uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Gingnell, Malin
Publications (10 of 34) Show all publications
Engman, J., Sundström Poromaa, I., Moby, L., Wikström, J., Fredriksson, M. & Gingnell, M. (2018). Hormonal Cycle and Contraceptive Effects on Amygdala and Salience Resting-State Networks in Women with Previous Affective Side Effects on the Pill.. Neuropsychopharmacology, 43(3), 555-563
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hormonal Cycle and Contraceptive Effects on Amygdala and Salience Resting-State Networks in Women with Previous Affective Side Effects on the Pill.
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 555-563Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The mechanisms linking ovarian hormones to negative affect are poorly characterized, but important clues may come from the examination of the brain's intrinsic organization. Here, we studied the effects of both the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptives (OCs) on amygdala and salience network resting-state functional connectivity using a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled design. Hormone levels, depressive symptoms, and resting-state functional connectivity were measured in 35 healthy women (24.9±4.2 years) who had previously experienced OC-related negative affect. All participants were examined in the follicular phase of a baseline cycle and in the third week of the subsequent cycle during treatment with either a combined OC (30 μg ethinyl estradiol/0.15 mg levonorgestrel) or placebo. The latter time point targeted the midluteal phase in placebo users and steady-state ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel concentrations in OC users. Amygdala and salience network connectivity generally increased with both higher endogenous and synthetic hormone levels, although amygdala-parietal cortical connectivity decreased in OC users. When in the luteal phase, the naturally cycling placebo users demonstrated higher connectivity in both networks compared with the women receiving OCs. Our results support a causal link between the exogenous administration of synthetic hormones and amygdala and salience network connectivity. Furthermore, they suggest a similar, potentially stronger, association between the natural hormonal variations across the menstrual cycle and intrinsic network connectivity.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333689 (URN)10.1038/npp.2017.157 (DOI)000419961500011 ()28741624 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-01439Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2007-1955, 2007-2116
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, Å., Skalkidou, A., Hellgren, C., Gingnell, M., Ekselius, L., Willebrand, M. & Sundström Poromaa, I. (2017). Different patterns of attentional bias in antenatal and postpartum depression. Brain and Behavior, 7(11), Article ID e00844.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different patterns of attentional bias in antenatal and postpartum depression
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 7, no 11, article id e00844Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundBiased information processing in attention, memory, and interpretation is proposed to be central cognitive alterations in patients with major depressive disorder, but studies in women with peripartum depression are scarce. Because of the many similarities with depression in nonperipartum states as regards symptom profile and risk factors, we hypothesized that women with antenatal and postpartum depression would display attentional bias to negatively and positively valenced words. MethodsOne hundred and seventy-seven pregnant and 157 postpartum women were included. Among these, 40 suffered from antenatal depressive disorder and 33 from postpartum depressive disorder. An emotional Stroop task with neutral, positive, negative, and negatively valenced obstetric words was used. ResultsNo significant difference in emotional interference scores was noted between women with antenatal depression and nondepressed pregnant women. In contrast, women with postpartum depression displayed shorter reaction times to both positive (p=.028) and negative (p=.022) stimuli, compared with neutral words. Pregnant women on antidepressant treatment displayed longer reaction times to negatively valenced obstetric words in comparison with untreated depressed women (p=.012), and a trend toward greater interference in comparison with controls (p=.061). ConclusionsIn contrast with the hypothesis, we found no evidence of attentional bias to emotionally valenced stimuli in women with untreated peripartum depression. However, the shorter reaction times to emotional stimuli in women with postpartum depression may indicate emotional numbing, which in turn, is a functional impairment that may have repercussions for child development and well-being. Our findings emphasize the need to identify and treat women with postpartum depression at the earliest possible time point to ensure swift recovery and support for the family.

Keywords
antenatal depression, attentional bias, emotional Stroop, postpartum depression, pregnancy, women
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342913 (URN)10.1002/brb3.844 (DOI)000416063200009 ()29201545 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Faria, V., Gingnell, M., M. Hoppe, J., Hjorth, O., Alaie, I., Frick, A., . . . Furmark, T. (2017). Do You Believe It? Verbal Suggestions Influence the Clinical and Neural Effects of Escitalopram in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Trial. EBioMedicine (24), 179-188, Article ID S2352-3964(17)30385-7.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do You Believe It? Verbal Suggestions Influence the Clinical and Neural Effects of Escitalopram in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Trial
Show others...
2017 (English)In: EBioMedicine, ISSN 0360-0637, E-ISSN 2352-3964, no 24, p. 179-188, article id S2352-3964(17)30385-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed for depression and anxiety, but their efficacy relative to placebo has been questioned. We aimed to test how manipulation of verbally induced expectancies, central for placebo, influences SSRI treatment outcome and brain activity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD).

