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Eriksson, P., Lindskog, C., Lorente-Leal, V., Waldenström, J., González-Acuna, D., Järhult, J. D., . . . Ellström, P. (2019). Attachment Patterns of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses to Trachea and Colon of 26 Bird Species: Support for the Community Concept. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, Article ID 815.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attachment Patterns of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses to Trachea and Colon of 26 Bird Species: Support for the Community Concept
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, article id 815Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) have a broad host range, but are most intimately associated with waterfowl (Anseriformes) and, in the case of the H13 and H16 subtypes, gulls (Charadriiformes). Host associations are multifactorial, but a key factor is the ability of the virus to bind host cell receptors and thereby initiate infection. The current study aims at investigating the tissue attachment pattern of a panel of AIVs, comprising H3N2, H6N1, H12N5, and H16N3, to avian trachea and colon tissue samples obtained from host species of different orders. Virus attachment was not restricted to the bird species or order from which the virus was isolated. Instead, extensive virus attachment was observed to several distantly related avian species. In general, more virus attachment and receptor expression were observed in trachea than in colon samples. Additionally, a human seasonal H3N2 virus was studied. Unlike the studied AIVs, this virus mainly attached to tracheae from Charadriiformes and a very limited set of avian cola. In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed.

Keywords
virus histochemistry, lectin staining, pattern of virus attachment, avian influenza, birds
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382841 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2019.00815 (DOI)000464963200002 ()31057520 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-03877Swedish Research Council, 2016-02596Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

