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Sletvold, Nina
Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Chapurlat, E., Anderson, J., Ågren, J., Friberg, M. & Sletvold, N. (2018). Diel pattern of floral scent emission matches the relative importance of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in populations of Gymnadenia conopsea. Annals of Botany, 121, 711-721
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diel pattern of floral scent emission matches the relative importance of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in populations of Gymnadenia conopsea
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2018 (English)In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 121, p. 711-721Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims

Floral scent is considered an integral component of pollination syndromes, and its composition and timing of emission are thus expected to match the main pollinator type and time of activity. While floral scent differences among plant species with different pollination systems can be striking, studies on intraspecific variation are sparse, which limits our understanding of the role of pollinators in driving scent divergence.

Methods

Here, we used dynamic headspace sampling to quantify floral scent emission and composition during the day and at night in the natural habitat of six Scandinavian populations of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea. We tested whether diel scent emission and composition match pollinator type by comparing four populations in southern Sweden, where nocturnal pollinators are more important for plant reproductive success than are diurnal pollinators, with two populations in central Norway, where the opposite is true. To determine to what extent scent patterns quantified in the field reflected plasticity, we also measured scent emission in a common growth chamber environment.

Key Results

Both scent composition and emission rates differed markedly between day and night, but only the latter varied significantly among populations. The increase in scent emission rate at night was considerably stronger in the Swedish populations compared with the Norwegian populations. These patterns persisted when plants were transferred to a common environment, suggesting a genetic underpinning of the scent variation.

Conclusions

The results are consistent with a scenario where spatial variation in relative importance of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators has resulted in selection for different scent emission rhythms. Our study highlights the importance of adding a characterization of diel variation of scent emission rates to comparative studies of floral scent, which so far have often focused on scent composition only.

Keywords
diel variation, diurnal and nocturnal pollination, floral evolution, floral scent, geographic variation, Gymnadenia conopsea (fragrant orchid), plasticity, population differentiation, scent emission rate, scent rhythm, semi-generalkized pollination, spatial variation
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358243 (URN)10.1093/aob/mcx203 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-08-26 Created: 2018-08-26 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Shefferson, R. P., Kull, T., Hutchings, M. J., Selosse, M.-A., Jacquemyn, H., Kellett, K. M., . . . Whigham, D. F. (2018). Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species. Ecology Letters, 21(5), 724-733
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species
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2018 (English)In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 724-733Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for 1year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life-history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short-lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long-lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage loss is associated with higher future dormancy levels, suggesting that carbon limitation promotes dormancy. Maximum dormancy duration is shorter under higher precipitation and at higher latitudes, the latter suggesting an important role for competition or herbivory. Study length affects estimates of some demographic parameters. Our results identify life historical and environmental drivers of dormancy. We also highlight the evolutionary importance of the little understood costs of sprouting and growth, latitudinal stress gradients and mixed nutritional modes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
Adaptation, Asteraceae, bet-hedging, demography, herbivory, latitudinal gradient, Ophioglossaceae, Orchidaceae, stress
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352565 (URN)10.1111/ele.12940 (DOI)000430120400013 ()29575384 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2018-08-08Bibliographically approved
Siepielski, A. M., Morrissey, M. B., Buoro, M., Carlson, S. M., Caruso, C. M., Clegg, S. M., . . . MacColl, A. D. C. (2018). Response to Comment on "Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection". Science, 359(6374), Article ID eaan5760.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response to Comment on "Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection"
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2018 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6374, article id eaan5760Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The comment by Myers-Smith and Myers focuses on three main points: (i) the lack of a mechanistic explanation for climate-selection relationships, (ii) the appropriateness of the climate data used in our analysis, and (iii) our focus on estimating climate-selection relationships across (rather than within) taxonomic groups. We address these critiques in our response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2018
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350111 (URN)10.1126/science.aan5760 (DOI)000423283200002 ()
Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Trunschke, J., Sletvold, N. & Ågren, J. (2017). Interaction intensity and pollinator-mediated selection. New Phytologist, 214(3), 1381-1389
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction intensity and pollinator-mediated selection
2017 (English)In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, no 3, p. 1381-1389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In animal-pollinated plants, the opportunity for selection and the strength of pollinatormediated selection are expected to increase with the degree of pollen limitation. However, whether differences in pollen limitation can explain variation in pollinator-mediated and net selection among animal-pollinated species is poorly understood. In the present study, we quantified pollen limitation, variance in relative fitness and pollinator- mediated selection on five traits important for pollinator attraction (flowering start, plant height, flower number, flower size) and pollination efficiency (spur length) in natural populations of 12 orchid species. Pollinator-mediated selection was quantified by subtracting estimates of selection gradients for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination from estimates obtained for open-pollinated control plants. Mean pollen limitation ranged from zero to 0.96. Opportunity for selection, pollinatormediated selection and net selection were all positively related to pollen limitation, whereas nonpollinator-mediated selection was not. Opportunity for selection varied five-fold, strength of pollinator-mediated selection varied three-fold and net selection varied 1.5-fold among species. Supplemental hand-pollination reduced both opportunity for selection and selection on floral traits. The results show that the intensity of biotic interactions is an important determinant of the selection regime, and indicate that the potential for pollinator-mediated selection and divergence in floral traits is particularly high in species that are strongly pollen-limited.

