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Wessberg, M., Vyhlidal, T. & Broström, T. (2019). A model-based method to control temperature and humidity in intermittently heated massive historic buildings. Building and Environment, 159, Article ID 106026.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model-based method to control temperature and humidity in intermittently heated massive historic buildings
2019 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 159, article id 106026Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The indoor climate of historic buildings is governed not only by human comfort but also the desire to preserve these buildings and their interiors. For preservation, relative humidity is the most important parameter, including its amplitude and change rate. To control the change rate of relative humidity at a heat-up event for an intermittently heated massive historic building with heavy masonry walls, a simplified model for heat and moisture transfer at the heat-up time is presented. A method to derive the time constants and hygrothermal parameters of the building from measurements taken during a step response test is proposed and validated. The model with its parameters can be used to predict both heat-up time to reach the target temperature as well as the amount of moisture gained from the walls. These predictions are in turn used to calculate the decrease in relative humidity during the heat-up event. The indoor air relative humidity is predictable as it is determined by the air temperature and air mixing ratio. A control algorithm that uses the model for predicting and controlling the change rate of relative humidity by shaping the heating power is presented and validated using simulation results.

Keywords
Indoor-climate control, Historic interior safety, Intermittent heating, Grey-box modelling
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-388755 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.03.024 (DOI)000471230600001 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, P., Milic, V. & Broström, T. (2019). Balancing preservation and energy efficiency in building stocks. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing preservation and energy efficiency in building stocks
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, ISSN 2398-4708Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose

Energy use in buildings needs to be reduced to meet political goals; however, reducing energy use can conflict with heritage preservation objectives. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a method that combines quantitative and qualitative analyses of the potential of energy savings in an historic building stock. Specifically, this study examines how requirements of historic building preservation affect the energy saving potential on a building stock level.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the World Heritage Town of Visby, Sweden as a case study, this paper illustrates a step-by-step method as a basis for implementing energy savings techniques in an historic building stock. The method contains the following steps: categorisation of a building stock, definition of restriction levels for energy renovation scenarios and life cycle costs optimisation of energy measures in archetype buildings representing the building stock. Finally, this study analyses how different energy renovation strategies will impact heritage values and energy saving potentials for different categories of buildings.

Findings

The outcome of the study is twofold: first, the method has been tested and proven useful and second, the results from the application of the method have been used to formulate differentiated energy renovation strategies for the case study.

