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Degerman Gunnarsson, Malin
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Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Emami Khoonsari, P., Shevchenko, G., Herman, S., Remnestal, J., Giedraitis, V., Brundin, R., . . . Kultima, K. (2019). Improved Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease by Integrating ELISA and Mass Spectrometry-Based Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 67(2), 639-651
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease by Integrating ELISA and Mass Spectrometry-Based Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 639-651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is diagnosed based on a clinical evaluation as well as analyses of classical biomarkers: Aβ42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although the sensitivities and specificities of the classical biomarkers are fairly good for detection of AD, there is still a need to develop novel biochemical markers for early detection of AD.

Objective: We explored if integration of novel proteins with classical biomarkers in CSF can better discriminate AD from non-AD subjects.

Methods: We applied ELISA, mass spectrometry, and multivariate modeling to investigate classical biomarkers and the CSF proteome in subjects (n = 206) with 76 AD patients, 74 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, 11 frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients, and 45 non-dementia controls. The MCI patients were followed for 4–9 years and 21 of these converted to AD, whereas 53 remained stable.

Results: By combining classical CSF biomarkers with twelve novel markers, the area of the ROC curves (AUROCS) of distinguishing AD and MCI/AD converters from non-AD were 93% and 96%, respectively. The FTDs and non-dementia controls were identified versus all other groups with AUROCS of 96% and 87%, respectively.

Conclusions: Integration of new and classical CSF biomarkers in a model-based approach can improve the identification of AD, FTD, and non-dementia control subjects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS PRESS, 2019
Keywords
Alzheimer's disease, cerebrospinal fluid, ELISA, mass spectrometry, mild cognitive impairment, proteomics
National Category
Neurology Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377711 (URN)10.3233/JAD-180855 (DOI)000457779300016 ()30614806 (PubMedID)
Funder
VINNOVAGun och Bertil Stohnes StiftelseÅke Wiberg FoundationStiftelsen Gamla Tjänarinnor
Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Gunnarsson, M. D., Ingelsson, M., Blennow, K., Basun, H., Lannfelt, L. & Kilander, L. (2016). High tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid predict nursing home placement and rapid progression in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 8, Article ID 22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid predict nursing home placement and rapid progression in Alzheimer's disease
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2016 (English)In: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 1758-9193, Vol. 8, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Increased concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau, as well as decreased amyloid-beta 42 peptide, are biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, but few studies have shown an association with AD progression rate. We hypothesized that high CSF tau, as a marker of ongoing neurodegeneration, would predict a more aggressive course of AD, using time to nursing home placement (NHP) as the main outcome. Methods: Our sample inlcuded 234 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (n = 134) or mild to moderate AD (n = 100) who underwent lumbar puncture at a memory clinic and were followed for 2-11 years (median 4.9 years). Results: Individuals with CSF t-tau in the highest quartile (>= 900 ng/L) had a higher ratio of NHP, both in the total cohort and in patients with MCI only (adjusted HR 2.17 [95 % CI 1.24-3.80]; HR 2.37 [95 % CI 1.10-5.09], respectively), than the lowest quartile. The association between high t-tau levels and future steep deterioration was confirmed in analyses with conversion to moderate dementia (HR 1.66; 95 % CI 1.08-2.56), rapid decline in Mini Mental State Examination score (>= 4-point drop/12 months), and dying in severe dementia as outcomes. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that high CSF t-tau levels predict early NHP and conversion to moderate dementia in an AD cohort. Selecting patients with high CSF t-tau, indicating more aggressive neurodegeneration and steeper decline, for AD immunotherapy trials might increase the possibility of showing contrast between active treatment and placebo.

Keywords
Nursing home placement, NHP, Alzheimer's disease, CSF, Tau, p-tau, Amyloid-beta, Rapid decline, Moderate dementia, Death in severe dementia
National Category
Nursing Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298845 (URN)10.1186/s13195-016-0191-0 (DOI)000376959600001 ()
Available from: 2016-07-11 Created: 2016-07-11 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Degerman Gunnarsson, M., Lannfelt, L., Ingelsson, M., Basun, H. & Kilander, L. (2014). High Tau Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid Predict Rapid Decline and Increased Dementia Mortality in Alzheimer's Disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 37(3-4), 196-206
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Tau Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid Predict Rapid Decline and Increased Dementia Mortality in Alzheimer's Disease
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2014 (English)In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 37, no 3-4, p. 196-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta(42) (A beta(42)), total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are useful as predictors of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. However, results are contradictory as to whether these biomarkers reflect the future rate of clinical decline. Methods: This is a retrospective study on 196 patients with AD [mild/moderate AD (n = 72) or AD-MCI (n = 124) at baseline] with a follow-up period of 2-9 years' duration (median 6 years). Lumbar punctures were performed at baseline as a part of the diagnostic procedure. Results: We found an increased risk of rapid cognitive decline defined as a drop in the Mini-Mental State Examination score of = 4 points/year in patients with CSF t-tau concentrations above the median (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.53-7.16) and CSF p-tau above the median (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.21-5.26). Patients with CSF t-tau in the highest quartile had a higher risk of dying in severe dementia (HR 4.67, 95% CI 1.16-18.82). Conclusions: In this large AD cohort, we found an association between high levels of CSF t-tau and p-tau and a more aggressive course of the disease, measured as a rapid cognitive decline and a higher risk of dying in severe dementia.