Keywords
biotic interactions, natural selection, opportunity for selection, Orchidaceae, pollen limitation, pollinator-mediated selection
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-326362 (URN)10.1111/nph.14479 (DOI)000402403900041 ()28240377 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-07-10 Created: 2017-07-10 Last updated: 2018-04-24Bibliographically approved
Siepielski, A. M., Morrissey, M. B., Buoro, M., Carlson, S. M., Caruso, C. M., Clegg, S. M., . . . MacColl, A. D. C. (2017). Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection. Science, 355(6328), 959-962
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection
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2017 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6328, p. 959-962Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation-natural selection-are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By showing that selection was influenced by climate variation, our results indicate that climate change may cause widespread alterations in selection regimes, potentially shifting evolutionary trajectories at a global scale.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-318929 (URN)10.1126/science.aag2773 (DOI)000395181700041 ()28254943 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-05 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Sletvold, N., Tye, M. R. & Ågren, J. (2017). Resource- and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits. Functional Ecology, 31(1), 135-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource- and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits
2017 (English)In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

1. Female reproductive success is predicted to be simultaneously limited by the availability of pollen and resources. Selection on floral traits results from both factors, but their relative importance and interaction is poorly understood. 2. We increased nutrient and pollen availability of the orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in a factorial experiment to quantify resource-and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits. Hand-pollination increased female fitness (number of fruits 9 mean fruit mass) by 74% in both nutrient treatments, whereas nutrient addition did not significantly affect female fitness. 3. There was selection for more flowers and longer spurs, and selection on spur length was significantly pollinator-mediated and of similar strength across nutrient treatments (Delta beta(poll) = 0.54 and Delta beta(poll_NPK) = 0.59). There was no statistically significant resource-mediated selection. Nutrient addition increased flower size the following year, but did not affect flower or fruit production, or selection on any trait. 4. The results demonstrate that D. lapponica does not increase flower production in response to nutrient addition, that the increase in female fitness in response to hand-pollination is not resource limited, and suggest that natural resource variation does not influence selection on floral traits. The study illustrates that crossed manipulations of pollen and resources can clarify their relative importance for selection on floral traits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2017
Keywords
biotic interactions, floral display, hand-pollination, natural selection, nutrient-addition, pollen limitation, resource limitation
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319811 (URN)10.1111/1365-2435.12757 (DOI)000394372700015 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-04-10 Created: 2017-04-10 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Caruso, C. M., Martin, R. A., Sletvold, N., Morrissey, M. B., Wade, M. J., Augustine, K. E., . . . Kingsolver, J. G. (2017). What Are the Environmental Determinants of Phenotypic Selection?: A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies. American Naturalist, 190(3), 363-376
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Are the Environmental Determinants of Phenotypic Selection?: A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies
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2017 (English)In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 190, no 3, p. 363-376Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although many selection estimates have been published, the environmental factors that cause selection to vary in space and time have rarely been identified. One way to identify these factors is by experimentally manipulating the environment and measuring selection in each treatment. We compiled and analyzed selection estimates from experimental studies. First, we tested whether the effect of manipulating the environment on selection gradients depends on taxon, trait type, or fitness component. We found that the effect of manipulating the environment was larger when selection was measured on life-history traits or via survival. Second, we tested two predictions about the environmental factors that cause variation in selection. We found support for the prediction that variation in selection is more likely to be caused by environmental factors that have a large effect on mean fitness but not for the prediction that variation is more likely to be caused by biotic factors. Third, we compared selection gradients from experimental and observational studies. We found that selection varied more among treatments in experimental studies than among spatial and temporal replicates in observational studies, suggesting that experimental studies can detect relationships between environmental factors and selection that would not be apparent in observational studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Chicago Press, 2017
Keywords
causes of selection, directional selection, fitness, natural selection, selection gradient
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330542 (URN)10.1086/692760 (DOI)000408203700007 ()28829646 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Dahlgren, J. P., Colchero, F., Jones, O. R., Oien, D.-I., Moen, A. & Sletvold, N. (2016). Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 283(1842), Article ID 20161217.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1842, article id 20161217Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence-an increase in death rate with advancing age-is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to test whether individuals of this tuberous orchid senesce. We performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis accounting for reproductive investment, for individuals under two types of land use, in two climatic regions. The mortality trajectory was best approximated by a Weibull model, showing clear actuarial senescence. Rates of senescence in this model declined with advancing age, but were slightly higher in mown plots and in the more benign climatic region. At older ages, senescence was evident only when accounting for a positive effect of reproductive investment on mortality. Our results demonstrate actuarial senescence as well as a survival-reproduction trade-off in plants, and indicate that environmental context may influence senescence rates. This knowledge is crucial for understanding the evolution of demographic senescence and for models of plant population dynamics.