Originality/value

The study shows that it is possible to integrate techno-economic analysis with assessment of heritage values in a given building stock in order to facilitate a strategic discussion balancing policies and targets for energy savings with policies for the preservation of heritage values. The findings will contribute to sounder policy development and planning for historic building stocks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
National Category
Building Technologies Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-402519 (URN)10.1108/IJBPA-02-2019-0025 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-16 Created: 2020-01-16 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Lingfors, D., Johansson, T., Widén, J. & Broström, T. (2019). Target-based visibility assessment on building envelopes: Applications to PV and cultural-heritage values. Energy and Buildings, 204, Article ID 109483.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Target-based visibility assessment on building envelopes: Applications to PV and cultural-heritage values
2019 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 204, article id 109483Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solar energy applications have, in recent years, become a common element in the urban landscape, especially on roofs and facades. However, it is important that the integration of solar energy in the built environment do not distort the fabric or expression of the existing building envelope, not at least in areas of high cultural-heritage values. The aesthetics depend, to a large extent, on how visible the new technology, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels, is. This paper describes a method for visibility assessment of building envelopes. It is referred to as target-based as it, in contrast to previously reported methods, bases the assessment from the perspective of the building envelope itself, rather than possible vantage points on the ground. The method was evaluated for two Swedish cities; Stockholm and Visby. In Stockholm, each building was evaluated based on its cultural-heritage values, solar irradiation and visibility. Deploying PV only on the roofs with the lowest cultural-heritage values, with insolation > 900 kWh/m2, and with no visibility from ground, results in a total PV yield of up to 2% of the total electricity demand. In Visby, various definitions of the vantage area were evaluated, from which the building envelope can be seen. It was found that the choice of vantage area greatly impacts the solar energy potential. If the vantage area is defined by the public domain, i.e., streets and other public open spaces, the non-visible roof area doubles compared to if all ground/terrain defines it. Compared to previous studies, the use of a vantage area, instead of discrete vantage points, seems to result in higher visibility of the roofs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Visibility assessment, Photovoltaics, Building preservation
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Civil Engineering and Built Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397881 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.109483 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 45891-1
Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-27 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Moshfegh, B., Rohdin, P., Milic, V., Donarelli, A., Eriksson, P. & Broström, T. (2018). A method to assess the potential for and consequences of energy retrofits in Swedish historic districts. In: Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten (Ed.), Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings. Paper presented at The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings (EEHB2018), Visby, Sweden, September 26th to 27th, 2018. (pp. 302-310). Uppsala University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method to assess the potential for and consequences of energy retrofits in Swedish historic districts
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2018 (English)In: Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten, Uppsala University, 2018, p. 302-310Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala University, 2018
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379096 (URN)978-91-519-0838-0 (ISBN)
Conference
The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings (EEHB2018), Visby, Sweden, September 26th to 27th, 2018.
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Haugen, A., Bertolin, C., Leijonhufvud, G., Olstad, T. & Broström, T. (2018). A Methodology for Long-Term Monitoring of Climate Change Impacts on Historic Buildings. Geosciences, 8(10), Article ID 370.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Methodology for Long-Term Monitoring of Climate Change Impacts on Historic Buildings
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2018 (English)In: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new methodology for long-term monitoring of climate change impacts on historic buildings and interiors has been developed. This paper proposes a generic framework for how monitoring programs can be developed and describes the planning and arrangement of a Norwegian monitoring campaign. The methodology aims to make it possible to establish a data-driven decision making process based on monitored decay related to climate change. This monitoring campaign includes 45 medieval buildings distributed over the entirety of Norway. Thirty-five of these buildings are dated to before 1537 and include wooden buildings as well as 10 medieval churches built in stone while the remaining 10 buildings are situated in the World Heritage sites of Bryggen, in Bergen on the west coast of Norway, and in Røros, which is a mining town in the inland of the country. The monitoring is planned to run for 30 to 50 years. It includes a zero-level registration and an interval-based registration system focused on relevant indicators, which will make it possible to register climate change-induced decay at an early stage.

Keywords
climate change, long-term monitoring, Norwegian protected buildings, medieval buildings, zero status, warning report
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364968 (URN)10.3390/geosciences8100370 (DOI)000448548800016 ()
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Broström, T., Nilsen, L. & Carlsten, S. (Eds.). (2018). Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings. Paper presented at The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings (EEHB2018), Visby, Sweden, September 26th to 27th, 2018.. Uppsala University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings
2018 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We proudly present the postprints of the third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, held in Visby, Sweden September 26th to 27th, 2018.

The conference was organized jointly by the Swedish Energy Agency, Uppsala University and the Swedish National Heritage Board as part of their collaboration in the Swedish national research program on energy efficiency in historic buildings. The Region of Gotland kindly sponsored the conference dinner.

There were close to one hundred abstracts submitted to the conference. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from the Scientific Committee in the review process.

Our thanks to Lisa Nilsen who has been the conference coordinator and editor of the papers, Susanna Carlsten who has been in charge of information and conference planning and Alice Sunnebäck who finished the layout of the papers and the report as a whole.

