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Berglund, Johan
Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Rönn, M., Kullberg, J., Karlsson, H., Berglund, J., Malmberg, F., Örberg, J., . . . Lind, P. M. (2013). Bisphenol A exposure increases liver fat in juvenile fructose-fed Fischer 344 rats. Toxicology, 303(1), 125-132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bisphenol A exposure increases liver fat in juvenile fructose-fed Fischer 344 rats
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2013 (English)In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 303, no 1, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in rodents. To evaluate if exposure also later in life could induce obesity or liver damage we investigated these hypothesises in an experimental rat model.

METHODS:

From five to fifteen weeks of age, female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to BPA via drinking water (0.025, 0.25 or 2.5mgBPA/L) containing 5% fructose. Two control groups were given either water or 5% fructose solution. Individual weight of the rats was determined once a week. At termination magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adipose tissue amount and distribution, and liver fat content. After sacrifice the left perirenal fat pad and the liver were dissected and weighed. Apolipoprotein A-I in plasma was analyzed by western blot.

RESULTS:

No significant effects on body weight or the weight of the dissected fad pad were seen in rats exposed to BPA, and MRI showed no differences in total or visceral adipose tissue volumes between the groups. However, MRI showed that liver fat content was significantly higher in BPA-exposed rats than in fructose controls (p=0.04). BPA exposure also increased the apolipoprotein A-I levels in plasma (p<0.0001).

CONCLUSION:

We found no evidence that BPA exposure affects fat mass in juvenile fructose-fed rats. However, the finding that BPA in combination with fructose induced fat infiltration in the liver at dosages close to the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) might be of concern given the widespread use of this compound in our environment.

Keywords
MRI, Liver fat, Rat, Bisphenol A, Obesity
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-185549 (URN)10.1016/j.tox.2012.09.013 (DOI)000314856800014 ()23142792 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-11-08 Created: 2012-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Silver, H. J., Niswender, K. D., Kullberg, J., Berglund, J., Johansson, L., Bruvold, M., . . . Welch, E. B. (2013). Comparison of Gross Body Fat-Water Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla to Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Obese Women. Obesity, 21(4), 765-774
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Gross Body Fat-Water Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla to Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Obese Women
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2013 (English)In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 765-774Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Improved understanding of how depot-specific adipose tissue mass predisposes to obesity-related comorbidities could yield new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity as well as metabolic benefits of weight loss. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3D) contiguous "fat-water" MR imaging (FWMRI) covering the majority of a whole-body field of view (FOV) acquired at 3 Tesla (3T) and coupled with automated segmentation and quantification of amount, type, and distribution of adipose and lean soft tissue would show great promise in body composition methodology. Precision of adipose and lean soft tissue measurements in body and trunk regions were assessed for 3T FWMRI and compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Anthropometric, FWMRI, and DXA measurements were obtained in 12 women with BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2). Test-retest results found coefficients of variation (CV) for FWMRI that were all under 3%: gross body adipose tissue (GBAT) 0.80%, total trunk adipose tissue (TTAT) 2.08%, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) 2.62%, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) 2.11%, gross body lean soft tissue (GBLST) 0.60%, and total trunk lean soft tissue (TTLST) 2.43%. Concordance correlation coefficients between FWMRI and DXA were 0.978, 0.802, 0.629, and 0.400 for GBAT, TTAT, GBLST, and TTLST, respectively. While Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between FWMRI and DXA for GBAT and TTAT, a negative bias existed for GBLST and TTLST measurements. Differences may be explained by the FWMRI FOV length and potential for DXA to overestimate lean soft tissue. While more development is necessary, the described 3T FWMRI method combined with fully-automated segmentation is fast (<30-min total scan and post-processing time), noninvasive, repeatable, and cost-effective.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196729 (URN)10.1002/oby.20287 (DOI)000322087800016 ()22810974 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-03-13 Created: 2013-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Rönn, M., Lind, M. P., Karlsson, H., Cvek, K., Berglund, J., Malmberg, F., . . . Kullberg, J. (2013). Quantification of total and visceral adipose tissue in fructose-fed rats using water-fat separated single echo MRI. Obesity, 21(9), E388-E395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of total and visceral adipose tissue in fructose-fed rats using water-fat separated single echo MRI
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2013 (English)In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, no 9, p. E388-E395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of this study was to setup a rodent model for modest weight gain and an MRI-based quantification of body composition on a clinical 1.5 T MRI system for studies of obesity and environmental factors and their possible association. Design and Methods: Twenty-four 4-week-old female Fischer rats were divided into two groups: one exposed group (n=12) and one control group (n 12). The exposed group was given drinking water containing fructose (5% for 7 weeks, then 20% for 3 weeks). The control group was given tap water. Before sacrifice, whole body MRI was performed to determine volumes of total and visceral adipose tissue and lean tissue. MRI was performed using a clinical 1.5 T system and a chemical shift based technique for separation of water and fat signal from a rapid single echo acquisition. Fat signal fraction was used to separate adipose and lean tissue. Visceral adipose tissue volume was quantified using semiautomated segmentation. After sacrifice, a perirenal fat pad and the liver were dissected and weighed. Plasma proteins were analyzed by Western blot. Results: The weight gain was 5.2% greater in rats exposed to fructose than in controls (P=0.042). Total and visceral adipose tissue volumes were 5.2 cm(3) (P=0.017) and 3.1 cm(3) (P=0.019) greater, respectively, while lean tissue volumes did not differ. The level of triglycerides and apolipoprotein A-I was higher (P=0.034, P=0.005, respectively) in fructose-exposed rats.

