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Lindholm, K.-J. & Ekblom, A. (2019). A framework for exploring and managing biocultural heritage. Anthropocene, 25, Article ID 100195.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A framework for exploring and managing biocultural heritage
2019 (English)In: Anthropocene, E-ISSN 2213-3054, Vol. 25, article id 100195Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The conceptual framework of biocultural heritage allows for new approaches to heritage, nature conservation, landscape planning and development goals, providing means to negotiate management goals in these areas, and in certain cases, also to combine them. By reviewing knowledge from the literature, this paper develops a new conceptual framework of biocultural heritage. Five "elements" constitute biocultural heritage in this framework. First, ecosystem memories denote biophysical properties, non-human organisms and agents changed or affected directly or indirectly by humans. Second, landscape memories represent tangible materialised human practice and semi-intangible ways of organising landscapes, such as built environments and archaeological sites, and settlement systems linked to user and property rights. Third, place-based memories refer to intangible living features of human knowledge and communication expressed in know-how, place names, orature, arts, ideas and culture, received, preserved and transmitted over generations. The fourth element, integrated landscape analysis, denotes a toolbox and a conceptual framework for knowledge construction and landscape management. The final fifth element of biocultural heritage, stewardship and change, represents the activity of, and ability in, exploring memory reservoirs of biocultural heritage for transferring knowledge to policy and management and for shaping collaborative initiatives. To illustrate the framework, this paper then presents a study from the village Angersjo located in the boreal forest in central Sweden. As conclusion, we suggest that the approach - with improvements and modifications - represents an operational joint framework for exploring and managing biocultural heritage, drawing on the past for envisioning the future. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Biocultural heritage, Archaeology, Palaeoecology, Boreal forest, Integrated landscape analysis
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-386376 (URN)10.1016/j.ancene.2019.100195 (DOI)000468786500008 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-01483Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Ekblom, A., Shoemaker, A., Gillson, L., Lane, P. & Lindholm, K.-J. (2019). Conservation through Biocultural Heritage-Examples from Sub-Saharan Africa. Land, 8(1), Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conservation through Biocultural Heritage-Examples from Sub-Saharan Africa
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2019 (English)In: Land, ISSN 2073-445X, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 5Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we review the potential of biocultural heritage in biodiversity protection and agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. We begin by defining the concept of biocultural heritage into four interlinked elements that are revealed through integrated landscape analysis. This concerns the transdisciplinary methods whereby biocultural heritage must be explored, and here we emphasise that reconstructing landscape histories and documenting local heritage values needs to be an integral part of the process. Ecosystem memories relate to the structuring of landscape heterogeneity through such activities as agroforestry and fire management. The positive linkages between living practices, biodiversity and soil nutrients examined here are demonstrative of the concept of ecosystem memories. Landscape memories refer to built or enhanced landscapes linked to specific land-use systems and property rights. Place memories signify practices of protection or use related to a specific place. Customary protection of burial sites and/or abandoned settlements, for example, is a common occurrence across Africa with beneficial outcomes for biodiversity and forest protection. Finally, we discuss stewardship and change. Building on local traditions, inclusivity and equity are essential to promoting the continuation and innovation of practices crucial for local sustainability and biodiversity protection, and also offer new avenues for collaboration in landscape management and conservation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
biocultural heritage, sub-Saharan Africa, traditional ecological knowledge, hotspots, sacred forests, conservation
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377802 (URN)10.3390/land8010005 (DOI)000458029900005 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 606879Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2019-02-27 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Boles, O. J. C., Shoemaker, A., Courtney Mustaphi, C. J., Petek, N., Ekblom, A. & Lane, P. J. (2019). Historical Ecologies of Pastoralist Overgrazing in Kenya: Long-Term Perspectives on Cause and Effect. Human Ecology, 47(3), 419-434
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical Ecologies of Pastoralist Overgrazing in Kenya: Long-Term Perspectives on Cause and Effect
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2019 (English)In: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 419-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The spectre of overgrazing' looms large in historical and political narratives of ecological degradation in savannah ecosystems. While pastoral exploitation is a conspicuous driver of landscape variability and modification, assumptions that such change is inevitable or necessarily negative deserve to be continuously evaluated and challenged. With reference to three case studies from Kenya - the Laikipia Plateau, the Lake Baringo basin, and the Amboseli ecosystem - we argue that the impacts of pastoralism are contingent on the diachronic interactions of locally specific environmental, political, and cultural conditions. The impacts of the compression of rangelands and restrictions on herd mobility driven by misguided conservation and economic policies are emphasised over outdated notions of pastoralist inefficiency. We review the application of overgrazing' in interpretations of the archaeological record and assess its relevance for how we interpret past socio-environmental dynamics. Any discussion of overgrazing, or any form of human-environment interaction, must acknowledge spatio-temporal context and account for historical variability in landscape ontogenies.