METHODS: We did a randomized clinical trial, within an academic medical center (Uppsala, Sweden), of individuals fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for SAD, recruited through media advertising. Participants were 18years or older and randomized in blocks, through a computer-generated sequence by an independent party, to nine weeks of overt or covert treatment with escitalopram (20mg daily). The overt group received correct treatment information whereas the covert group was treated deceptively with the SSRI described, by the psychiatrist, as active placebo. The treating psychiatrist was necessarily unmasked while the research staff was masked from intervention assignment. Treatment efficacy was assessed primarily with the self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR), administered at week 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9, also yielding a dichotomous estimate of responder status (clinically significant improvement). Before and at the last week of treatment, brain activity during an emotional face-matching task was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and during fMRI sessions, anticipatory speech anxiety was also assessed with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State version (STAI-S). Analyses included all randomized patients with outcome data at posttreatment. This study is registered at ISRCTN, number 98890605.

FINDINGS: Between March 17th 2014 and May 22nd 2015, 47 patients were recruited. One patient in the covert group dropped out after a few days of treatment and did not provide fMRI data, leaving 46 patients with complete outcome data. After nine weeks of treatment, overt (n=24) as compared to covert (n=22) SSRI administration yielded significantly better outcome on the LSAS-SR (adjusted difference 21.17, 95% CI 10.69-31.65, p<0.0001) with more than three times higher response rate (50% vs. 14%; χ(2)(1)=6.91, p=0.009) and twice the effect size (d=2.24 vs. d=1.13) from pre-to posttreatment. There was no significant between-group difference on anticipatory speech anxiety (STAI-S), both groups improving with treatment. No serious adverse reactions were recorded. On fMRI outcomes, there was suggestive evidence for a differential neural response to treatment between groups in the posterior cingulate, superior temporal and inferior frontal gyri (all z thresholds exceeding 3.68, p≤0.001). Reduced social anxiety with treatment correlated significantly with enhanced posterior cingulate (z threshold 3.24, p=0.0006) and attenuated amygdala (z threshold 2.70, p=0.003) activity.

INTERPRETATION: The clinical and neural effects of escitalopram were markedly influenced by verbal suggestions. This points to a pronounced placebo component in SSRI-treatment of SAD and favors a biopsychosocial over a biomedical explanatory model for SSRI efficacy.

FUNDING RESOURCES: The Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research (grant 2011-1368), the Swedish Research Council (grant 421-2013-1366), Riksbankens Jubileumsfond - the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences (grant P13-1270:1).

Keywords
Expectancies, Neuroimaging, Placebo effect, SSRI, Social anxiety disorder, fMRI
National Category
Psychology General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331755 (URN)10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.09.031 (DOI)000414392900030 ()29033138 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-1368Swedish Research Council, 421-2013-1366Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P13-1270:1
Note

