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Legnér, Mattias, ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0870-390x
Biography [eng]

I am Full Professor in Conservation and docent in History, stationed at the Unit of Conservation at the Department of Art History on Campus Gotland in Visby. I took my doctoral degree at Stockholm University in Sweden in 2004 at the Department of History. Since then I have been working with research and teaching on the preservation of especially built environment, but I have also been involved in management of museums and collections. I have researched historical perspectives on energy use in the built environment since 2009. In more recent years I have also developed a deeper interest in the management of cultural heritage after violent conflicts.

I have a long experience from teaching at university level. From 1998 to 2006 I worked as a teacher in history. I have been advising students at bachelor (undergraduate) level since 1998, and at master’s (graduate) level since 2004. I have been advising at the PhD level since 2011.

Biography [swe]

Min forskning behandlar bruket, förvaltningen och tolkningen av byggnader och byggda miljöer. Ett historiskt perspektiv är genomgående i min forskning.

Jag har behandlat återanvändningen av industriella områden i städer i, offentlig förvaltning av byggnader, uppfattningar om och tolkningar av stadsmiljöer, inklusive innemiljöer i hus, och lokal historieskrivning i äldre tid. 

Till min senaste forskning hör frågor dels om hur socialt konstruerade krav på inomhusklimatet utvecklades och påverkade det byggda kulturarvet under 1800- och 1900-talen, dels om hur kulturarv på gott och ont kan bli en resurs i och efter svåra konflikter. För närvarande leder jag ett fyraårigt projekt finansierat av Energimyndigheten som behandlar hur Sveriges byggda kulturarv har påverkats av statliga styrmedel för energieffektivisering sedan 1970-talet. Jag bedriver också forskning om hur kulturarv används och tolkas i konfliktområden.

Publications (10 of 109) Show all publications
Legnér, M., Leijonhufvud, G. & Tunefalk, M. (2020). Energy policy and conservation planning in Sweden: a longitudinal evaluation. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy policy and conservation planning in Sweden: a longitudinal evaluation
2020 (English)In: International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, ISSN 2398-4708Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Purpose – Sweden, like other countries, has set ambitious national targets for both energy efficiency and conservation of heritage values in the built environment. However, how these policies are implemented on a local level and how they affect each other is not known. This study aims to argue that extensive energy-saving policies can have unintentional impacts not just on the built environment but also on conservation practice.

Design/methodology/approach – By using a longitudinal approach, the aim is to investigate thepossibilities of conserving the built environment when policies for increased energy efficiency are implemented in existing urban areas. The methodology used is qualitative, applying a combination of study of public records, policy documents, interviews with public officials and ocular investigation of buildings in three areas located in two different municipalities.

Findings – The study suggests that extensive refurbishments not only have effects on the character of an area, but in extension, affect how urban planners and local authorities approach the development in the same area. Urban areas affected by extensive retrofits in the past seem to be managed in less detail, leaving existing policy measures on both energy and heritage untapped.

Research limitations/implications – This is a study concerning two Swedish municipalities. Furthermore, it is limited to one specific policy measure, energy-saving subsidies provided in the 1970s and 1980s. The generalisability of the findings may, therefore, be limited. Despite this, the findings provide an important indication of the relationship between energy-saving policies in the past and urban planning practice of existing urban areas today, as well as the importance of alignment between policy-making and implementation.

Practical implications – Policy instruments for the building stock and the practice of conservation planning have not worked well together. Due to local practice, energy subsidies provided in the 1970s and 1980s still today have a negative effect on both heritage conservation and energy efficiency in existing areas.

Social implications – There is a discrepancy between expectations and outcome of policy measures. National decision-makers overestimate the possibilities to control the development on a local level, for both energy efficiency and heritage values. By examining an innovative set of sources, acknowledging long-term effects and entanglements of policies and practice, this study contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of different values in the built environment.

