variable Speed Wind Turbine
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1699Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A critical speed controller for avoiding a certain rotational speed is presented. The controller is useful for variable speed wind turbines with a natural frequency in the operating range. The controller has been simulated, implemented and tested on an open site 12 kW vertical axis wind turbine prototype. The controller is based on an adaptation of the optimum torque control. Two lookup tables and a simple state machine provide the control logic of the controller. The controller requires low computational resources, and no wind speed measurement is needed. The results suggest that the controller is a feasible method for critical speed control. The skipping behavior can be adjusted using only two parameters. While tested on a vertical axis wind turbine, it may be used on any variable speed turbine with the control of generator power.

Keywords
vertical axis wind turbine, variable speed, control, optimal torque, critical speed, speed exclusion zone, natural frequencies, eigenfrequencies
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331782 (URN)10.3390/en10111699 (DOI)000417046500018 ()
Funder
StandUpStandUp for Wind
Available from: 2017-10-18 Created: 2017-10-18 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
Goude, A. & Rossander, M. (2017). Force measurements on a VAWT blade in parked conditions. Energies, 10(12), Article ID 1954.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Force measurements on a VAWT blade in parked conditions
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1954Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The forces on a turbine at extreme wind conditions when the turbine is parked is one of the most important design cases for the survivability of a turbine. In this work, the forces on a blade and its support arms have been measured on a 12 kW straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine at an open site. Two cases are tested: one during electrical braking of the turbine, which allows it to rotate slowly, and one with the turbine mechanically fixed with the leading edge of the blade facing the main wind direction. The force variations with respect to wind direction are investigated, and it is seen that significant variations in forces depend on the wind direction. The measurements show that for the fixed case, when subjected to the same wind speed, the forces are lower when the blade faces the wind direction. The results also show that due to the lower forces at this particular wind direction, the average forces for the fixed blade are notably lower. Hence, it is possible to reduce the forces on a turbine blade, simply by taking the dominating wind direction into account when the turbine is parked. The measurements also show that a positive torque is generated from the blade for most wind directions, which causes the turbine to rotate in the electrically-braked case. These rotations will cause increased fatigue loads on the turbine blade.

National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331818 (URN)10.3390/en10121954 (DOI)000423156900025 ()
Funder
StandUp for WindStandUp
Available from: 2017-10-18 Created: 2017-10-18 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Rossander, M., Goude, A. & Eriksson, S. (2017). Mechanical torque ripple from a passive diode rectifier in a 12 kW vertical axis wind turbine. IEEE transactions on energy conversion, 32(1), 164-171
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical torque ripple from a passive diode rectifier in a 12 kW vertical axis wind turbine
2017 (English)In: IEEE transactions on energy conversion, ISSN 0885-8969, E-ISSN 1558-0059, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 164-171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of passive rectification on the mechanical torque of a permanent magnet generator for a directly driven vertical axis wind turbine has been studied. Passive diode rectification introduce electromagnetic torque ripple from the generator. The conversion of electromagnetic torque ripple into mechanical torque ripple and rotational speed ripple has been modeled, analytically evaluated, and simulated. The simulations have been compared to measurements on an open site 12 kW prototype. A parameter study with the model illustrates the impact of shaft torsional spring constant, generator rotor inertia, generator inductance, and dc-link capacitance. The results show that the shaft and generator rotor can be an effective filter of electromagnetic torque ripple from diode rectification. The measured mechanical torque ripple amplitude on the prototype is less than +/- 0.9% of nominal turbine torque. The measurements compare well with the simulations.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-272363 (URN)10.1109/TEC.2016.2626783 (DOI)000396130300016 ()
Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Nguyen, V. D., Jansson, J., Leoni, M., Janssen, B., Goude, A. & Hoffman, J. (2017). Modelling Of Rotating Vertical Axis Turbines Using A Multiphase Finite Element Method. In: Visonneau, Michael; Queutey, Patrick & Le Touzé, David (Ed.), VII International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering (MARINE 2017): . Paper presented at VII International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering (MARINE 2017), May 15-17, 2017, Nantes, France. (pp. 950-959). International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling Of Rotating Vertical Axis Turbines Using A Multiphase Finite Element Method
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2017 (English)In: VII International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering (MARINE 2017) / [ed] Visonneau, Michael; Queutey, Patrick & Le Touzé, David, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE) , 2017, p. 950-959Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We combine the unified continuum fluid-structure interaction method with a multiphase flow model to simulate turbulent flow and fluid-structure interaction of rotating vertical axis turbines in offshore environments. This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, which focuses on energy systems combining ecological sustainability, competitiveness and reliability of supply. The numerical methods used comprise the Galerkin least-squares finite element method, coupled with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, in order to compute weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for high Reynolds numbers on moving meshes. Mesh smoothing methods help to improve the mesh quality when the mesh undergoes large deformations. The simulations have been performed using the Unicorn solver in the FEniCS-HPC framework, which runs on supercomputers with near optimal weak and strong scaling up to thousands of cores.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), 2017
Keywords
Vertical axis turbines, fluid-structure interaction, fluid-rigid body interaction, Unicorn solver, FEniCS-HPC, Navier-Stokes equations, multiphase finite element method
National Category
Computational Mathematics Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352937 (URN)000426877000078 ()978-84-946909-8-3 (ISBN)
Conference
VII International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering (MARINE 2017), May 15-17, 2017, Nantes, France.
Funder
EU, European Research CouncilSwedish Energy Agency
Note

See: Conference E-Book

Available from: 2018-06-12 Created: 2018-06-12 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
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