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Legnér, Mattias, ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0870-390x
Biography [eng]

I am Full Professor in Conservation and docent in History, stationed at the Unit of Conservation at the Department of Art History on Campus Gotland in Visby. I took my doctoral degree at Stockholm University in Sweden in 2004 at the Department of History. Since then I have been working with research and teaching on the preservation of especially built environment, but I have also been involved in management of museums and collections. I have researched historical perspectives on energy use in the built environment since 2009. In more recent years I have also developed a deeper interest in the management of cultural heritage after violent conflicts.

I have a long experience from teaching at university level. From 1998 to 2006 I worked as a teacher in history. I have been advising students at bachelor (undergraduate) level since 1998, and at master’s (graduate) level since 2004. I have been advising at the PhD level since 2011.

Biography [swe]

Min forskning behandlar bruket, förvaltningen och tolkningen av byggnader och byggda miljöer. Ett historiskt perspektiv är genomgående i min forskning.

Jag har behandlat återanvändningen av industriella områden i städer i, offentlig förvaltning av byggnader, uppfattningar om och tolkningar av stadsmiljöer, inklusive innemiljöer i hus, och lokal historieskrivning i äldre tid. 

Till min senaste forskning hör frågor dels om hur socialt konstruerade krav på inomhusklimatet utvecklades och påverkade det byggda kulturarvet under 1800- och 1900-talen, dels om hur kulturarv på gott och ont kan bli en resurs i och efter svåra konflikter. För närvarande leder jag ett fyraårigt projekt finansierat av Energimyndigheten som behandlar hur Sveriges byggda kulturarv har påverkats av statliga styrmedel för energieffektivisering sedan 1970-talet. Jag bedriver också forskning om hur kulturarv används och tolkas i konfliktområden.

Publications (10 of 104) Show all publications
Legnér, M. & Leijonhufvud, G. (2019). A Legacy of Energy Saving: The Discussion on Heritage Values in the First Programme on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Sweden, c. 1974–1984. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, 10(1), 40-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Legacy of Energy Saving: The Discussion on Heritage Values in the First Programme on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Sweden, c. 1974–1984
2019 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 40-57Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper analyses the ‘energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB) introduced in Sweden after the first oil crisis of 1973, and how effects of policies on the built heritage were perceived and communicated to a wider public. A conflict between conservation aims and energy efficiency was constructed for the first time in Sweden. The programme was a huge investment made by the government to reduce the import of oil. At first, little consideration was taken to the fact that heritage values might be at risk when giving property owners financial incentives to retrofit their houses. Soon increasing knowledge about the existing building stock showed that older houses were not necessarily energy inefficient. An information campaign launched by protagonists of building conservation encouraged property owners to direct measures to the interiors of buildings, thus saving the exterior character of not just single buildings but also complete neighbourhoods. Towards the end of EBB, the field of conservation had become a more articulated voice when it came to influencing measures aiming at increased energy efficiency. Finally, the paper discusses how values constituted in the 1970s affect policy and practice today.

Keywords
Energy, efficiency, policies, conservation, built heritage, values
National Category
History Architecture Energy Systems
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363271 (URN)10.1080/17567505.2018.1531646 (DOI)000465547800004 ()
Projects
An evaluation of previous policies on energy efficiency in buildings and their effects on energy use and historical values, Sweden 1974-2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40417-1
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Tunefalk, M. & Legnér, M. (2018). Decision-Making on a National Home Improvement Programme in Sweden and Its Effects on the Built Environment, 1984–1993. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision-Making on a National Home Improvement Programme in Sweden and Its Effects on the Built Environment, 1984–1993
2018 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Following a period of unprecedented building in the 1960s and 1970s, the national government of Sweden decided on a programme to promote renovations, refurbishments and extension of older buildings. The programme (abbreviated R.O.T.) was introduced in 1984 and consisted of loans and subsidies for the modernisation of houses older than 30 years, as well as information to home owners and builders on the benefits of home improvement. The target was to modernise 425,000 homes during the period 1984–1993. The programme stated that ‘the energy-saving measures must be intensified’ and ‘all out-dated and the main part of all inadequate apartments should be rebuilt to mod- ern apartments, or be demolished’. By relating the processes that formed R.O.T. to theories of decision-making, this study contributes to a better understanding of how housing policies may affect historical values in the built environment. The study reveals a conflict of interest between stakeholders. R.O.T. developed ad hoc as discourses shifted between interests. Initially, it was presented as a solution for unemployment in the building sector and a social improvement for the poor and elderly. It was not until the late 1980s that a discussion turned to the consequences for historical values.