Originality/value – By comparing the share of approved applications, as well as completed energy retrofits, this study demonstrates that the effects of the national energy subsidy policy differed significantly between urban areas. Areas with a high degree of approved subsidies also had a high degree of retrofits, suggesting that the policy had intended effects. In these areas, the number of retrofits were also significantly higher than the number of subsidies. This was not the case where energy subsidies were fewer, which indicates that energy retrofits are performative, meaning that they accelerate further retrofits in the same area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2020
Keywords
An evaluation of previous policies on energy efficiency and their effects on energy use and historical values, Sweden 1974–2014
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified Architecture
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-410253 (URN)10.1108/IJBPA-11-2019-0096 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-05-13 Created: 2020-05-13 Last updated: 2020-06-02Bibliographically approved
Tunefalk, M., Legnér, M. & Leijonhufvud, G. (2020). Long-term effects of additional insulation of building façades in Sweden: Towards a holistic approach. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 38(2), 374-385
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term effects of additional insulation of building façades in Sweden: Towards a holistic approach
2020 (English)In: International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, ISSN 2398-4708, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 374-385Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate long-term effects of previous policies for energy efficiency on energy performance and heritage values. A further ambition is to better understand the relationship between energy and preservation by exploring a quantitative method of combining energy performance data with official heritage designation.

Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on a quantitative analysis of energy performance,completed additional insulations, and official heritage classification for individual buildings. Data have been collected and analysed for a sample consisting of 289 multi-family buildings heated with district heating and constructed 1940–1949 in an urban area in Stockholm, Sweden.

Findings – The data exhibit a significant correlation between the studied features. The study further shows that additional insulation has been installed in roughly half of the buildings. The large majority of them were carried out in the national programme for home improvement called ROT.

Research limitations/implications – The findings indicate that previous policies for energy efficiency had an important effect on energy performance and heritage values in the studied area. They continue to affect urban planning and building permit administration today. Research of the physics of individual buildings would be needed in order to determine the reason for differences in the sample.

Originality/value – By presenting a novel method, the study provides a useful tool for policy makers to bridge the gap between issues of energy and preservation and adopt a more holistic approach towards a sustainable built environment.

Keywords
Energy efficiency, Policy evaluation, Built heritage, Additional insulation, Swedish urban planning
National Category
Architecture Energy Systems Building Technologies
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-391967 (URN)10.1108/IJBPA-02-2019-0020 (DOI)000524832300007 ()
Projects
An evaluation of previous policies on energy efficiency and their effects on energy use and historical values, Sweden 1974–2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40417-1
Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2020-05-08Bibliographically approved
Legnér, M. & Leijonhufvud, G. (2019). A Legacy of Energy Saving: The Discussion on Heritage Values in the First Programme on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Sweden, c. 1974–1984. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, 10(1), 40-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Legacy of Energy Saving: The Discussion on Heritage Values in the First Programme on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Sweden, c. 1974–1984
2019 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 40-57Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper analyses the ‘energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB) introduced in Sweden after the first oil crisis of 1973, and how effects of policies on the built heritage were perceived and communicated to a wider public. A conflict between conservation aims and energy efficiency was constructed for the first time in Sweden. The programme was a huge investment made by the government to reduce the import of oil. At first, little consideration was taken to the fact that heritage values might be at risk when giving property owners financial incentives to retrofit their houses. Soon increasing knowledge about the existing building stock showed that older houses were not necessarily energy inefficient. An information campaign launched by protagonists of building conservation encouraged property owners to direct measures to the interiors of buildings, thus saving the exterior character of not just single buildings but also complete neighbourhoods. Towards the end of EBB, the field of conservation had become a more articulated voice when it came to influencing measures aiming at increased energy efficiency. Finally, the paper discusses how values constituted in the 1970s affect policy and practice today.