National Category
Medical Image Processing Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209508 (URN)10.1002/oby.20229 (DOI)000325426600007 ()
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Bjermo, H., Iggman, D., Kullberg, J., Dahlman, I., Johansson, L., Persson, L., . . . Risérus, U. (2012). Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95(5), 1003-1012
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial
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2012 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1003-1012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Replacing SFAs with vegetable PUFAs has cardiometabolic benefits, but the effects on liver fat are unknown. Increased dietary n-6 PUFAs have, however, also been proposed to promote inflammation-a yet unproven theory.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the effects of PUFAs on liver fat, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders.

DESIGN:

We randomly assigned 67 abdominally obese subjects (15% had type 2 diabetes) to a 10-wk isocaloric diet high in vegetable n-6 PUFA (PUFA diet) or SFA mainly from butter (SFA diet), without altering the macronutrient intake. Liver fat was assessed by MRI and magnetic resonance proton (1H) spectroscopy (MRS). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9, a hepatic LDL-receptor regulator), inflammation, and adipose tissue expression of inflammatory and lipogenic genes were determined.

RESULTS:

A total of 61 subjects completed the study. Body weight modestly increased but was not different between groups. Liver fat was lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet [between-group difference in relative change from baseline; 16% (MRI; P < 0.001), 34% (MRS; P = 0.02)]. PCSK9 (P = 0.001), TNF receptor-2 (P < 0.01), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P = 0.02) concentrations were lower during the PUFA diet, whereas insulin (P = 0.06) tended to be higher during the SFA diet. In compliant subjects (defined as change in serum linoleic acid), insulin, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue gene expression was unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS:

Compared with SFA intake, n-6 PUFAs reduce liver fat and modestly improve metabolic status, without weight loss. A high n-6 PUFA intake does not cause any signs of inflammation or oxidative stress. Downregulation of PCSK9 could be a novel mechanism behind the cholesterol-lowering effects of PUFAs.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-172856 (URN)10.3945/ajcn.111.030114 (DOI)000303140700004 ()22492369 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-04-16 Created: 2012-04-16 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
Berglund, J., Ahlström, H. & Kullberg, J. (2012). Model-based mapping of fat unsaturation and chain length by chemical shift imaging: phantom validation and in vivo feasibility. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 68(6), 1815-1827
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-based mapping of fat unsaturation and chain length by chemical shift imaging: phantom validation and in vivo feasibility
2012 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 1815-1827Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge about the triglyceride (fat) 1H spectrum enables quantitative determination of several triglyceride characteristics. This work describes a model-based chemical shift imaging method that separates water and fat signal and provides maps of three triglyceride quantities: fatty acid carbon chain length (CL), number of double bond pairs (ndb), and number of methylene-interrupted double bonds (nmidb). The method was validated by imaging a phantom containing ten different oils using 1.5 T and 3.0 T clinical scanners, with gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) as reference. Repeated acquisitions demonstrated high reproducibility of the method. Statistical tests of correlation and linear regression were performed to examine the accuracy of the method. Significant correlation was found at both field strengths for all three quantities, and high correlation (r2 > 0.96) was found for measuring ndb and nmidb. Feasibility of the method for in vivo imaging of the thigh was demonstrated at both field strengths. The estimates of ndb and nmidb in subcutaneous adipose tisse were in agreement with literature values, while CL appears overestimated. The method has potential use in large-scale cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of triglyceride composition, and its relation to diet and various diseases.