Keywords
Decision-making; issue streams; built heritage; energy efficiency; home improvement; Swedish urban planning
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified History
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367196 (URN)10.1080/17567505.2019.1549397 (DOI)
Projects
An evaluation of previous policies on energy efficiency in buildings and their effects on energy use and historical values, Sweden 1974–201
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40417-1
Note

Published online: 26 Nov 2018.

Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
Legnér, M. & Tunefalk, M. (2018). It's not the end of the World (Heritage Site): Impacts of an energy savings programme on historical values in Visby, Sweden.. In: T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten (Ed.), The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Visby Sweden, 26-27 September 2018. Paper presented at EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings,26-27 September, 2018, Wisby, Sweden (pp. 444-452). Visby, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It's not the end of the World (Heritage Site): Impacts of an energy savings programme on historical values in Visby, Sweden.
2018 (English)In: The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Visby Sweden, 26-27 September 2018 / [ed] T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten, Visby, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 444-452Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practical impact of the ‘Energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB) on the historical values of the built environment in Visby, Sweden. The EBB, active 1977–1984, has been generally criticized for its negative impact on historical values. The paper nuances this image by comparing changes in the built environment during and after the time the EEB. The aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of changes in the built environment in the historical inner city of Visby, and to relate changes in the built environment to the EEB. The paper concludes that EEB had little impact on the historical values of the studied area. Change has been an inherent part of the area both prior to, during, and after the EEB, but the rate and impact has increased since the 1980’s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Visby: , 2018
Keywords
historical values; energy efficiency; policies; Visby; world heritage
National Category
History Architecture
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361347 (URN)
Conference
EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings,26-27 September, 2018, Wisby, Sweden
Projects
En granskning av tidigare styrmedel för energieffektivisering i byggnader och deras effekter på energianvändning och kulturhistoriska värden 1974-2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P40417-1
Available from: 2018-09-23 Created: 2018-09-23 Last updated: 2019-05-17
Bravaglieri, S., Legnér, M. & Ristic, M. (2018). Kosovo: Quelle statue che dividono. In: Marco Dezzi Bardeschi (Ed.), Ananke 83: Idoli infranti: Intollerances 2017 (pp. 24-25). Milano: Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento ABC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kosovo: Quelle statue che dividono
2018 (Italian)In: Ananke 83: Idoli infranti: Intollerances 2017 / [ed] Marco Dezzi Bardeschi, Milano: Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento ABC , 2018, p. 24-25Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

The use of monuments in urban space is often bounded to political power and social hierarchy; through spatial distribution, form and meanings of public statues one social group can convey political myths and stabilize or legitimize political authority. In Mitrovica, the divided city of Kosovo, since the conflict of 1999, and during the apartheid-like regime preceding it, uses of the past became more and more entangled with present-day political objectives connected to territory and national identity. here different interpretations of the past are manifested in public space by Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanians. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Milano: Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento ABC, 2018
Keywords
Kosovo Monuments Conflict Mitrovica Heritage
National Category
History and Archaeology
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-344010 (URN)9788894869309 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved
Legnér, M. (2018). Museerna och första världskriget [Review]. Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, 114-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Museerna och första världskriget
2018 (Swedish)In: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, p. 114-118Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Recension av Christina Kott och Bénédicte Savoy (Hg.), Mars & Museum: Europäische Museum im Erste Weltkrieg, Köln m fl, Böhlau Verlag 2016. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2018
Keywords
Museer, Första världskriget, Kulturarv, Tyskland, Storbritannien, Frankrike, Österrike-Ungern
National Category
History Art History
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382498 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Legnér, M. (2018). Post-conflict reconstruction and the heritage process. Journal of Architectural Conservation, 24(2), 78-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-conflict reconstruction and the heritage process
2018 (English)In: Journal of Architectural Conservation, ISSN 1355-6207, E-ISSN 2326-6384, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 78-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite that large investments have been made by the European Union in restoring and preserving heritage damaged after the Kosovo War 1998–99, there have been no previous attempts to gain more in-depth knowledge about the implementation and success of the interventions. Organisations involved in funding and facilitating architectural interventions in post-conflict zones may have differing aims and agendas that influence selection and methods, and ultimately the results. This paper aims to shed light on a pioneering project carried out on damaged kullas, massive masonry towers connected to farmsteads, in Kosovo 2001–02. Kullas were systematically attacked and burned during the conflict. The methodology is based on interviews with involved people and on documentation that is publically available, since it is crucial to uncover the aims and agendas of involved actors if one wishes to understand how and why decisions were made. In the end, what was deemed most important in the process was not the reconstruction in itself, but rather the development of craftsmen's skills and the need to create a dialogue on the values of Kosovo heritage. The paper shows how the reconstruction of built heritage can facilitate processes of dialogue in conflict areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Post-conflict reconstruction, values, Kosovo, kulla, heritagisation, architectural heritage, SIDA, European Union
National Category
Architecture Other Humanities not elsewhere specified Globalisation Studies
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348424 (URN)10.1080/13556207.2018.1463663 (DOI)000440968000002 ()
Funder
Helge Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse Magnus Bergvall Foundation
Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Tunefalk, M. & Legnér, M. (2018). The ROT programme, energy efficiency, and historical values in buildings in Sweden. In: Preliminary conference report: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Visby Sweden, 26-27 September 2018. Paper presented at EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, 26-27 September 2018,Visby, Sweden (pp. 255-263). Visby, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ROT programme, energy efficiency, and historical values in buildings in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Preliminary conference report: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Visby Sweden, 26-27 September 2018, Visby, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 255-263Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the early 1980’s, the Swedish government launched a homeimprovement programme (ROT), consisting of loans, grants and information to property owners for modernization of houses older than 30 years. The target was to modernize 425,000 homes during the period 1984–1993. It was a priority that ‘energy saving measures must be intensified’.