De 2 första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Gullsby, K., Olsen, B. & Bondeson, K. (2019). Molecular typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains in Sweden, 1996–2017, and the emergence of a new P1 cytadhesin gene, Variant 2e. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 57(6), Article ID e00049-19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains in Sweden, 1996–2017, and the emergence of a new P1 cytadhesin gene, Variant 2e
2019 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 57, no 6, article id e00049-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes respiratory infections, such as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with epidemics recurring every 3 to 7 years. In 2010 and 2011, many countries experienced an extraordinary epidemic peak. The cause of these recurring epidemics is not understood, but decreasing herd immunity and shifts in the strains' antigenic properties have been suggested as contributing factors. M. pneumoniae PCR-positive samples were collected between 1996 and 2017 from four neighboring counties inhabited by 12% of Sweden's population. A total of 578 isolates were characterized directly from 624 clinical samples using P1 typing by sequencing and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR approach was also used to detect mutations associated with macrolide resistance in the 23S rRNA gene. Through P1 typing, the strains were classified into type 1 and type 2, as well as variants 2a, 2b, 2c, and a new variant found in nine of the strains, denoted variant 2e. Twelve MLVA types were distinguished, and 3-5-6-2 (42.4%), 4-5-7-2 (37.4%), and 3-6-6-2 (14.9%) predominated. Several P1 and MLVA types cocirculated each year, but type 2/variant 2 strains and MLVA types 3-5-6-2 and 4-5-7-2 predominated during the epidemic period comprising the peak of 2010 and 2011. In 2016 and 2017, type 1 became more common, and MLVA type 4-5-7-2 predominated. We also found that 0.2% (1/578) of the strains carried a macrolide resistance-associated mutation, indicating a very low prevalence of macrolide resistance in this region of Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Microbiology, 2019
Keywords
MLVA, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, P1 typing, molecular typing
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381150 (URN)10.1128/JCM.00049-19 (DOI)000469251500002 ()30918047 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Ahlstrom, C. A., Bonnedahl, J., Woksepp, H., Hernandez, J., Reed, J. A., Tibbitts, L., . . . Ramey, A. M. (2019). Satellite tracking of gulls and genomic characterization of faecal bacteria reveals environmentally mediated acquisition and dispersal of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Molecular Ecology, 28(10), 2531-2545
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Satellite tracking of gulls and genomic characterization of faecal bacteria reveals environmentally mediated acquisition and dispersal of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska
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2019 (English)In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 2531-2545Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gulls (Larus spp.) have frequently been reported to carry Escherichia coli exhibiting antimicrobial resistance (AMR E. coli); however, the pathways governing the acquisition and dispersal of such bacteria are not well described. We equipped 17 landfill-foraging gulls with satellite transmitters and collected gull faecal samples longitudinally from four locations on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska to assess: (a) gull attendance and transitions between sites, (b) spatiotemporal prevalence of faecally shed AMR E. coli, and (c) genomic relatedness of AMR E. coli isolates among sites. We also sampled Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) harvested as part of personal-use dipnet fisheries at two sites to assess potential contamination with AMR E. coli. Among our study sites, marked gulls most commonly occupied the lower Kenai River (61% of site locations) followed by the Soldotna landfill (11%), lower Kasilof River (5%) and upper Kenai River (<1%). Gulls primarily moved between the Soldotna landfill and the lower Kenai River (94% of transitions among sites), which were also the two locations with the highest prevalence of AMR E. coli. There was relatively high spatial and temporal variability in AMR E. coli prevalence in gull faeces and there was no evidence of contamination on salmon harvested in personal-use fisheries. We identified E. coli sequence types and AMR genes of clinical importance, with some isolates possessing genes associated with resistance to as many as eight antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that gulls acquire AMR E. coli at habitats with anthropogenic inputs and subsequent movements may represent pathways through which AMR is dispersed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
antimicrobial resistance, molecular epidemiology, satellite telemetry, whole genome sequencing, wildlife
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390042 (URN)10.1111/mec.15101 (DOI)000472237600008 ()30980689 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Ahlstrom, C. A., Bonnedahl, J., Woksepp, H., Hernandez, J., Olsen, B. & Ramey, A. M. (2018). Acquisition and dissemination of cephalosporin-resistant E.coli in migratory birds sampled at an Alaska landfill as inferred through genomic analysis. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 7361.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acquisition and dissemination of cephalosporin-resistant E.coli in migratory birds sampled at an Alaska landfill as inferred through genomic analysis
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7361Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens threatens global health, though the spread of AMR bacteria and AMR genes between humans, animals, and the environment is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of AMR Escherichia coli. Using next-generation sequencing, we characterized cephalosporin-resistant E. coli cultured from sympatric gulls and bald eagles inhabiting a landfill habitat in Alaska to identify genetic determinants conferring AMR, explore potential transmission pathways of AMR bacteria and genes at this site, and investigate how their genetic diversity compares to isolates reported in other taxa. We found genetically diverse E. coli isolates with sequence types previously associated with human infections and resistance genes of clinical importance, including blaCTX-M and blaCMY. Identical resistance profiles were observed in genetically unrelated E. coli isolates from both gulls and bald eagles. Conversely, isolates with indistinguishable core-genomes were found to have different resistance profiles. Our findings support complex epidemiological interactions including bacterial strain sharing between gulls and bald eagles and horizontal gene transfer among E. coli harboured by birds. Results suggest that landfills may serve as a source for AMR acquisition and/or maintenance, including bacterial sequence types and AMR genes relevant to human health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358096 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-25474-w (DOI)000431737300047 ()29743625 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-24 Created: 2018-08-24 Last updated: 2018-08-24Bibliographically approved
Hoffman, T., Lindeborg, M., Barboutis, C., Erciyas-Yavuz, K., Evander, M., Fransson, T., . . . Salaneck, E. (2018). Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 879-882
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor
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2018 (English)In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 879-882Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus RNA was detected in immature Hyalomma rufipes ticks infesting northward migratory birds caught in the North Mediterranean Basin. This finding suggests a role for birds in the ecology of the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus and a potential mechanism for dissemination to novel regions. Increased surveillance is warranted.

National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354104 (URN)10.3201/eid2405.171369 (DOI)000430355500010 ()29664386 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Strand, T., Lundkvist, Å., Olsen, B. & Gustafsson, L. (2018). Breeding consequences of flavivirus infection in the collared flycatcher. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 18, Article ID 13.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breeding consequences of flavivirus infection in the collared flycatcher
2018 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 18, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The breeding consequences of virus infections have rarely been studied in avian natural breeding populations. In this paper we investigated the links between humoral immunity following a natural flavivirus infection and reproduction in a wild bird population of collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). We analyzed plasma from 744 birds for antibodies and correlated these results to a number of reproductive components.