Keywords
water/fat separation, chemical shift imaging, quantitative MRI, fat unsaturation, triglyceride mapping, fatty acid composition
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158098 (URN)10.1002/mrm.24196 (DOI)000311398600015 ()22334300 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-08-31 Created: 2011-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Berglund, J. & Kullberg, J. (2012). Three-dimensional water/fat separation and T2* estimation based on whole-image optimization: application in breathhold liver imaging at 1.5 T. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 67(6), 1684-1693
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-dimensional water/fat separation and T2* estimation based on whole-image optimization: application in breathhold liver imaging at 1.5 T
2012 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 1684-1693Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The chemical shift of water and fat resonances in proton MRI allows separation of water and fat signal from chemical shift encoded data. This work describes an automatic method that produces separate water and fat images as well as quantitative maps of fat signal fraction and T2* from complex multi-echo gradient recalled datasets. Accurate water and fat separation is challenging due to signal ambiguity at the voxel level. Whole-image optimization can resolve this ambiguity, but might be computationally demanding, especially for three-dimensional (3D) data. In this work, periodicity of the model fit residual as a function of the off-resonance was utilized to modify a previously proposed formulation of the problem. This gives a smaller solution space and allows rapid optimization. Feasibility and accurate separation of water and fat signal was demonstrated in breathhold 3D liver imaging of ten volunteer subjects, with both acquisition and reconstruction times below 20 seconds.

Keywords
water and fat separation, chemical shift imaging, quantitative MRI, liver fat, T2* mapping, QPBO
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158097 (URN)10.1002/mrm.23185 (DOI)000304086000020 ()22189760 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-08-31 Created: 2011-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Berglund, J. (2011). Separation of Water and Fat Signal in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Advances in Methods Based on Chemical Shift. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Separation of Water and Fat Signal in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Advances in Methods Based on Chemical Shift
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important diagnostic tools of modern healthcare. The signal in medical MRI predominantly originates from water and fat molecules. Separation of the two components into water-only and fat-only images can improve diagnosis, and is the premier non-invasive method for measuring the amount and distribution of fatty tissue.

Fat-water imaging (FWI) enables fast fat/water separation by model-based estimation from chemical shift encoded data, such as multi-echo acquisitions. Qualitative FWI is sufficient for visual separation of the components, while quantitative FWI also offers reliable estimates of the fat percentage in each pixel. The major problems of current FWI methods are long acquisition times, long reconstruction times, and reconstruction errors that degrade image quality.

In this thesis, existing FWI methods were reviewed, and novel fully automatic methods were developed and evaluated, with a focus on fast 3D image reconstruction. All MRI data was acquired on standard clinical scanners.

A triple-echo qualitative FWI method was developed for the specific application of 3D whole-body imaging. The method was compared with two reference methods, and demonstrated superior image quality when evaluated in 39 volunteers.

The problem of qualitative FWI by dual-echo data with unconstrained echo times was solved, allowing faster and more flexible image acquisition than conventional FWI. Feasibility of the method was demonstrated in three volunteers and the noise performance was evaluated.

Further, a quantitative multi-echo FWI method was developed. The signal separation was based on discrete whole-image optimization. Fast 3D image reconstruction with few reconstruction errors was demonstrated by abdominal imaging of ten volunteers.

Lastly, a method was proposed for quantitative mapping of average fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation. The method was validated by imaging different oils, using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) as the reference. The degree of saturation agreed well with GLC, and feasibility of the method was demonstrated in the thigh of a volunteer.