The organizing committee for EEHB2018,

Tor Broström Uppsala University

Jörgen Sjödin Swedish Energy Agency

Camilla Altahr-Cederberg Swedish National Heritage Board

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala University, 2018. p. 584
Keywords
energy efficiency, historic buildings, building envelope, insulation, windows, doors, climate change adaption, climate control, heating, cooling, ventilation, damage functions, management, case studies, monitoring, simulation, spara och bevara, energieffektivisering, historiska hus, kulturhistoriska hus, kulturvärden, klimatskal, fönster, dörrar, isolering, klimatanpassning, klimatstyrning, uppvärmning, kylning, ventilering, nedbrytningsprocesser, fallstudier, övervakning, simulering, spara och bevara
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378215 (URN)978-91-519-0838-0 (ISBN)
Conference
The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings (EEHB2018), Visby, Sweden, September 26th to 27th, 2018.
Available from: 2019-03-04 Created: 2019-03-04 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
Leijonhufvud, G. & Broström, T. (2018). Standardizing the indoor climate in historic buildings: opportunities, challenges and ways forward. Journal of Architectural Conservation, 24(1), 3-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Standardizing the indoor climate in historic buildings: opportunities, challenges and ways forward
2018 (English)In: Journal of Architectural Conservation, ISSN 1355-6207, E-ISSN 2326-6384, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Standardization for indoor climate control in historic buildings has recently taken a new direction with standards and guidelines that focus more on decision processes than outcomes. The objective of the paper is to explore and discuss how standards can evolve to both fit and guide decision processes to facilitate a sustainable management of historic buildings. Interviews with engineers and heritage professionals in the Church of Sweden in combination with indoor climate monitoring were used to understand the technical and organizational context. The results show that the development of process standards solves some of the problems related to the conventional outcome-oriented approach by opening up for a wider set of solutions. However, available guidelines are difficult to apply and integrate in the existing management of churches. A stronger focus on strategic feedback and an increased use of local guidelines are suggested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018
Keywords
Indoor climate control, process standards, knowledge sharing, sustainable management
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357770 (URN)10.1080/13556207.2018.1447301 (DOI)000434334900002 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 226973
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-05-15Bibliographically approved
Wessberg, M., Broström, T. & Vyhlidal, T. (2017). A method to determine heating power and heat up time for intermittent heating of churches. In: Stig Geving, Berit Time (Ed.), 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway: . Paper presented at 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway (pp. 915-920). Elsevier, 132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method to determine heating power and heat up time for intermittent heating of churches
2017 (English)In: 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] Stig Geving, Berit Time, Elsevier , 2017, Vol. 132, p. 915-920Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Intermittent heating, common in churches, requires higher heating power than steady state heating. With respect to energy use and preservation aspects, the heat up time should be short. Systems for intermittent heating are often designed using rule of thumb estimates or inadequate steady state calculations. This paper presents a method to relate heating power and heat up time for a specific building where thermal characteristics of a building are determined using a step response test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Series
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337698 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.720 (DOI)000426435500153 ()
Conference
11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved
Broström, T., Donarelli, A. & Berg, F. (2017). For the categorisation of historic buildings to determine energy saving. AGATHON International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, 1, 135-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>For the categorisation of historic buildings to determine energy saving
2017 (English)In: AGATHON International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, ISSN 2464-9309, Vol. 1, p. 135-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Technical characteristics and cultural values affect the possibility of saving energy in the historic building stock. The issue has been addressed and studied in monumental buildings. For the majority of historic buildings, defined in this research as traditional constructions built before 1945 when the building sector became more industrialised, there is still a need for further studies. In order to study a large building stock it is necessary to make generalisations. To break down the stock into a few statistically representative categories is one way of doing that.

The aim of this article is to present the development of a method to categorise a historic building stock with the ability to identify the potential for energy saving and preservation of cultural values. By studying building categories and typical buildings in detail the results can be extrapolated to represent a large building stock.

The method for categorisation is done in three steps: building inventory, categorisation and selection of typical buildings. The inventory is when data on the building stock is gathered and compiled. This is necessary in order to have a sound statistical basis for the following steps of the method. The categorisation is done by dividing the buildings in groups based on their basic characteristics; for example size and number of adjoining walls. A delimitation is done, if necessary, in order to exclude atypical buildings.