Results: Nearly one third (27.8%) of the sampled collared flycatchers were found seropositive for flavivirus. Males had significantly more frequently flavivirus antibodies (32.3%) than females (25.1%). Seropositive females differed significantly from seronegative females in four traits: they had earlier lay date, higher body weight, higher survival rate and were older than seronegative females. The females did not differ in clutch size, number of fledged young or number of recruited young. Seropositive males had female partners with earlier lay date, i.e. the males bred earlier and they also produced more fledged young than seronegative males. In contrast, the males did not differ in clutch size, number of recruited young, male weight, age or survival. Interestingly, seropositive males had larger ornament, forehead badge size, than seronegative males.

Conclusions: Collared flycatchers with an antibody response against flavivirus were more successful than birds with no antibody response, for any of the measured life history traits. The positive link between flavivirus antibody presence and life-history trait levels suggest that it is condition dependent in the collared flycatcher.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-344684 (URN)10.1186/s12862-018-1121-5 (DOI)000424461700001 ()29402209 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Johansson, H., Ellström, P., Artursson, K., Berg, C., Bonnedahl, J., Hansson, I., . . . Gonzalez-Acuna, D. (2018). Characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from wild birds in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic. PLoS ONE, 13(11), Article ID e0206502.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from wild birds in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0206502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A lack of knowledge of naturally occurring pathogens is limiting our ability to use the Antarctic to study the impact human-mediated introduction of infectious microorganisms have on this relatively uncontaminated environment. As no large-scale coordinated effort to remedy this lack of knowledge has taken place, we rely on smaller targeted efforts to both study present microorganisms and monitor the environment for introductions. In one such effort, we isolated Campylobacter species from fecal samples collected from wild birds in the Antarctic Peninsula and the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Indeed, in South Georgia, we found Campylobacter lari and the closely related Campylobacter peloridis, but also distantly related human-associated multilocus sequence types of Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast, in the Antarctic Peninsula, we found C. tart and two closely related species, Campylobacter subantarcticus and Campylobacter volucris, but no signs of human introduction. In fact, our finding of human-associated sequence types of C. jejuni in South Georgia, but not in the Antarctic Peninsula, suggests that efforts to limit the spread of infectious microorganisms to the Antarctic have so far been successful in preventing the introduction of C. jejuni. However, we do not know how it came to South Georgia and whether the same mode of introduction could spread it from there to the Antarctic Peninsula.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018
National Category
Ecology Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371891 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0206502 (DOI)000449772600017 ()30412585 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2014-829
Available from: 2019-01-03 Created: 2019-01-03 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Hessman, J., Atterby, C., Olsen, B. & Järhult, J. D. (2018). High Prevalence and Temporal Variation of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Bacteria in Urban Swedish Mallards. Microbial Drug Resistance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Prevalence and Temporal Variation of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Bacteria in Urban Swedish Mallards
2018 (English)In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibiotic resistant bacteria present a growing global healthcare challenge. Previous research demonstrates that wild birds harbor extended spectrum -lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and may contribute to their dissemination. We aimed to assess prevalence and temporal variation in the detection rate of ESBL-producing bacteria in urban wild birds and to evaluate methods regarding sample handling. Monthly fecal sampling was performed in 2013 at an urban pond in Sweden. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction targeting bla(CTX-M). Subsets of samples were analyzed in multiple replicates and without previous freezing. Pond water samples were screened for 12 antibiotics. Out of 813 fecal samples, 47% grew ESBL-producing E. coli, a higher prevalence than in similar studies. Detection rate varied considerably between months, ranging from 4.2% in May to 84% in July, and was significantly higher during warm months. A majority of isolates harbored CTX-M-15 type ESBL. Detection rates were increased by duplicating samples and by avoiding freezing. No antibiotics were detected in pond water. This study demonstrates high prevalence and a previously undescribed temporal variation in detection rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in wild birds. The distribution of CTX-M genes corresponds well with Swedish human isolates, indicating communication between the genetic pools of ESBLs in humans and wild birds. Urban ponds may serve as important natural reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance.