Keywords
Historical ecology, Compression effects, Rangeland management, Pastoralist mobility strategies, Eastern Africa, Kenya
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392058 (URN)10.1007/s10745-019-0072-9 (DOI)000475981900009 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 606879Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasSida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
Breman, E., Ekblom, A., Gillson, L. & Norström, E. (2019). Phytolith-based environmental reconstruction from an altitudinal gradient in Mpumalanga, South Africa, 10,600 BP-present. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 263, 104-116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phytolith-based environmental reconstruction from an altitudinal gradient in Mpumalanga, South Africa, 10,600 BP-present
2019 (English)In: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 263, p. 104-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studying vegetation change across biome boundaries provides insight into vegetation resilience. In this study, shifts in grassland composition are reconstructed from sediments in three wetland sites across altitudinal gradient from 2128 to 897 m.a.s.l., representing a gradient from the grassland biome to the grassland/savanna boundary in the Mpumalanga region, north-eastern South Africa. Phytolith records from Verloren Valei (dated from 10,600 BP), Graskop (dated from 6500 BP) and Versailles (dated from 4500 BP) are used to reconstruct shifts in grassland composition and vegetation change. Phytolith morphotypes are used to construct environmental indices that are correlated with pollen main ecological groups, charcoal and delta 13C and C/N ratio. The results are compared to available regional paleoclimate data. Both Verloren Valei and Graskop have been dominated by grassland, but Versailles show a stronger influence of bushveld/savanna pollen. Phytolith data suggest that grassland composition was stable at Versailles and Graskop, but grassland at Verloren Valei has changed significantly over time. The early Holocene was dominated by a Pooideae/Chloridoideae C3 and C4 grassland, probably a remnant of the earlier Pleistocene cool-dry conditions. After 8500 BP grassland composition changed gradually to a Chloridoideae and Panicoidea dominated C4 grassland BP, and finally a moist Cyperaceae and Panicoidea dominated C3/C4 grassland after 4000 BP. This shift possibly occurs as a delayed response to the warmer and wetter conditions of the mid Holocene optimum at this high altitude site. The results suggest that the grassland/savanna boundary has remained stable over time, indicating considerable resilience of grasslands to climate change. This resilience may be related to the turnover of species within the grassland biome, as indicated by shifts between 8500 and 4000 BP at Verloren Valei.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Phytoliths, Holocene, South Africa, Vegetation change, Climate change, Environmental indices
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387226 (URN)10.1016/j.revpalbo.2019.01.001 (DOI)000466054700007 ()
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Ekblom, A. (2018). An historical ecology of cattle in Mozambique. In: Cederlöf, Gunnel ; Rangarajan, Mahesh (Ed.), At Nature’s Edge: the global present and long-term history. New Delhi: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An historical ecology of cattle in Mozambique
2018 (English)In: At Nature’s Edge: the global present and long-term history / [ed] Cederlöf, Gunnel ; Rangarajan, Mahesh, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