By studying how ROT was conceived and negotiated in regards to energy efficiency and historical values in buildings, this paper contributes to a better understanding of how housing policies may generate both risks and opportunities. The study reveals a conflict of interest between stakeholders. Discourses regarding the programme shifted widely between interest groups and over time. Initially, it was presented as a solution for unemployment in the building sector, and a social improvement for the poor and elderly. It was not until the late 1980’s that a discussion started on the consequences for historical values.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Visby: , 2018
Keywords
policy making; built heritage; energy ef ciency; home improvement; Swedish urban planning
National Category
History Architecture
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361346 (URN)
Conference
EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, 26-27 September 2018,Visby, Sweden
Projects
En granskning av tidigare styrmedel för energieffektivisering i byggnader och deras effekter på energianvändning och kulturhistoriska värden 1974-2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P40417-1
Available from: 2018-09-23 Created: 2018-09-23 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Legnér, M. (2018). Värdering och skydd av kulturegendom i Sverige under andra världskriget, med en särskild utblick mot Gotland (9ed.). GUSEM - Gutilandorum universitas scholarium et magistrorum, 9, 21-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Värdering och skydd av kulturegendom i Sverige under andra världskriget, med en särskild utblick mot Gotland
2018 (Swedish)In: GUSEM - Gutilandorum universitas scholarium et magistrorum, Vol. 9, p. 21-64Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Cultural property protection in Sweden during the Second World War, with focus on the island Gotland

As cultural property became increasingly important to national identities in the early 20th century, European states strove to protect monuments and collections from damage and destruction. The most cataclysmic situation that cultural property could be subjected to was utter destruction. The First World War proved to be such a disaster not only to human life but also to property of importance to national identity and culture. The Second World War, however, was even more disastrous when it came to destruction in areas close to the sometimes fast-moving fronts. 

     This essay is based on new investigations of documents found in a number of archives in Sweden: the archive of the National Heritage Board, the Military Archives in Stockholm, Nationalmuseum and the county archive in Visby. It deals with a topic that has previously been completely ignored – namely how Swedish national treasures were to be protected in the event of war. The essay analyses how the National Heritage Board cooperated with the Military Headquarters in order to survey, evaluate and protect a substantial part of Swedish heritage before the outbreak of the Second World War and during the war years. Their measures were based on experiences from the First World War but also from observations of how other states had been organising their cultural property protection in the 1930s, most notably France. French cultural authorities were well prepared when Germany invaded in May 1940.

     Aerial bombardment severly damaged major cities as well as historic towns in the Second World War. Before the outbreak of war cultural and military authorities in different countries prepared by taking protective measures such as the moving of collections, the building of sandbag walls around architectural details, and removal of stained glass windows from churches. Also Swedish authorities foresaw the risk of Sweden becoming involved in the war, even though the country was to be formally neutral in an upcoming conflict. Protective measures were organised by making plans for how evacuation of the most valuable collections in museums, archives and libraries Stockholm should be carried out in the event of war. In rural areas people were to a large degree left to themselves to prepare for war by following instructions from the authorities. 

     Some of the attention of the National Heritage Board was directed towards the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea. Gotland was very rich in archaeological findings and medieval heritage. The island was running the risk of becoming invaded, alternatively bombed, if war broke out in the Baltic region. Due to the development of aerial warfare there needed to be more extensive plans for evacuation in the 1930s than earlier. Bombers could potentially strike almost anywhere but cities, industrial plants, main roads, bridges, railroads and harbours were especially at risk. Measures continued to be re-organised during the war depending on its development. 