The developed methods have applications in clinical settings, and are already being used in several research projects, including studies of obesity, dietary intervention, and the metabolic syndrome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. p. 85
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 701
Keywords
Magnetic resonance imaging, digital image reconstruction, chemical shift imaging, water and fat separation, Dixon method, fat suppression, quantitative MRI, whole-body MRI, fatty acid composition, fat unsaturation, triglycerides, adipose tissue, liver fat, T2* mapping
National Category
Clinical Science
Research subject
Radiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158111 (URN)978-91-554-8154-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-10-21, Hedstrandsalen, Entrance 70, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-08-31 Last updated: 2011-11-03Bibliographically approved
Björk, M., Berglund, J., Kullberg, J. & Stoica, P. (2011). Signal Modeling and the Cramér-Rao Bound for Absolute Magnetic Resonance Thermometry in Fat Tissue. In: Proc. 45th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers. Paper presented at 45th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, November 6-9, 2011 (pp. 80-84).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Signal Modeling and the Cramér-Rao Bound for Absolute Magnetic Resonance Thermometry in Fat Tissue
2011 (English)In: Proc. 45th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, 2011, p. 80-84Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of tissues with both fat and water resonances allows for absolute temperature mapping through parametric modeling. The fat resonance is used as a reference to determine the absolute water resonance frequency which is linearly related to the temperature. The goal of thispaper is to assess whether or not resonance frequency based absolute temperature mapping is feasible in fat tissue. This is done by examining identifiability conditions and analyzing the obtainable performance in terms of the Cramér-Rao Bound of the temperature estimates. We develop the model by including multiple fat peaks, since even small fat resonances can be significant compared to the small water component in fat tissue. It is showed that a high signal to noise ratio is needed for practical use on a 1.5 T scanner, and that higher field strengths can improve the bound significantly. It is also shown that the choice of sampling interval is important to avoid aliasing. In sum, this type of magnetic resonance thermometry is feasible for fat tissuein applications where high field strength is used or when high signal to noise ratio can be obtained.

National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-163132 (URN)10.1109/ACSSC.2011.6189959 (DOI)
Conference
45th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, November 6-9, 2011
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 247035
Available from: 2011-12-08 Created: 2011-12-08 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Berglund, J., Ahlström, H., Johansson, L. & Kullberg, J. (2011). Two-point dixon method with flexible echo times. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 65(4), 994-1004
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two-point dixon method with flexible echo times
2011 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 994-1004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The two-point Dixon method is a proton chemical shift imaging technique that produces separated water-only and fat-only images from a dual-echo acquisition. It is shown how this can be achieved without the usual constraints on the echo times. A signal model considering spectral broadening of the fat peak is proposed for improved water/fat separation. Phase errors, mostly due to static field inhomogeneity, must be removed prior to least-squares estimation of water and fat. To resolve ambiguity of the phase errors, a corresponding global optimization problem is formulated and solved using a message-passing algorithm. It is shown that the noise in the water and fat estimates matches the Cramér-Rao bounds, and feasibility is demonstrated for in vivo abdominal breath-hold imaging. The water-only images were found to offer superior fat suppression compared with conventional spectrally fat suppressed images.

Keywords
chemical shift imaging, fat suppression, two-point Dixon, water and fat separation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150936 (URN)10.1002/mrm.22679 (DOI)000288612000011 ()21413063 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-04-08 Created: 2011-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Berglund, J., Johansson, L., Ahlström, H. & Kullberg, J. (2010). Three-point Dixon method enables whole-body water and fat imaging of obese subjects. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 63(6), 1659-1668
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-point Dixon method enables whole-body water and fat imaging of obese subjects
2010 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 1659-1668Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dixon imaging techniques derive chemical shift-separated water and fat images, enabling the quantification of fat content and forming an alternative to fat suppression. Whole-body Dixon imaging is of interest in studies of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and possibly in oncology. A three-point Dixon method is proposed where two solutions are found analytically in each voxel. The true solution is identified by a multiseed three-dimensional region-growing scheme with a dynamic path, allowing confident regions to be solved before unconfident regions, such as background noise. 2 pi-Phase unwrapping is not required. Whole-body datasets (256 x 184 x 252 voxels) were collected from 39 subjects (body mass index 19.8-45.4 kg/m(2)), in a mean scan time of 5 min 15 sec. Water and fat images were reconstructed offline, using the proposed method and two reference methods. The resulting images were subjectively graded on a four-grade scale by two radiologists, blinded to the method used. The proposed method was found superior to the reference methods. It exclusively received the two highest grades, implying that only mild reconstruction failures were found. The computation time for a whole-body dataset was 1 min 51.5 sec +/- 3.0 sec. It was concluded that whole-body water and fat imaging is feasible even for obese subjects, using the proposed method.

Keywords
three-point Dixon, whole-body MRI, water and fat separation, chemical shift imaging, fat suppression
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-129498 (URN)10.1002/mrm.22385 (DOI)000278164400026 ()20512869 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-08-17 Created: 2010-08-17 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
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