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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Alm, P. A. (2015). Is it Thinking and not Feeling that influence variability of stuttering in social situations?: About stuttering and social cognition. In: 10Th Oxford Dysfluency Conference, ODC 2014: . Paper presented at 10th Oxford Dysfluency Conference ODC 2014, JUL 17-20, 2014, St Catherines Coll, Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM (pp. 289-290).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is it Thinking and not Feeling that influence variability of stuttering in social situations?: About stuttering and social cognition
2015 (English)In: 10Th Oxford Dysfluency Conference, ODC 2014, 2015, p. 289-290Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Series
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428 ; 193
Keywords
Stuttering, Social cognition, Social anxiety, Neurophysiology
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301465 (URN)10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.327 (DOI)000380504100040 ()
Conference
10th Oxford Dysfluency Conference ODC 2014, JUL 17-20, 2014, St Catherines Coll, Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM
Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2016-08-23Bibliographically approved
Voigt, T., Hewage, K. & Alm, P. (2014). Smartphone Support for Persons Who Stutter. In: Proc. 13th International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks: . Paper presented at IPSN 2014 (pp. 293-294). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smartphone Support for Persons Who Stutter
2014 (English)In: Proc. 13th International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, p. 293-294Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Stuttering is a very complex speech disorder that affects around 0.7% of adults while around 5% of the population have stuttered at some point. A large percentage of the affected people tend to speak more fluently when their own speech is played back to their ear with some type of alteration. While this has been done with special devices, smartphones can be used for this purpose. We report on our initial experiences on building such an application and demonstrate problems with delay caused by the lack of real-time support for audio playback in the Android operating system. We also discuss ideas for future work to improve app support for people who stutter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-231194 (URN)000343592200034 ()978-1-4799-3146-0 (ISBN)
Conference
IPSN 2014
Available from: 2014-09-05 Created: 2014-09-05 Last updated: 2014-12-17Bibliographically approved
Alm, P. A. (2014). Stuttering in relation to anxiety, temperament, and personality: Review and analysis with focus on causality. Journal of fluency disorders, 40, 5-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stuttering in relation to anxiety, temperament, and personality: Review and analysis with focus on causality
2014 (English)In: Journal of fluency disorders, ISSN 0094-730X, E-ISSN 1873-801X, Vol. 40, p. 5-21Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anxiety and emotional reactions have a central role in many theories of stuttering, for example that persons who stutter would tend to have an emotionally sensitive temperament. The possible relation between stuttering and certain traits of temperament or personality were reviewed and analyzed, with focus on temporal relations (i.e., what comes first). It was consistently found that preschool children who stutter (as a group) do not show any tendencies toward elevated temperamental traits of shyness or social anxiety compared with children who do not stutter. Significant group differences were, however, repeatedly reported for traits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which is likely to reflect a subgroup of children who stutter. Available data is not consistent with the proposal that the risk for persistent stuttering is increased by an emotionally reactive temperament in children who stutter. Speech-related social anxiety develops in many cases of stuttering, before adulthood. Reduction of social anxiety in adults who stutter does not in itself appear to result in significant improvement of speech fluency. Studies have not revealed any relation between the severity of the motor symptoms of stuttering and temperamental traits. It is proposed that situational variability of stuttering, related to social complexity, is an effect of interference from social cognition and not directly from the emotions of social anxiety. In summary, the studies in this review provide strong evidence that persons who stutter are not characterized by constitutional traits of anxiety or similar constructs. Educational Objectives: This paper provides a review and analysis of studies of anxiety, temperament, and personality, organized with the objective to clarify cause and effect relations. Readers will be able to (a) understand the importance of effect size and distribution of data for interpretation of group differences; (b) understand the role of temporal relations for interpretation of cause and effect; (c) discuss the results of studies of anxiety, temperament and personality in relation to stuttering; and (d) discuss situational variations of stuttering and the possible role of social cognition. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Stuttering, Anxiety, Temperament, ADHD, Social cognition
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230255 (URN)10.1016/j.jfludis.2014.01.004 (DOI)000339144500003 ()
Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Hedenius, M., Ullman, M. T., Alm, P., Jennische, M. & Persson, J. (2013). Enhanced Recognition Memory after Incidental Encoding in Children with Developmental Dyslexia. PLoS ONE, 8(5), e63998
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Recognition Memory after Incidental Encoding in Children with Developmental Dyslexia
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, p. e63998-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Developmental dyslexia (DD) has previously been associated with a number of cognitive deficits. Little attention has been directed to cognitive functions that remain intact in the disorder, though the investigation and identification of such strengths might be useful for developing new, and improving current, therapeutical interventions. In this study, an old/new recognition memory paradigm was used to examine previously untested aspects of declarative memory in children with DD and typically developing control children. The DD group was not only not impaired at the task, but actually showed superior recognition memory, as compared to the control children. These findings complement previous reports of enhanced cognition in other domains (e. g., visuo-spatial processing) in DD. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed DD advantage in declarative memory, and the possibility of compensation by this system for reading deficits in dyslexia, are discussed.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-202915 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0063998 (DOI)000319435600040 ()
Available from: 2013-07-01 Created: 2013-07-01 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Alm, P. A., Karlsson, R., Sundberg, M. & Axelson, H. W. (2013). Hemispheric Lateralization of Motor Thresholds in Relation to Stuttering. PLoS ONE, 8(10), e76824
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hemispheric Lateralization of Motor Thresholds in Relation to Stuttering
2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, p. e76824-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry) and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15) and in controls (n = 15). In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026), with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049). The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211798 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0076824 (DOI)000325819400084 ()
Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hedenius, M., Persson, J., Alm, P. A., Ullman, M. T., Howard, J. H., Howard, D. V. & Jennische, M. (2013). Impaired implicit sequence learning in children with developmental dyslexia. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(11), 3924-3935
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impaired implicit sequence learning in children with developmental dyslexia
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2013 (English)In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 3924-3935Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been proposed that an impairment of procedural memory underlies a range of linguistic, cognitive and motor impairments observed in developmental dyslexia (DD). However, studies designed to test this hypothesis using the implicit sequence learning paradigm have yielded inconsistent results. A fundamental aspect of procedural learning is that it takes place over an extended time-period that may be divided into distinct stages based on both behavioural characteristics and neural correlates of performance. Yet, no study of implicit sequence learning in children with DD has included learning stages beyond a single practice session. The present study was designed to fill this important gap by extending the investigation to include the effects of overnight consolidation as well as those of further practice on a subsequent day. The results suggest that the most pronounced procedural learning impairment in DD may emerge only after extended practice, in learning stages beyond a single practice session.