Vanda Faria and Malin Gingnell contributed equally

Available from: 2017-10-18 Created: 2017-10-18 Last updated: 2018-02-12Bibliographically approved
Gingnell, M., Toffoletto, S., Wikström, J., Engman, J., Bannbers, E., Comasco, E. & Sundström Poromaa, I. (2017). Emotional anticipation after delivery - a longitudinal neuroimaging study of the postpartum period. Scientific Reports, 7, Article ID 114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional anticipation after delivery - a longitudinal neuroimaging study of the postpartum period
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Neuroimaging research has begun to unveil the mechanisms behind emotion processing during the postpartum period, which, in turn, may be of relevance for the development of postpartum depression. The present study sought to longitudinally investigate the neural correlates of emotion anticipation during the postpartum period in healthy women. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to measure the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the brain in response to anticipation of negative emotional stimuli and during processing of images with positive or negative valence. The participating women were scanned twice: the first scan occurred during the first 48 hours after delivery, and the second was performed 4-6 weeks after delivery. The early postpartum period was characterized by higher anterior cingulate cortex reactivity during anticipation of negative emotional stimuli than the late postpartum period. This was accompanied by a negative relationship with insular reactivity during the early postpartum period and a trend towards an increase in insular reactivity in the late postpartum period. Thus, during the first four weeks of the postpartum period, a diminished top-down regulatory feedback on emotion-related areas of the brain was noted. This finding suggests a physiologically important adaptation during the healthy postpartum period.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319610 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-00146-3 (DOI)000425860900001 ()28273912 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2014-54-20642-07-4
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2018-05-04Bibliographically approved
Åhs, F., Gingnell, M., Furmark, T. & Fredrikson, M. (2017). Within-session effect of repeated stress exposure on extinction circuitry function in social anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 261, 85-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Within-session effect of repeated stress exposure on extinction circuitry function in social anxiety disorder
2017 (English)In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 261, p. 85-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anxiety reduction following repeated exposure to stressful experiences is generally held to depend on neural processes involved in extinction of conditioned fear. We predicted that repeated exposure to stressful experiences would change activity throughout the circuitry serving extinction, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the hippocampus and the amygdala. To test this prediction, 36 participants diagnosed with SAD performed two successive speeches in front of an observing audience while regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was recorded using positron emission tomography. To control for non-anxiolytic effects of repeated exposure, rCBF was also measured during repeated presentations of neutral and angry facial expressions. Results showed that anxiety ratings and heart rate decreased from the first to the second speech, indicating an anxiolytic effect of repeated exposure. Exposure attenuated rCBF in the amygdala whereas no change in rCBF was observed in the vmPFC or hippocampus. The rCBF-reductions in the amygdala were greater following repetition of the speech task than repetition of face exposure indicating that they were specific to anxiety attenuation and not due to a reduced novelty. Our findings suggest that amygdala-related attenuation processes are key to understanding the working mechanisms of exposure therapy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2017
Keywords
Extinction, Social phobia, Cognitive behavior therapy, Amygdala, Hippocampus, VmPFC
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320032 (URN)10.1016/j.pscychresns.2017.01.009 (DOI)000395958900012 ()28167379 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Brain Foundation
Available from: 2017-04-13 Created: 2017-04-13 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Gingnell, M., Bannbers, E., Engman, J., Frick, A., Moby, L., Wikström, J. & Sundström-Poromaa, I. (2016). The effect of combined hormonal contraceptives use on brain reactivity during response inhibition. European journal of contraception & reproductive health care, 21(2), 150-157
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of combined hormonal contraceptives use on brain reactivity during response inhibition
Show others...
2016 (English)In: European journal of contraception & reproductive health care, ISSN 1362-5187, E-ISSN 1473-0782, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 150-157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives Cognitive control, which can be described as the ability to moderate impulses, has not previously been investigated in users of combined hormonal contraception (CHC). Given the suggested modulatory role of ovarian steroids in prefrontal dopaminergic function, which in turn taps into cognitive control, this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral contraceptive trial set out to investigate the brain activity pattern during response inhibition in CHC users. Methods Thirty-four women were randomised to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing CHC or placebo. The women performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the CHC/placebo treatment cycle. Results No differences between CHC and placebo users in number of correct inhibitions were found during treatment, but only women on CHC significantly improved their performance between the baseline and treatment assessments. During the treatment cycle CHC users displayed decreased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus in comparison with placebo users. No other significant activations were evident between treatment groups or within groups. Conclusion Overall, CHC use had marginal effects on brain activity during response inhibition. If anything, the findings of the study may suggest reduced effort or increased efficiency in maintaining orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory cognitive control when using a combined oral contraceptive.

Keywords
Functional magnetic resonance imaging; Go/NoGo; Oestrogen; Oral contraceptives; Progestagen; Randomised clinical trial; Response inhibition
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265145 (URN)10.3109/13625187.2015.1077381 (DOI)000375025700006 ()26291330 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-10-23 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Engman, J., Sundström-Poromaa, I., Fredrikson, M. & Gingnell, M. (2015). Amygdala Resting State Functional Connectivity is Affected by Oral Contraceptives and Menstrual Cycle Phase. Paper presented at Oral presentation at the European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology (ESMRMB) Congress, Edinburgh, Scotland. October 2015.. Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, 28(1S), S70-S70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amygdala Resting State Functional Connectivity is Affected by Oral Contraceptives and Menstrual Cycle Phase
2015 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, ISSN 0968-5243, E-ISSN 1352-8661, Vol. 28, no 1S, p. S70-S70Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284491 (URN)
Conference
Oral presentation at the European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology (ESMRMB) Congress, Edinburgh, Scotland. October 2015.
Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Gingnell, M., Bannbers, E., Moes, H., Engman, J., Sylvén, S., Skalkidou, A., . . . Sundström-Poromaa, I. (2015). Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study. PLoS ONE, 10(6), Article ID e0128964.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study
Show others...
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0128964Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal-infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD), and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum) and 4-6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum). Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258776 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0128964 (DOI)000355979500112 ()26061879 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2008-54X-200642-01-3
Available from: 2015-07-20 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Iliadis, S. I., Koulouris, P., Gingnell, M., Sylvén, S. M., Sundström-Poromaa, I., Ekselius, L., . . . Skalkidou, A. (2015). Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 18(3), 539-546
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 539-546Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240437 (URN)10.1007/s00737-014-0478-8 (DOI)000354707100012 ()25369905 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 521-2010-3293
Available from: 2015-01-07 Created: 2015-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Engman, J., Frick, A., Alaie, I., Björkstrand, J., Ågren, T., Faria, V., . . . Furmark, T. (2014). Amygdala and Default Mode Network Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Social Anxiety Disorder. In: : . Paper presented at 20th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Hamburg, Germany, 8-12 juni 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amygdala and Default Mode Network Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Social Anxiety Disorder
Show others...
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247730 (URN)
Conference
20th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Hamburg, Germany, 8-12 juni 2014
Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2015-03-23
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications