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Sletvold, Nina
Publications (10 of 25) Show all publications
Siepielski, A. M., Morrissey, M. B., Buoro, M., Carlson, S. M., Caruso, C. M., Clegg, S. M., . . . MacColl, A. D. C. (2018). Response to Comment on "Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection". Science, 359(6374), Article ID eaan5760.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response to Comment on "Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection"
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2018 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6374, article id eaan5760Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The comment by Myers-Smith and Myers focuses on three main points: (i) the lack of a mechanistic explanation for climate-selection relationships, (ii) the appropriateness of the climate data used in our analysis, and (iii) our focus on estimating climate-selection relationships across (rather than within) taxonomic groups. We address these critiques in our response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2018
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350111 (URN)10.1126/science.aan5760 (DOI)000423283200002 ()
Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Trunschke, J., Sletvold, N. & Ågren, J. (2017). Interaction intensity and pollinator-mediated selection. New Phytologist, 214(3), 1381-1389
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction intensity and pollinator-mediated selection
2017 (English)In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, no 3, p. 1381-1389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In animal-pollinated plants, the opportunity for selection and the strength of pollinatormediated selection are expected to increase with the degree of pollen limitation. However, whether differences in pollen limitation can explain variation in pollinator-mediated and net selection among animal-pollinated species is poorly understood. In the present study, we quantified pollen limitation, variance in relative fitness and pollinator- mediated selection on five traits important for pollinator attraction (flowering start, plant height, flower number, flower size) and pollination efficiency (spur length) in natural populations of 12 orchid species. Pollinator-mediated selection was quantified by subtracting estimates of selection gradients for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination from estimates obtained for open-pollinated control plants. Mean pollen limitation ranged from zero to 0.96. Opportunity for selection, pollinatormediated selection and net selection were all positively related to pollen limitation, whereas nonpollinator-mediated selection was not. Opportunity for selection varied five-fold, strength of pollinator-mediated selection varied three-fold and net selection varied 1.5-fold among species. Supplemental hand-pollination reduced both opportunity for selection and selection on floral traits. The results show that the intensity of biotic interactions is an important determinant of the selection regime, and indicate that the potential for pollinator-mediated selection and divergence in floral traits is particularly high in species that are strongly pollen-limited.

Keywords
biotic interactions, natural selection, opportunity for selection, Orchidaceae, pollen limitation, pollinator-mediated selection
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-326362 (URN)10.1111/nph.14479 (DOI)000402403900041 ()28240377 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-07-10 Created: 2017-07-10 Last updated: 2018-04-24Bibliographically approved
Siepielski, A. M., Morrissey, M. B., Buoro, M., Carlson, S. M., Caruso, C. M., Clegg, S. M., . . . MacColl, A. D. C. (2017). Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection. Science, 355(6328), 959-962
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection
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2017 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6328, p. 959-962Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation-natural selection-are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By showing that selection was influenced by climate variation, our results indicate that climate change may cause widespread alterations in selection regimes, potentially shifting evolutionary trajectories at a global scale.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-318929 (URN)10.1126/science.aag2773 (DOI)000395181700041 ()28254943 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-05 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Sletvold, N., Tye, M. R. & Ågren, J. (2017). Resource- and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits. Functional Ecology, 31(1), 135-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource- and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits
2017 (English)In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