     On Gotland there are 92 standing churches of medieval origin. Many of these were considered as potential targets of warships or bombers because of their visibility and proximity to the coast. Churches were documented in photographs, some protective measures were taken, and stained glass windows were taken down, stored and later conserved. Such measures were the responsibility of the parish and the diocese, but they were conducted under the watchful eyes of professor Johnny Roosval, an art historian specialised on the architecture and art of Gotland churches. Roosval, who also was an officer in the Reserve, worked closely with the Military Headquarters to inform local authorities about the need to protect cultural property.

     After 1945 a completely new civilian defense was organised in Sweden with cultural property protection as an integrated part. The new organisation was based on close observations of how the victorious countries in the war, most notable Great Britain, had treated cultural property in battle and territorial occupation.   

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Visby: Historiska föreningen på Gotland, 2018 Edition: 9
Keywords
cultural property protection Second world war Gotland churches Medieval art Sweden Johnny Roosval, Kulturegendom - skydd Andra världskriget Gotland kyrkor Medeltidskonst Sverige Johnny Roosval
National Category
History
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362549 (URN)
Note

This research was supported by Wilhelmina von Hallwyls Gotlandsfond. 

Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Leijonhufvud, G., Tunefalk, M. & Legnér, M. (2018). What’s behind the façade?: A long-term assessment of the Swedish energy efficiency programme 1977–1984 and its impact on built heritage. In: T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten (Ed.), The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: . Paper presented at EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, 26-27 September, 2018, Visby, Sweden (pp. 191-198). Visby, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What’s behind the façade?: A long-term assessment of the Swedish energy efficiency programme 1977–1984 and its impact on built heritage
2018 (English)In: The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten, Visby, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 191-198Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Energy ef ciency policies might have a negative impact on the heritage values of buildings, an issue widely recognized in Sweden during and after the extensive energy ef ciency programme ‘Energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB 1977–84). The purpose of this paper is to assess the long-term impact of the EBB on an urban district in Gävle, Sweden. The district comprises 69 single- and multi-family detached houses built between the 1920’s and 1950’s. Using archival sources and field studies we describe how the buildings have been modified and trace the role of the EBB on the district as a whole. The results show that despite that the EBB has had a major impact on the district, it is difficult to disentangle its role in relation to other factors. The study raises concerns over the common approach in policy making to draw distinct lines in the sand between heritage and non-heritage buildings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Visby: , 2018
Keywords
conservation; historic buildings; energy ef ciency policy; program evaluation; energy retro t
National Category
Architecture History
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361348 (URN)
Conference
EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, 26-27 September, 2018, Visby, Sweden
Projects
En granskning av tidigare styrmedel för energieffektivisering i byggnader och deras effekter på energianvändning och kulturhistoriska värden 1974-2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P40417-1
Available from: 2018-09-23 Created: 2018-09-23 Last updated: 2019-05-17
Legnér, M. (2017). 1700-talets ortsbeskrivningar (1ed.). In: Maja Markhouss (Ed.), Läroverkssamlingen i ljuset: Almedalsbibliotekets äldre samling (pp. 15-21). Uppsala: Uppsala universitetsbibliotek
Open this publication in new window or tab >>1700-talets ortsbeskrivningar
2017 (Swedish)In: Läroverkssamlingen i ljuset: Almedalsbibliotekets äldre samling / [ed] Maja Markhouss, Uppsala: Uppsala universitetsbibliotek , 2017, 1, p. 15-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Eighteenth century topographical descriptions

 

The gymnasium library in Visby contains a number of volumes from the time before 1800 describing places (parishes, towns, counties) in Sweden. These topographical descriptions cover topics such as the landscape, customs, history and economic development. In the eighteenth century writing such descriptions became a popular pastime among priests and burghers, and it was seen as an appropriate topic for university students writing their thesis. In the course of the century more than 300 such descriptions were printed in Sweden (including Finland). Some of these descriptions are found in this collection, and three of them are dealt with in the article. The first one was a description of Uppsala and its environs authored by the royal antiquarian Johan Peringskiöld in the early eighteenth century, focusing entirely on the antiquities of the place. The second description was one of the antiquities of Gotland, written in 1730s and 1740s by the superintendent Jöran Wallin. The third one is an account of the county Stora Kopparberg from 1757, written by the merchant Abraham Abrahamsson Hülphers who also published an extensive description of northern Sweden.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitetsbibliotek, 2017 Edition: 1
Keywords
ortsbeskrivningar, patriotism, fädernesland, topografi, hülphers, peringskiöld, fornforskning
National Category
History
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333472 (URN)978-91-506-2660-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-11-14 Created: 2017-11-14 Last updated: 2018-01-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0870-390x

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