Typical buildings from each category are then selected by letting the medium values within the categories decide the characteristics of the typical buildings. Other characteristics such as age, use, construction type etc. can be determined for the typical buildings and motivated statistically based on the data in the inventory.

A case study has been carried out on the historic building stock in the town Visby in Sweden, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. When applying the method for categorisation on the buildings built before 1945 in Visby the results show that 70 % of the buildings’ volume is represented by 87 % of the buildings. The study shows that it is possible to generalise some aspects even in a relatively richly nuanced building stock by letting the basic characteristics constitute the first common denominators in a categorisation.

The result of the categorisation facilitates the identification of representative typical buildings that can be used for energy modelling. The six groups of typical buildings identified in Visby are presented at the end of the article.

This study has been conducted within the multi-disciplinary projects Potential and policies for energy efficiency in Swedish buildings built before 1945, financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and Energy Efficiency for EU Historic Districts, funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme.

Keywords
Building categorisation, cultural values, energy saving
National Category
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327285 (URN)10.19229/2464-9309/1212017 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-08-08 Created: 2017-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-19
Berg, F., Flyen, A.-C., Godbolt, A. L. & Broström, T. (2017). User-driven energy efficiency in historic buildings: A review. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 28, 188-195
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User-driven energy efficiency in historic buildings: A review
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 28, p. 188-195Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper draws from the general literature on energy efficiency and historic buildings to explain the importance and potential of user-driven energy efficiency in historic buildings. It is the first review that places the user as a central object of study in the research field of historic buildings and energy efficiency. Relevant interdisciplinary topics and research results that make up the core of the field are presented and discussed in relation to user behaviour and its impact on energy consumption. The paper also investigates how user behaviour aspects can be integrated in a procedural approach to energy refurbishment in historic buildings. Research and experience from the building stock in general clearly shows how a user's awareness and behaviour, such as choice of temperature, zone heating and controlled airing, can have a significant effect on energy demand yet have no physical impact on the building. However, this has not received enough attention with regards to the historic building stock, where many physical energy efficiency measures can have negative impacts on the historic qualities of the building. Modification of user behaviour can therefore be a way not only to reduce energy demand but also to minimise the physical impact of increasing energy efficiency on historic buildings. The paper concludes that the current research agenda on historic buildings and energy efficiency has broken much ground but remains focused more on technical solutions than bottom-up user perspectives. Two main topics are identified as key barriers and future research fields: First, energy performance modelling is identified as a general barrier to developing sustainable strategies that promote user impact in historic buildings. Accurate energy modelling of historic buildings is a complex field reliant on the thermal interplay between user-building and building-district. Improved knowledge and intensified research is necessary to avoid distorted energy modelling results and unwanted rebound effects. Practical tools also require that the modelling can be used for trade-off scenarios where other sustainability aspects such as cultural heritage and economy are weighed in. Second, awareness raising in order to foster a deeper understanding and knowledge about the construction, system and cultural heritage values of a building is proposed as a key ingredient and driver for improved and sustainable energy behaviour. The paper argues that while user-driven energy efficiency represents an important resource for fostering less energy-demanding and less intrusive interventions in historic buildings, there are no guarantees for achieving the planned level of energy efficiency without taking into account user behaviour and the actual operation and energy performance of the historic building. To do this without risking negative consequences, improved decision-making processes are needed on policy, building and user level. An interdisciplinary bottom-up approach to energy refurbishment is presented. The essence of the model is that users and residents should always play a central role in the decision-making process because the well-being of the historic building will always depend on its day-to-day users, and vice versa.

Keywords
Historic buildings, Cultural heritage, User behaviour, Energy efficiency, Climate change mitigation
National Category
Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346614 (URN)10.1016/j.culher.2017.05.009 (DOI)000414230700023 ()
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5682-6560

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