Keywords
Energy, efficiency, policies, conservation, built heritage, values
National Category
History Architecture Energy Systems
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363271 (URN)10.1080/17567505.2018.1531646 (DOI)000465547800004 ()
Projects
An evaluation of previous policies on energy efficiency in buildings and their effects on energy use and historical values, Sweden 1974-2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40417-1
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Tunefalk, M. & Legnér, M. (2019). Decision-Making on a National Home Improvement Programme in Sweden and Its Effects on the Built Environment, 1984–1993. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, 10(2), 106-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision-Making on a National Home Improvement Programme in Sweden and Its Effects on the Built Environment, 1984–1993
2019 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 106-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Following a period of unprecedented building in the 1960s and 1970s, the national government of Sweden decided on a programme to promote renovations, refurbishments and extension of older buildings. The programme (abbreviated R.O.T.) was introduced in 1984 and consisted of loans and subsidies for the modernisation of houses older than 30 years, as well as information to home owners and builders on the benefits of home improvement. The target was to modernise 425,000 homes during the period 1984–1993. The programme stated that ‘the energy-saving measures must be intensified’ and ‘all out-dated and the main part of all inadequate apartments should be rebuilt to mod- ern apartments, or be demolished’. By relating the processes that formed R.O.T. to theories of decision-making, this study contributes to a better understanding of how housing policies may affect historical values in the built environment. The study reveals a conflict of interest between stakeholders. R.O.T. developed ad hoc as discourses shifted between interests. Initially, it was presented as a solution for unemployment in the building sector and a social improvement for the poor and elderly. It was not until the late 1980s that a discussion turned to the consequences for historical values.

Keywords
Decision-making; issue streams; built heritage; energy efficiency; home improvement; Swedish urban planning
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified History
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367196 (URN)10.1080/17567505.2019.1549397 (DOI)000466888400002 ()
Projects
An evaluation of previous policies on energy efficiency in buildings and their effects on energy use and historical values, Sweden 1974–201
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40417-1
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Stengård, M. & Legnér, M. (2019). Funder and facilitator: Swedish development aid aimed at cultural heritage in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995–2008. The International Journal of Cultural Policy, 25(7), 858-870
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Funder and facilitator: Swedish development aid aimed at cultural heritage in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995–2008
2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Cultural Policy, ISSN 1028-6632, E-ISSN 1477-2833, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 858-870Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper investigates the relationship between the Swedish development agency Sida and Cultural Heritage without Borders (CHwB), a facilitating organisation in the field of cultural heritage in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) following the Bosnia War. From 1995 to 2008 CHwB was the only NGO in BiH working to preserve cultural heritage, and was almost exclusively funded by Sida. From having been an organisation focusing on the restoration of historic monuments, CHwB transformed into becoming an NGO facilitating social and economic development. The paper suggests that CHwB gradually changed from having a very particular position of working with the pre- servation of an ethnically diverse cultural heritage with the aim of promot- ing reconciliation, to one where it needed to focus on reconstruction and its implications for economic development. By analysing a large number of key documents using Norman Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis this change is interpreted in relation to changes taking place within the land- scape of international aid and post-conflict recovery.

Keywords
Bosnia and Herzegovina; heritage; post-conflict reconstruction; aid; cultural heritage without borders; Sida; Sweden; BiH; CHwB
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384688 (URN)10.1080/10286632.2019.1621302 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-06-07 Created: 2019-06-07 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Legnér, M. (2019). Not Just a Summer Temple: The Development of Conservation and Indoor Climate in Nationalmuseum, Sweden (1ed.). In: Carlo Manfredi (Ed.), Addressing the Climate in Modern Age's Construction History: Between Architecture and Building Services Engineering (pp. 147-169). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Not Just a Summer Temple: The Development of Conservation and Indoor Climate in Nationalmuseum, Sweden
2019 (English)In: Addressing the Climate in Modern Age's Construction History: Between Architecture and Building Services Engineering / [ed] Carlo Manfredi, Springer, 2019, 1, p. 147-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

