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Blixt, Martin
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Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Luo, Z., Varli, S., Enström, E., Thorvaldson, L., Blixt, M., Hansell, P., . . . Singh, K. (2017). Kinetics of innate immune and regulatory T cells responses in experimental diabetic nephropathy. Paper presented at 44th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian-Society-for-Immunology (SSI), OCT 17-20, 2017, Stockholm, SWEDEN. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 86(4), 304-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetics of innate immune and regulatory T cells responses in experimental diabetic nephropathy
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2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 304-304Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346962 (URN)000411865200135 ()
Conference
44th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian-Society-for-Immunology (SSI), OCT 17-20, 2017, Stockholm, SWEDEN
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Mejia Cordova, M., Soläng, C., Luo, Z., Blixt, M., Thorvaldson, L., Sandler, S. & Singh, K. (2017). Kinetics of the innate immune cell responses in experimental Type 1 Diabetes. Paper presented at 44th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian-Society-for-Immunology (SSI), OCT 17-20, 2017, Stockholm, SWEDEN. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 86(4), 303-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetics of the innate immune cell responses in experimental Type 1 Diabetes
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2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 303-304Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346961 (URN)000411865200134 ()
Conference
44th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian-Society-for-Immunology (SSI), OCT 17-20, 2017, Stockholm, SWEDEN
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Lundin, S., Espes, D., Luo, Z., Blixt, M., Mejia Cordova, M., Carlsson, P.-O., . . . Singh, K. (2017). Role of regulatory B cells in clinical and experimental type 1 diabetes. Paper presented at 44th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian-Society-for-Immunology (SSI), OCT 17-20, 2017, Stockholm, SWEDEN. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 86(4), 349-349
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of regulatory B cells in clinical and experimental type 1 diabetes
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2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 349-349Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346972 (URN)000411865200233 ()
Conference
44th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian-Society-for-Immunology (SSI), OCT 17-20, 2017, Stockholm, SWEDEN
Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Blixt, M. K. E., Shirazi Fard, S., All-Ericsson, C. & Hallböök, F. (2015). Adding another piece to the retinoblastoma puzzle. Cell Death and Disease, 6, Article ID e1957.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adding another piece to the retinoblastoma puzzle
2015 (English)In: Cell Death and Disease, ISSN 2041-4889, E-ISSN 2041-4889, Vol. 6, article id e1957Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2015
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279036 (URN)10.1038/cddis.2015.317 (DOI)000367150100040 ()26512965 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-28 Created: 2016-02-28 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Blixt, M. (2010). The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) – a novel animal model for the study of diabetes mellitus. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) – a novel animal model for the study of diabetes mellitus
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The bank vole (Microtus arvalis) develops glucose intolerance both when kept in captivity and in the wild state. Glucose intolerant bank voles kept in captivity exhibited polydipsia, polyuria, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, islet autoantibodies and a markedly changed islet structure resembling so–called hydropic degeneration. Islets showing hydropic degeneration have reduced β–cell mass. However, the relative islet size to total pancreas area was not changed.

Pancreatic islet isolated from glucose intolerant bank voles had an altered islet function showing signs of being exposed to an increased functional demand on their β–cells. Also, islets from male bank voles seem more affected than the islets from females. Islets isolated from glucose tolerant male bank voles cultured for 5 days at 28 mM glucose did not reveal any change in insulin gene expression or insulin biosynthesis rate. However, islets from female bank voles displayed a glucose concentration dependent response. This suggests that there is gender difference in that, islets of female more easily than islets of males adapt to elevated glucose concentration. Furthermore, islets isolated from glucose tolerant males had reduced insulin gene expression after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines for 48 hrs. This effect seemed to be NO-independent since only a minor elevation of nitrite accumulation in the medium was seen, and the use of iNOS inhibitor could not counteract the cytokine effect. The observed response seen in bank vole islets upon exposure to various glucose concentrations or proinflammatory cytokines is similar to those seen in studies of human islets. The bank vole may therefore represent a novel animal model for the study of diabetes. An unresolved issue is the role of the Ljungan virus which is found in the bank vole colony.

Bank voles developing glucose intolerance display features of both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes, where environmental factors seems to play an important role as determinant. Our findings suggest that bank voles bred in the laboratory may develop more of a type 2 diabetes. However, bank voles caught in nature instead may rather develop a type 1 form of the disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. p. 49
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 559
Keywords
Bank vole, pancreatic islets, diabetes mellitus, hydropic degeneration, proinflammatory cytokine
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Endocrinology and Diabetes
Research subject
Medical Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122715 (URN)978-91-554-7806-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-06-03, MCB, B7:101a, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-05-11 Created: 2010-04-16 Last updated: 2010-05-24
Blixt, M., Niklasson, B. & Sandler, S. (2009). Suppression of bank vole pancreatic islet function by proinflammatory cytokines. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 305(1-2), 1-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suppression of bank vole pancreatic islet function by proinflammatory cytokines
2009 (English)In: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, ISSN 0303-7207, E-ISSN 1872-8057, Vol. 305, no 1-2, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bank voles kept in captivity may develop diabetes. We recently characterized beta-cell function of pancreatic islets from normal and glucose intolerant/diabetic bank voles. These animals had features of both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Cytokines may impair β-cell function in both types of diabetes. Presently, we studied how pancreatic islets isolated from normal, i.e. glucose tolerant bank voles are affected by proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Islets were exposed to hIL-1β (25U/ml) alone or in combination with hTNF-α (1000U/ml)+mIFN-γ (1000U/ml) for 48h, whereupon islet functions were assessed. Cytokines markedly reduced insulin gene expression and the (pro)insulin biosynthesis rate, which was accompanied by a profound depletion of the islet insulin content. The cytokines did not affect the culture medium insulin accumulation and the glucose oxidation rate, but caused a modest increase in medium nitrite, an indicator of nitric oxide (NO) generation. Cytokine-induced decrease in islet insulin content was not prevented by the preferential inducible NO synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine. These findings suggest that the reduction in islet insulin content is not attributed to enhanced exocytosis or related to altered glucose metabolism, but is rather due to a decline in insulin production. The suppressive effects of islet functions elicited by cytokines seem to be mediated by an NO-independent mechanism. In relation to previous studies on cytokine effects on islets from various species, the bank vole islets show a pattern which more resembles human islets than rat or murine islets.