1. Female reproductive success is predicted to be simultaneously limited by the availability of pollen and resources. Selection on floral traits results from both factors, but their relative importance and interaction is poorly understood. 2. We increased nutrient and pollen availability of the orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in a factorial experiment to quantify resource-and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits. Hand-pollination increased female fitness (number of fruits 9 mean fruit mass) by 74% in both nutrient treatments, whereas nutrient addition did not significantly affect female fitness. 3. There was selection for more flowers and longer spurs, and selection on spur length was significantly pollinator-mediated and of similar strength across nutrient treatments (Delta beta(poll) = 0.54 and Delta beta(poll_NPK) = 0.59). There was no statistically significant resource-mediated selection. Nutrient addition increased flower size the following year, but did not affect flower or fruit production, or selection on any trait. 4. The results demonstrate that D. lapponica does not increase flower production in response to nutrient addition, that the increase in female fitness in response to hand-pollination is not resource limited, and suggest that natural resource variation does not influence selection on floral traits. The study illustrates that crossed manipulations of pollen and resources can clarify their relative importance for selection on floral traits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2017
Keywords
biotic interactions, floral display, hand-pollination, natural selection, nutrient-addition, pollen limitation, resource limitation
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319811 (URN)10.1111/1365-2435.12757 (DOI)000394372700015 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-04-10 Created: 2017-04-10 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Caruso, C. M., Martin, R. A., Sletvold, N., Morrissey, M. B., Wade, M. J., Augustine, K. E., . . . Kingsolver, J. G. (2017). What Are the Environmental Determinants of Phenotypic Selection?: A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies. American Naturalist, 190(3), 363-376
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Are the Environmental Determinants of Phenotypic Selection?: A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies
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2017 (English)In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 190, no 3, p. 363-376Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although many selection estimates have been published, the environmental factors that cause selection to vary in space and time have rarely been identified. One way to identify these factors is by experimentally manipulating the environment and measuring selection in each treatment. We compiled and analyzed selection estimates from experimental studies. First, we tested whether the effect of manipulating the environment on selection gradients depends on taxon, trait type, or fitness component. We found that the effect of manipulating the environment was larger when selection was measured on life-history traits or via survival. Second, we tested two predictions about the environmental factors that cause variation in selection. We found support for the prediction that variation in selection is more likely to be caused by environmental factors that have a large effect on mean fitness but not for the prediction that variation is more likely to be caused by biotic factors. Third, we compared selection gradients from experimental and observational studies. We found that selection varied more among treatments in experimental studies than among spatial and temporal replicates in observational studies, suggesting that experimental studies can detect relationships between environmental factors and selection that would not be apparent in observational studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Chicago Press, 2017
Keywords
causes of selection, directional selection, fitness, natural selection, selection gradient
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330542 (URN)10.1086/692760 (DOI)000408203700007 ()28829646 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Dahlgren, J. P., Colchero, F., Jones, O. R., Oien, D.-I., Moen, A. & Sletvold, N. (2016). Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 283(1842), Article ID 20161217.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1842, article id 20161217Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence-an increase in death rate with advancing age-is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to test whether individuals of this tuberous orchid senesce. We performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis accounting for reproductive investment, for individuals under two types of land use, in two climatic regions. The mortality trajectory was best approximated by a Weibull model, showing clear actuarial senescence. Rates of senescence in this model declined with advancing age, but were slightly higher in mown plots and in the more benign climatic region. At older ages, senescence was evident only when accounting for a positive effect of reproductive investment on mortality. Our results demonstrate actuarial senescence as well as a survival-reproduction trade-off in plants, and indicate that environmental context may influence senescence rates. This knowledge is crucial for understanding the evolution of demographic senescence and for models of plant population dynamics.

Keywords
demographic senescence, demography, life-history theory, mortality, rate of ageing, survival-reproduction trade-off
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312085 (URN)10.1098/rspb.2016.1217 (DOI)000388718700003 ()
Available from: 2017-02-03 Created: 2017-01-04 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Videvall, E., Sletvold, N., Hagenblad, J., Ågren, J. & Hansson, B. (2016). Strong Maternal Effects on Gene Expression in Arabidopsis lyrata Hybrids. Molecular biology and evolution, 33(4), 984-994
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strong Maternal Effects on Gene Expression in Arabidopsis lyrata Hybrids
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2016 (English)In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 984-994Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hybridization between populations or species can have pronounced fitness consequences. Yet little is known about how hybridization affects gene regulation. Three main models have been put forward to explain gene expression patterns in hybrids: additive, dominance, or parental effects. Here, we use high throughput RNA-sequencing to examine the extent to which hybrid gene expression follows predictions by each of the three models. We performed a reciprocal crossing experiment between two differentiated populations of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata and sequenced RNA in rosette leaves of 12-week-old plants grown in greenhouse conditions. The two parental populations had highly differentiated gene expression patterns. In hybrids, a majority of genes showed intermediate expression relative to that of their parental populations (i.e., additive effects), but expression was frequently more similar to the maternal than to their paternal population (i.e., maternal effects). Allele-specific expression analyses showed that in the vast majority of cases, genes with pronounced maternal effect expressed both the maternal and the paternal allele. Maternal effects on hybrid gene expression have rarely been documented previously and our study suggests it could be more common than previously assumed. Whether the maternal effect on gene expression persists to later life-stages, and whether the variation in gene expression is manifested in other aspects of the phenotype, remain to be elucidated. Our findings are relevant for understanding the consequences of outbreeding and hybridization and open up several questions for future studies.