This essay examines the building and management of Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. Today the building has just recently been reopened after years of renovation and fitting of a new system that will control the indoor climate. This means deep interventions in a nineteenth-century building that was not designed to be airtight or to be heated all year around. The renovation gives a reason to ponder on how the building originally was designed and constructed, but also how it was managed over time. The climate of the house has been an issue ever since the building was constructed in the early years of the 1860s. It was fitted with a central heating system already then, but the building proved difficult to heat in winter and to ventilate in summer. There were continuous problems with dehydration of organic materials in the art collections in winter-time, and with too much sunlight exposing fragile art in the warmer season. Curiously, the introduction of artificial humidification first around 1930 and then again in the 1950s did not solve the problem of dehydration. On the contrary climate problems became ever more complex around the mid-20thcentury because of the introduction of motor traffic with its exhausts, and increasing demands on a stable indoor climate in art museums. 

How did museums balance the needs of their collections, against the needs of staff and visitors? What considerations where made when choosing heating and ventilation for a museum at this time? In order to illuminate these questions, archival sources from Nationalmuseum, Riksarkivet (National State Archives) and the engineering and architectural company SWECO have been used. Överintendentsämbetet (Board of Public Works and Buildings, abbreviated ÖIÄ) was the custodian of government buildings, followed by Kungliga Byggnadsstyrelsen (Board of Building and Planning, abbreviated KBS) after an organizational shift in 1918. The museum was thus responsible for the management of its collections but not of its building. Until 1939 there was also a second museum housed in the bottom floor: Statens Historiska Museum, the National Historical Museum.  

If the museum had a complaint on the performance of the building or the heating system, it would have to notify ÖIÄ (or KBS after 1918), which then would decide how to act. Judging by archive sources, it becomes evident that ÖIÄ had small means to make more demanding interventions in existing buildings, and often complaints seem to have been more or less ignored because of lack of resources. By studying the correspondence it is possible to gain a better understanding of how museum management perceived indoor climate and how ÖIÄ responded. 

The purpose of the essay is to explore how the construction and management of the indoor climate was shaped by technological development and how views on the running of a museum building shifted. Nationalmuseum was fitted with a hot water central heating system. In the early 1860s this was something hardly heard of in Sweden at this time. In general, the central heating systems used at that time were caloriphers, furnaces that heated the air that was then circulated through the building.  

There were firms in Stockholm installing piping, but none of them was considered competent enough to do the installations in Nationalmuseum. Most entrepreneurs in Stockholm worked with gas piping, not with water or sewer piping.[1]In the early 1860s it was still not evident that a public building should be equipped with this kind of heating, despite the relatively long and cold winters in Stockholm. Public buildings in general were heated with local fireplaces, most often tile stoves produced in the city.  

Today it is well known that control of indoor climate is key to the management of collections. Too much heat makes the air dry, which may cause damage to fragile objects such as paintings on panels or wooden furniture with veneer. Too little heat makes the air very humid, which promotes mold, vermin, corrosion and rot. What is considered "too little" or "too much", however, has changed since the nineteenth century.[2]The essay explores why central heating was installed in the museum, what the expectations on its functioning were, and how building and museum management (they were – and are – separate from each other) continuously commented on its performance in the decades following the opening of the museum, up until the 1970s when air pollution had become a serious problem demanding a technical solution.

[1]G. Stålbom, Varmt och vädrat. VVS-teknik i äldre byggnader, Sveriges VVS Museum – SBUF – VVS Företagen, Stockholm 2010, 15. In 1861 Stockholm opened its first waterworks with 30 km of piping. 