Keywords
Bank vole, pancreatic islet, proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122700 (URN)10.1016/j.mce.2009.02.010 (DOI)000266750200001 ()19433255 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-04-16 Created: 2010-04-16 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Blixt, M., Niklasson, B. & Sandler, S. (2007). Characterization of β-cell function of pancreatic islets isolated from bank voles developing glucose intolerance/diabetes: an animal model showing features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a possible role of the Ljungan virus. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 154(1-3), 41-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of β-cell function of pancreatic islets isolated from bank voles developing glucose intolerance/diabetes: an animal model showing features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a possible role of the Ljungan virus
2007 (English)In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 154, no 1-3, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) kept in captivity develop diabetes mellitus to a significant extent. Also in wild bank voles, elevated blood glucose has been observed. A newly isolated picornavirus named Ljungan virus (LV) has been found in the pancreas of these bank voles. Moreover, LV infection in combination with environmental factors may cause glucose intolerance/diabetes (GINT/D) in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional characteristics of pancreatic islets, isolated from bank voles, bred in the laboratory but considered LV infected. About 20% of all males and females were classified as GINT/D following a glucose tolerance test. Of these animals the majority had become diabetic by 20 weeks of age, with a tendency towards an earlier onset in the males. GINT/D animals had increased serum insulin levels. Islets were tested on the day of isolation (day 0) and after 1 week of culture for their insulin content and their capacity to synthesize (pro)insulin, secrete insulin and metabolize glucose. Functional differences could be observed between normal and GINT/D animals as well as between genders. An elevated basal insulin secretion was observed on day 0 indicating β-cell dysfunction among islets isolated from diabetic males. In vitro culture could reverse some functional changes. The increased serum insulin level and the increased basal islet insulin secretion may suggest that the animals had developed a type 2 diabetes-like condition. It is likely that the putative stress imposed in the laboratory, maybe in combination with LV infection, can lead to an increased functional demand on the β-cells.

Keywords
Bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, Diabetes mellitus, Insulin release, Ljungan virus, Pancreatic islets
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17170 (URN)10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.06.019 (DOI)000249641100006 ()17686482 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-06-17 Created: 2008-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Niklasson, B., Samsioe, A., Blixt, M., Sandler, S., Sjöholm, A., Lagerquist, E., . . . Klitz, W. (2006). Prenatal viral exposure followed by adult stress produces glucose intolerance in a mouse model. Diabetologia, 49(9), 2192-2199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prenatal viral exposure followed by adult stress produces glucose intolerance in a mouse model
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2006 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 2192-2199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims/hypothesis: It has been suggested that the uterine environment may influence metabolic disease occurring later in adult life, and that adult stress may promote disease outcome. Using a mouse model, we tested whether in utero exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) followed by adult exposure to stress produces diabetes. The influence of the timing of viral exposure over the course of pregnancy was also tested.

Materials and methods: Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed i.p. to LV on pregnancy days 4, 8, 12 or 17. Adult male mice from these pregnancies were stressed by being kept in shared cages. Stress only, LV exposure in utero only, and no-stress/no virus exposure groups were also followed. Outcome variables included bodyweight, epididymal fat weight, baseline glucose, glucose tolerance tests (60 and 120 min) and serum insulin.

Results: We demonstrated that male mice developed a type 2-like diabetes, including obesity, as adults if infected during pregnancy with LV. Diabetes at the age of 11 weeks was more severe in mice whose mothers were infected earlier than in those whose mothers were infected later in pregnancy. Only animals infected in utero and kept under stress developed diabetes; infection or stress alone did not cause disease.

Conclusions/interpretation: This work demonstrates that a type 2 diabetes-like disease can be virus-induced in a mouse model. Early in utero viral insults can set the stage for disease occurring during adult life, but the final manifestation of diabetes is dependent on the combination of early viral exposure and stress in adult life.

Keywords
diabetes, fetal programming, Ljungan virus, mouse model, stress, type 2 diabetes
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17177 (URN)10.1007/s00125-006-0339-8 (DOI)000239548800027 ()16821045 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-06-17 Created: 2008-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Blixt, M., Niklasson, B. & Sandler, S.Morphologic investigation of the endocrine pancreas in diabetic bank voles indicates a type 2 diabetes profile..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphologic investigation of the endocrine pancreas in diabetic bank voles indicates a type 2 diabetes profile.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Bank vole, hydropic degeneration, pancreatic islet, hyperinsulinemia, diabetes mellitus
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Endocrinology and Diabetes
Research subject
Medical Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122714 (URN)
Available from: 2010-04-16 Created: 2010-04-16 Last updated: 2010-05-12
Blixt, M., Niklasson, B. & Sandler, S.Pancreatic islets of bank vole show signs of dysfunction after prolonged exposure to high glucose in vitro..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pancreatic islets of bank vole show signs of dysfunction after prolonged exposure to high glucose in vitro.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Bank vole, pancreatic islet, glucose culture, diabetes mellitus
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Endocrinology and Diabetes
Research subject
Medical Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122713 (URN)
Available from: 2010-04-16 Created: 2010-04-16 Last updated: 2010-05-12
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