Keywords
Alzheimer’s disease, tau, p-tau, beta-amyloid, CSF, rapid cognitive decline, dying in severe dementia, mortality
National Category
Geriatrics Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196964 (URN)10.1159/000355556 (DOI)000335227300006 ()
Available from: 2013-03-15 Created: 2013-03-15 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Degerman Gunnarsson, M. (2013). Biomarkers as Monitors of Drug Effect, Diagnostic Tools and Predictors of Deterioration Rate in Alzheimer’s Disease. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomarkers as Monitors of Drug Effect, Diagnostic Tools and Predictors of Deterioration Rate in Alzheimer’s Disease
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Decreased amyloid-ß42 (Aß42), increased total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflect histopathological core changes in the most common dementia disorder, Alzheimer’s disease (AD). They discriminate AD from healthy controls and predict conversion to AD with a relatively high accuracy. Memantine, an uncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, is indicated for symptomatic treatment of AD. The first aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of memantine on CSF concentrations of Aβ42, tau and p-tau. Secondly, the aim was to explore the relation between these CSF biomarkers and retention of the amyloid biomarker Pittsburgh compound B using positron emission tomography (PIB PET), regional glucose metabolism measured with 18Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET and neuropsychological test performance. The third aim was to investigate their possible utility as predictors of future rate of AD dementia deterioration. All patients in the studies were recruited from the Memory Clinic, Uppsala University Hospital. In study I CSF p-tau concentrations in 11 AD patients were reduced after twelve months treatment with memantine, indicating that this compound may affect a key pathological process in AD. Results from study II showed that the concentrations of CSF Aß42 are lower in PIB+ patients than in PIB- patients, and that the PIB retention was stable during 12 months. In study III 10 patients with the diagnoses AD (6 PIB+/4 PIB-) and 8 subjects (1 PIB+/7 PIB-) with frontotemporal dementia were included. PIB+ patients had lower psychomotor speed measured by performance on the Trail Making Test A and impaired visual episodic memory compared to the PIB- patients. The initial clinical diagnoses were changed in 33% of the patients (6/18) during follow-up. Study IV is the first-ever report of an association between high CSF tau and dying in severe dementia. These 196 AD patients were followed up to nine years after baseline lumbar puncture. Moreover, CSF t-tau concentrations above median was associated with an increased risk of rapid cognitive decline (OR 3.31 (95% CI 1.53-7.16), independently of baseline functional stage. Thus, a clear association between high levels of CSF t-tau and p-tau and a more aggressive course of the disease was shown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. p. 65
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 881
Keywords
Alzheimer's disease, biomarkers, CSF, PIB PET, amyloid-beta, tau, rapid cognitive decline, dying in severe dementia, mortality, neuropsychological tests
National Category
Geriatrics
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196965 (URN)978-91-554-8629-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-16, Enghoffsalen, Ingång 50, bv, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-04-24 Created: 2013-03-15 Last updated: 2013-08-30Bibliographically approved
Degerman Gunnarsson, M., Lindau, M., Santillo, A. F., Wall, A., Engler, H., Lannfelt, L., . . . Kilander, L. (2013). Re-evaluation of clinical dementia diagnoses with pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra, 3(1), 472-481
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-evaluation of clinical dementia diagnoses with pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography
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2013 (English)In: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra, ISSN 1664-5464, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 472-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES:

There is an overlap regarding Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) retention in patients clinically diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are any differences between PIB-positive and PIB-negative patients in a mixed cohort of patients with neurodegenerative dementia of mild severity regarding neuropsychological test performance and regional cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).

METHODS:

Eighteen patients clinically diagnosed as probable AD or frontotemporal dementia were examined with PIB PET, FDG PET and neuropsychological tests and followed for 5-9 years in a clinical setting.

RESULTS:

The PIB-positive patients (7 out of 18) had slower psychomotor speed and more impaired visual episodic memory than the PIB-negative patients; otherwise performance did not differ between the groups. The initial clinical diagnoses were changed in one third of the patients (6 out of 18) during follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

The subtle differences in neuropsychological performance, the overlap of hypometabolic patterns and clinical features between AD and non-AD dementia highlight the need for amyloid biomarkers and a readiness to re-evaluate the initial diagnosis.