[2]M. Legnér, "Conservation versus thermal comfort – conflicting interests?: The issue of church heating, Sweden c. 1918–1975",Konsthistorisk Tidskrift 2014 (e-publication ahead of print).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019 Edition: 1
Keywords
Nationalmuseum Sweden Museum architecture Indoor climate Comfort Conservation Heating technology Fuel
National Category
Art History Architecture History of Technology
Research subject
Conservation (HGO); History of Sciences and Ideas; History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382734 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-04465-7 (DOI)978-3-030-04464-0 (ISBN)
Projects
Kulturarvet och komforten: frågan om lämpligt inomhusklimat i kulturhistoriska byggnader under 1900-talet
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-2375
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Legnér, M. & Stengård, M. (2019). Post-conflict reconstruction of cultural heritage.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-conflict reconstruction of cultural heritage
2019 (English)Other (Other academic)
Keywords
Bosnia Herzegovina Cultural heritage Kosovo reconstruction post-conflict post-war conservation restoration
National Category
Art History History Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-399984 (URN)
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2020-01-02Bibliographically approved
Legnér, M. & Tunefalk, M. (2018). It's not the end of the World (Heritage Site): Impacts of an energy savings programme on historical values in Visby, Sweden. In: T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten (Ed.), The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Visby Sweden, 26-27 September 2018. Paper presented at EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings,26-27 September, 2018, Wisby, Sweden (pp. 444-452). Visby, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It's not the end of the World (Heritage Site): Impacts of an energy savings programme on historical values in Visby, Sweden
2018 (English)In: The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Visby Sweden, 26-27 September 2018 / [ed] T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten, Visby, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 444-452Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practical impact of the ‘Energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB) on the historical values of the built environment in Visby, Sweden. The EBB, active 1977–1984, has been generally criticized for its negative impact on historical values. The paper nuances this image by comparing changes in the built environment during and after the time the EEB. The aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of changes in the built environment in the historical inner city of Visby, and to relate changes in the built environment to the EEB. The paper concludes that EEB had little impact on the historical values of the studied area. Change has been an inherent part of the area both prior to, during, and after the EEB, but the rate and impact has increased since the 1980’s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Visby: , 2018
Keywords
historical values; energy efficiency; policies; Visby; world heritage
National Category
History Architecture
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361347 (URN)
Conference
EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings,26-27 September, 2018, Wisby, Sweden
Projects
En granskning av tidigare styrmedel för energieffektivisering i byggnader och deras effekter på energianvändning och kulturhistoriska värden 1974-2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P40417-1
Available from: 2018-09-23 Created: 2018-09-23 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Bravaglieri, S., Legnér, M. & Ristic, M. (2018). Kosovo: Quelle statue che dividono. In: Marco Dezzi Bardeschi (Ed.), Ananke 83: Idoli infranti: Intollerances 2017 (pp. 24-25). Milano: Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento ABC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kosovo: Quelle statue che dividono
2018 (Italian)In: Ananke 83: Idoli infranti: Intollerances 2017 / [ed] Marco Dezzi Bardeschi, Milano: Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento ABC , 2018, p. 24-25Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

The use of monuments in urban space is often bounded to political power and social hierarchy; through spatial distribution, form and meanings of public statues one social group can convey political myths and stabilize or legitimize political authority. In Mitrovica, the divided city of Kosovo, since the conflict of 1999, and during the apartheid-like regime preceding it, uses of the past became more and more entangled with present-day political objectives connected to territory and national identity. here different interpretations of the past are manifested in public space by Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanians. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Milano: Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento ABC, 2018
Keywords
Kosovo Monuments Conflict Mitrovica Heritage
National Category
History and Archaeology
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-344010 (URN)9788894869309 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved
Legnér, M. (2018). Museerna och första världskriget [Review]. Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, 114-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Museerna och första världskriget
2018 (Swedish)In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, p. 114-118Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Recension av Christina Kott och Bénédicte Savoy (Hg.), Mars & Museum: Europäische Museum im Erste Weltkrieg, Köln m fl, Böhlau Verlag 2016. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2018
Keywords
Museer, Första världskriget, Kulturarv, Tyskland, Storbritannien, Frankrike, Österrike-Ungern
National Category
History Art History
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382498 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0870-390x

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