No account of human nature history can be complete without the complimentary story of one of our companion species. Cattle in many parts of Africa, as also other parts of the world are highly prized and loved, sharing the destinies of the people who rear them. By structuring the narrative around cattle: its biology, selection and breeding history, and tracing the social webs and markets of cattle we allow them to become agents of history. In this narrative the relations between cattle, people and landscapes are central to how history unfolded and nature was remade. Rather than structuring the narrative chronologically or along a cultural-history continuum, I will here attempt to focus on nodes of connections in the long history of the relationships of cattle and people. The historical ecology of cattle illustrates the intricate and long term relationship between people, cattle, and landscapes, and the ecological skills of farmers and herders. Cattle herding in southern Africa demand a good ecological understanding of landscape dynamics. Traditional cattle keeping are ecologically well suited to meet the environmental constraints of episodic disease and episodic droughts. Contrary to industrialised forms of cattle rearing, traditional cattle keeping remain an enterprise that is low in environmental cost. Cattle usually roam freely over large distances and grazing is low intensive and crucial for biodiversity and to keep the landscape open.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2018
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390703 (URN)9780199489077 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, O., Ekblom, A., Lane, P., Lennartsson, T. & Lindholm, K.-J. (2018). Concepts for Integrated Research in Historical Ecology. In: Crumley, Carole; Lennartsson,Tommy & Westin, Anna (Ed.), Crumley, Carole L.; Lennartsson, Tommy & Westin, Anna (Ed.), Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology: ThePast and Future of Landscapes and regions: . Paper presented at Meeting on Is there a Future for the Past? - Challenges in the Research and Practice of Historical Ecology, April 16-18, 2013, Odalgården, Sweden. (pp. 145-181). Paper presented at Meeting on Is there a Future for the Past? - Challenges in the Research and Practice of Historical Ecology, April 16-18, 2013, Odalgården, Sweden.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concepts for Integrated Research in Historical Ecology
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2018 (English)In: Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology: ThePast and Future of Landscapes and regions / [ed] Crumley, Carole; Lennartsson,Tommy & Westin, Anna, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 145-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018
Keywords
Natural Resource Management, Agriculture, Horticulture and forestry, Ecology and Conservation, Life Sciences
National Category
Archaeology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334865 (URN)10.1017/9781108355780.006 (DOI)000461066400006 ()9781108420983 (ISBN)9781108355780 (ISBN)
Conference
Meeting on Is there a Future for the Past? - Challenges in the Research and Practice of Historical Ecology, April 16-18, 2013, Odalgården, Sweden.
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Marchant, R., Richer, S., Boles, O., Capitani, C., Courtney Mustaphi, C., Lane, P., . . . Wright, D. (2018). Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present. Earth-Science Reviews, 178, 322-378
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present
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2018 (English)In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 178, p. 322-378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region. Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

Keywords
Archaeology, Iron technology, Pottery, Pastoralism, Agriculture, Livelihoods, Palaeoenvironments, Savannah, LandCover6k, Sustainable Development Goals, Land use
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387469 (URN)10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.12.010 (DOI)000430774000014 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 606879-REALSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasEU, European Research Council, ERC-2013-StG-337128-AAREAEU, European Research Council, 313797Wenner-Gren Foundations, 9133
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, J. & Ekblom, A. (Eds.). (2018). Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala. Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala
2018 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Innehåll

1. Introduktion - Anneli Ekblom, John Ljungkvist, Cecilia Rodéhn, Karin Hallgren

2. Biologiska värden - Karin Hallgren

3. Landskapsbruk och museipedagogik - Cecilia Rodéhn

4. En annorlunda visning - Emil Niklasson, Cecilia Rodéhn, Kristina Persson

5. Skapandet av en plats - John Ljungkvist, Anneli Ekblom

6. Medeltidens landskapsförändringar - John Ljungkvist, Joakim Kjellberg

7. Ett hävdat landskap - Karin Hallgren

8. Utfärder till Gamla Uppsala - Cecilia Rodéhn

9. Att uppleva Gamla Uppsala på ett nytt sätt - Daniel Löwenborg

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala Universitet, 2018. p. 219
Keywords
Gamla Uppsala, historical ecology, landscape archaeology, Iron Age, Early Medieval, Viking Age, Vendel period, Gamla Uppsala, historisk ekologi, landskapsarkeologi, järnålder, yngre järnålder, vendeltid, vikingatid
National Category
Humanities and the Arts
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350231 (URN)978-91-639-6942-3 (ISBN)
Projects
Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer
Funder
Swedish National Heritage Board, 3.2.2-3087-2013
Available from: 2018-05-08 Created: 2018-05-08 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Ljunkvist, J., Ekblom, A., Rodéhn, C. & Karin, H. (2018). Introduktion. In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala: (pp. 1-16). Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduktion
2018 (Swedish)In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet , 2018, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet, 2018
Keywords
Kulturarv, Arkeologi, Naturarv, Landskapsarkeologi, Gamla Uppsala, Historisk ekologi
National Category
Cultural Studies Archaeology History
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354601 (URN)978-91-639-6942-3 (ISBN)
Projects
Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer
Funder
Swedish National Heritage Board, 3.2.2-3087-2013
Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, J., Ekblom, A., Rodéhn, C. & Hallgren, K. (2018). Introduktion. In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer -: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala (pp. 1-16). Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduktion
2018 (Swedish)In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer -: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala Universitet , 2018, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala Universitet, 2018
Keywords
arkeologi, landskapsarkeologi, Gamla Uppsala, Medeltid, järnålder, vikingatid, vendeltid
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364940 (URN)978-91-639-6942-3 (ISBN)
Projects
Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer - Fallstudie Gamla Uppsala
Funder
Swedish National Heritage Board
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9248-5516

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