Keywords
Enterobacteriaceae, E.Coli, K. Pneumoniae, antibiotic resistance, wild birds, CTX-M-15
National Category
Microbiology Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341493 (URN)10.1089/mdr.2017.0263 (DOI)000419439800001 ()
Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Wass, L., Grankvist, A., Mattsson, M., Gustafsson, H., Krogfelt, K., Olsen, B., . . . Wennerås, C. (2018). Serological reactivity to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in neoehrlichiosis patients. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 37(9), 1673-1678
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serological reactivity to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in neoehrlichiosis patients
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 1673-1678Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The tick-borne bacterium Candidatus (Ca.) Neoehrlichia (N.) mikurensis is a cause of "fever of unknown origin" because this strict intracellular pathogen escapes detection by routine blood cultures. Case reports suggest that neoehrlichiosis patients may display serological reactivity to Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum. Since Anaplasma serology is part of the diagnostic work-up of undetermined fever in European tick-exposed patients, we wanted to investigate (1) the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum seropositivity among neoehrlichiosis patients, (2) the frequency of misdiagnosed neoehrlichiosis patients among A. phagocytophilum seropositive patients, and (3) the frequency of A. phagocytophilum and Ca. N. mikurensis co-infections. Neoehrlichiosis patients (n = 18) were analyzed for A. phagocytophilum IgM and IgG serum antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Serum samples from suspected anaplasmosis patients (n = 101) were analyzed for bacterial DNA contents by singleplex PCR specific for A. phagocytophilum and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. One fifth of the neoehrlichiosis patients (4/18) were seropositive for IgM and/or IgG to A. phagocytophilum at the time of diagnosis. Among the patients with suspected anaplasmosis, 2% (2/101) were positive for Ca. N. mikurensis by PCR whereas none (0/101) had detectable A. phagocytophilum DNA in the serum. To conclude, patients with suspected anaplasmosis may in fact have neoehrlichiosis. We found no evidence of A. phagocytophilum and Ca. N. mikurensis co-infections in humans with suspected anaplasmosis or confirmed neoehrlichiosis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2018
National Category
Hematology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362104 (URN)10.1007/s10096-018-3298-3 (DOI)000442571200011 ()29948363 (PubMedID)
Funder
Region Västra Götaland, 94510Cancer and Allergy Foundation, 16-113
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Atterby, C., Mourkas, E., Meric, G., Pascoe, B., Wang, H., Waldenström, J., . . . Ellström, P. (2018). The Potential of Isolation Source to Predict Colonization in Avian Hosts: A Case Study in Campylobacter jejuni Strains From Three Bird Species. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, Article ID 591.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Potential of Isolation Source to Predict Colonization in Avian Hosts: A Case Study in Campylobacter jejuni Strains From Three Bird Species
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, infecting humans mostly through consumption of contaminated poultry. C. jejuni is common in the gut of wild birds, and shows distinct strain-specific association to particular bird species. This contrasts with farm animals, in which several genotypes co-exist. It is unclear if the barriers restricting transmission between host species of such specialist strains are related to environmental factors such as contact between host species, bacterial survival in the environment, etc., or rather to strain specific adaptation to the intestinal environment of specific hosts. We compared colonization dynamics in vivo between two host-specific C. jejuni from a song thrush (ST-1304 complex) and a mallard (ST-995), and a generalist strain from chicken (ST-21 complex) in a wild host, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). In 18-days infection experiments, the song thrush strain showed only weak colonization and was cleared from all birds after 10 days, whereas both mallard and chicken strains remained stable. When the chicken strain was given 4 days prior to co-infection of the same birds with a mallard strain, it was rapidly outcompeted by the latter. In contrast, when the mallard strain was given 4 days prior to co-infection with the chicken strain, the mallard strain remained and expansion of the chicken strain was delayed. Our results suggest strain-specific differences in the ability of C. jejuni to colonize mallards, likely associated with host origin. This difference might explain observed host association patterns in C. jejuni from wild birds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018
Keywords
Campylobacter, interspecies transmission, colonization, wild bird, mallard, chicken
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-353123 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2018.00591 (DOI)000428625300002 ()29651281 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2014-829]Swedish Research Council Formas, 211-2013-1320]Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01143]Swedish Research Council, 2016-02606]
Note

De två första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

Available from: 2018-06-11 Created: 2018-06-11 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Projects
Occurrence and fate of the antiviral drug Oseltamivir in aquatic environments and the effect on resistance development in influenza A viruses [2008-1239_Formas]; Umeå UniversityNatural determinants of the biology and ecology of Lyme borreliosis [2008-881_Formas]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4646-691x

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