Keywords
demographic senescence, demography, life-history theory, mortality, rate of ageing, survival-reproduction trade-off
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312085 (URN)10.1098/rspb.2016.1217 (DOI)000388718700003 ()
Available from: 2017-02-03 Created: 2017-01-04 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Videvall, E., Sletvold, N., Hagenblad, J., Ågren, J. & Hansson, B. (2016). Strong Maternal Effects on Gene Expression in Arabidopsis lyrata Hybrids. Molecular biology and evolution, 33(4), 984-994
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strong Maternal Effects on Gene Expression in Arabidopsis lyrata Hybrids
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2016 (English)In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 984-994Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hybridization between populations or species can have pronounced fitness consequences. Yet little is known about how hybridization affects gene regulation. Three main models have been put forward to explain gene expression patterns in hybrids: additive, dominance, or parental effects. Here, we use high throughput RNA-sequencing to examine the extent to which hybrid gene expression follows predictions by each of the three models. We performed a reciprocal crossing experiment between two differentiated populations of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata and sequenced RNA in rosette leaves of 12-week-old plants grown in greenhouse conditions. The two parental populations had highly differentiated gene expression patterns. In hybrids, a majority of genes showed intermediate expression relative to that of their parental populations (i.e., additive effects), but expression was frequently more similar to the maternal than to their paternal population (i.e., maternal effects). Allele-specific expression analyses showed that in the vast majority of cases, genes with pronounced maternal effect expressed both the maternal and the paternal allele. Maternal effects on hybrid gene expression have rarely been documented previously and our study suggests it could be more common than previously assumed. Whether the maternal effect on gene expression persists to later life-stages, and whether the variation in gene expression is manifested in other aspects of the phenotype, remain to be elucidated. Our findings are relevant for understanding the consequences of outbreeding and hybridization and open up several questions for future studies.

Keywords
hybridization, gene expression, maternal effect, additive effect, Arabidopsis lyrata, RNA-Seq
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-296868 (URN)10.1093/molbev/msv342 (DOI)000374226700011 ()26685177 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Crafoord Foundation
Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Sletvold, N., Trunschke, J., Smit, M., Verbeek, J. & Ågren, J. (2016). Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid. Evolution, 70(3), 716-724
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid
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2016 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 716-724Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Contrasting flower color patterns that putatively attract or direct pollinators toward a reward are common among angiosperms. In the deceptive orchid Anacamptis morio, the lower petal, which makes up most of the floral display, has a light central patch with dark markings. Within populations, there is pronounced variation in petal brightness, patch size, amount of dark markings, and contrast between patch and petal margin. We tested whether pollinators mediate selection on these color traits and on morphology (plant height, number of flowers, corolla size, spur length), and whether selection is consistent with facilitated or negative frequency-dependent pollination. Pollinators mediated strong selection for increased petal brightness (Delta beta(poll) = 0.42) and contrast (Delta beta(poll) = 0.51). Pollinators also tended to mediate stabilizing selection on brightness (Delta gamma(poll) = -0.27, n.s.) favoring the most common phenotype in the population. Selection for reduced petal brightness among hand-pollinated plants indicated a fitness cost associated with brightness. The results demonstrate that flower color traits influence pollination success and seed production in A. morio, indicating that they affect attractiveness to pollinators, efficiency of pollen transfer, or both. The documented selection is consistent with facilitated pollination and selection for color convergence toward cooccurring rewarding species.

Keywords
Anacamptis morio, facilitation, floral evolution, flower color, natural selection, plant-animal interactions, pollination by deceit
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-294330 (URN)10.1111/evo.12881 (DOI)000372464600016 ()26878831 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
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