Keywords
Developmental dyslexia, Procedural memory, Implicit sequencelearning
National Category
Neurology Pediatrics General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Neuroscience; Psychology; Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209371 (URN)10.1016/j.ridd.2013.08.014 (DOI)000326901900033 ()24021394 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Alm, P. A. & Dreimanis, K. (2013). Neuropathic pain: transcranial electric motor cortex stimulation using high frequency random noise: Case report of a novel treatment. Journal of Pain Research, 6, 479-486
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuropathic pain: transcranial electric motor cortex stimulation using high frequency random noise: Case report of a novel treatment
2013 (English)In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 6, p. 479-486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Electric motor cortex stimulation has been reported to be effective for many cases of neuropathic pain, in the form of epidural stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A novel technique is transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), which increases the cortical excitability irrespective of the orientation of the current. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tRNS on neuropathic pain in a small number of subjects, and in a case study explore the effects of different stimulation parameters and the long-term stability of treatment effects.

METHODS: THE STUDY WAS DIVIDED INTO THREE PHASES: (1) a double-blind crossover study, with four subjects; (2) a double-blind extended case study with one responder; and (3) open continued treatment. The motor cortex stimulation consisted of alternating current random noise (100-600 Hz), varying from 0.5 to 10 minutes and from 50 to 1500 μA, at intervals ranging from daily to fortnightly.

RESULTS: One out of four participants showed a strong positive effect (also compared with direct-current-sham, P = 0.006). Unexpectedly, this effect was shown to occur also for very weak (100 μA, P = 0.048) and brief (0.5 minutes, P = 0.028) stimulation. The effect was largest during the first month, but remained at a highly motivating level for the patient after 6 months.

DISCUSSION: The study suggests that tRNS may be an effective treatment for some cases of neuropathic pain. An important result was the indication that even low levels of stimulation may have substantial effects.

Keywords
neuropathic pain, central pain, transcranial direct current stimulation, motor cortex stimulation, random noise stimulation
National Category
Neurology
Research subject
Neuroscience; Neurology; Rehabilitation Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209370 (URN)10.2147/JPR.S44648 (DOI)000209528900049 ()23837007 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Alm, P. (2011). Cluttering: a neurological perspective. In: D. Ward & K. Scaler Scott (Ed.), Cluttering: a handbook of research, intervention, and education. London: Psychology Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cluttering: a neurological perspective
2011 (English)In: Cluttering: a handbook of research, intervention, and education / [ed] D. Ward & K. Scaler Scott, London: Psychology Press , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Psychology Press, 2011
Keywords
cluttering, neurology, cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Research subject
Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121713 (URN)1848720297 (ISBN)978-1848720299 (ISBN)
Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2010-11-24Bibliographically approved
Hedenius, M., Persson, J., Tremblay, A., Adi-Japha, E., Verissimo, J., Dye, C. D., . . . Ullman, M. T. (2011). Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(6), 2362-2375
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment
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2011 (English)In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 2362-2375Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TO children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these impairments are specifically tied to the grammatical deficits in the disorder. The possibility that consolidation and longer-term learning are problematic in the disorder suggests a locus of potential study for therapeutic approaches. In sum, this study clarifies our understanding of the underlying deficits in SLI, and suggests avenues for further research.

Keywords
Specific Language Impairment, Procedural memory, Consolidation, Grammar, The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH)
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-161923 (URN)10.1016/j.ridd.2011.07.026 (DOI)000296304000039 ()
Available from: 2011-11-23 Created: 2011-11-21 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Alm, P. (2010). The Dual Premotor Model of Stuttering and Cluttering. In: L. Beliakova (Ed.), Theoretical Issues of Fluency Disorders.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Dual Premotor Model of Stuttering and Cluttering
2010 (English)In: Theoretical Issues of Fluency Disorders / [ed] L. Beliakova, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
Keywords
stuttering, cluttering, neurology, basal ganglia, premotor
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121749 (URN)
Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2011-06-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1506-5897

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