National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-223235 (URN)10.1159/000356273 (DOI)24516415 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2014-06-05Bibliographically approved
Degerman Gunnarsson, M., Lindau, M., Wall, A., Blennow, K., Darreh-Shori, T., Basu, S., . . . Kilander, L. (2010). Pittsburgh compound-B and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in CSF, plasma and urine: An exploratory study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 29(3), 204-212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pittsburgh compound-B and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in CSF, plasma and urine: An exploratory study
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2010 (English)In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB) is an in vivo ligand for measuring β-amyloid (Aβ) load. Associations between PET PIB and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ1–42 and apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) have been observed in several studies, but the relations between PIB uptake and other biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are less investigated.

Method:

PET PIB, PET 18Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and different AD biomarkers were measured twice in CSF, plasma and urine 12 months apart in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of mild to moderate AD.

Results:

PIB retention was constant over 1 year, inversely related to low CSF Aβ1–42 (p = 0.01) and correlated positively to the numbers of the APOE ε4 allele (0, 1 or 2) (p = 0.02). There was a relation between mean PIB retention and CSF ApoE protein (r = –0.59, p = 0.07), and plasma cystatin C (r = –0.56, p = 0.09).

Conclusion:

PIB retention is strongly related to CSF Aβ1–42, and to the numbers of the APOE ε4 allele.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-132548 (URN)10.1159/000281832 (DOI)000276783100003 ()20332638 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-10-21 Created: 2010-10-21 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Sundelöf, J., Giedraitis, V., Irizarry, M. C., Sundström, J., Ingelsson, E., Rönnemaa, E., . . . Kilander, L. (2008). Plasma β Amyloid and the Risk of Alzheimer Disease and Dementia in Elderly Men: A Prospective, Population-Based Cohort Study. Archives of Neurology, 65(2), 256-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma β Amyloid and the Risk of Alzheimer Disease and Dementia in Elderly Men: A Prospective, Population-Based Cohort Study
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2008 (English)In: Archives of Neurology, ISSN 0003-9942, E-ISSN 1538-3687, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 256-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Beta amyloid (Abeta) protein accumulates in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) and is detectable in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. OBJECTIVE: To examine plasma levels of Abeta peptides Abeta(40) and Abeta(42) as predictors of incident AD and other types of dementia. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. PARTICIPANTS: Plasma Abeta(40) and Abeta(42) levels were analyzed as predictors of incident AD in 1045 men at age 70 years and 680 men at age 77 years using Cox proportional hazards analyses. Alzheimer disease and other types of dementia were diagnosed by standardized screening, clinical evaluation, and medical record review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard ratios of AD (primary outcome) and vascular dementia or other dementia (secondary outcomes) according to baseline levels of plasma Abeta(40) and Abeta(42). RESULTS: From the age of 77 years at baseline, 46 individuals developed AD at follow-up (median, 5.3 years). A low plasma Abeta(40) level at age 77 years was associated with higher incidence of AD. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio was 4.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.63-14.6) for the lowest Abeta(40) tertile compared with the highest tertile. On follow-up from age 70 years at baseline (median, 11.2 years), 82 individuals developed AD. Plasma Abeta(40) and Abeta(42) levels measured at age 70 years were not significantly associated with incident AD. CONCLUSIONS: Low plasma Abeta(40) levels predicted incident AD in elderly men independently of potential confounders. Plasma Abeta(42) levels were not significantly associated with AD incidence. The clinical value of Abeta measurement in plasma remains to be established in future studies.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-15781 (URN)10.1001/archneurol.2007.57 (DOI)000253058800015 ()18268197 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-03-05 Created: 2008-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Degerman Gunnarsson, M., Kilander, L., Basun, H. & Lannfelt, L. (2007). Reduction of Phosphorylated Tau during Memantine Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 24(4), 247-252
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of Phosphorylated Tau during Memantine Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease
2007 (English)In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 247-252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Memantine is a moderate affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated. However, no significant changes of phosphorylated tau levels in CSF are found at follow-up in studies with AD patients. It has been shown in vitro that memantine reverse induced abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau in hippocampal neurons of rats. Methods: Eleven AD patients were examined with cognitive tests and interviews of relatives. CSF analyses were performed before starting treatment with memantine as well as after 1 year. Results: A statistically significant reduction of CSF phosphorylated tau at the 1-year follow-up was seen, from median 126 (interquartile range 107-153) to 108 (88-133) ng/l (p = 0.018). No statistically significant differences of total tau or A42 were found. Conclusion: The results may reflect effects of memantine on a key pathological feature in AD in line with previous in vitro findings.

Keywords
Alzheimer's disease, Memantine, Phosphorylated tau, Cerebrospinal fluid
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-11724 (URN)10.1159/000107099 (DOI)000249536700002 ()17700020 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
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