Keywords
hybridization, gene expression, maternal effect, additive effect, Arabidopsis lyrata, RNA-Seq
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-296868 (URN)10.1093/molbev/msv342 (DOI)000374226700011 ()26685177 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Crafoord Foundation
Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Sletvold, N., Trunschke, J., Smit, M., Verbeek, J. & Ågren, J. (2016). Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid. Evolution, 70(3), 716-724
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid
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2016 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 716-724Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Contrasting flower color patterns that putatively attract or direct pollinators toward a reward are common among angiosperms. In the deceptive orchid Anacamptis morio, the lower petal, which makes up most of the floral display, has a light central patch with dark markings. Within populations, there is pronounced variation in petal brightness, patch size, amount of dark markings, and contrast between patch and petal margin. We tested whether pollinators mediate selection on these color traits and on morphology (plant height, number of flowers, corolla size, spur length), and whether selection is consistent with facilitated or negative frequency-dependent pollination. Pollinators mediated strong selection for increased petal brightness (Delta beta(poll) = 0.42) and contrast (Delta beta(poll) = 0.51). Pollinators also tended to mediate stabilizing selection on brightness (Delta gamma(poll) = -0.27, n.s.) favoring the most common phenotype in the population. Selection for reduced petal brightness among hand-pollinated plants indicated a fitness cost associated with brightness. The results demonstrate that flower color traits influence pollination success and seed production in A. morio, indicating that they affect attractiveness to pollinators, efficiency of pollen transfer, or both. The documented selection is consistent with facilitated pollination and selection for color convergence toward cooccurring rewarding species.

Keywords
Anacamptis morio, facilitation, floral evolution, flower color, natural selection, plant-animal interactions, pollination by deceit
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-294330 (URN)10.1111/evo.12881 (DOI)000372464600016 ()26878831 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Sletvold, N., Moritz, K. K. & Ågren, J. (2015). Additive effects of pollinators and herbivores result in both conflicting and reinforcing selection on floral traits. Ecology, 96(1), 214-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive effects of pollinators and herbivores result in both conflicting and reinforcing selection on floral traits
2015 (English)In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mutualists and antagonists are known to respond to similar floral cues, and may thus cause opposing selection on floral traits. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of their independent and interactive effects. In a population of the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the intensity of pollination and herbivory in a factorial design to examine whether both interactions influence selection on flowering phenology, floral display, and morphology. Supplemental hand-pollination increased female fitness by 31% and one-quarter of all plants were damaged by herbivores. Both interactions contributed to selection. Pollinators mediated selection for later flowering and herbivores for earlier flowering, while both selected for longer spurs. The strength of selection was similar for both agents, and their effects were additive. As a consequence, there was no net selection on phenology, whereas selection on spur length was strong. The experimental results demonstrate that both pollinators and herbivores can markedly influence the strength of selection on flowering phenology and floral morphology, and cause both conflicting and reinforcing selection. They also indicate that the direction of selection on phenology will vary with the relative intensity of the mutualistic and antagonistic interaction, potentially resulting in both temporal and among-population variation in optimal flowering time.

Keywords
factorial experiment, floral herbivory, Gymnadenia conopsea, herbivore-mediated selection, interaction intensity, natural selection, phenology, plant-animal interactions, pollen limitation, pollinator-mediated selection, rewarding orchid, selection gradients
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247182 (URN)10.1890/14-0119.1.sm (DOI)000349198900024 ()
Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Sletvold, N. & Ågren, J. (2015). Climate-dependent costs of reproduction: Survival and fecundity costs decline with length of the growing season and summer temperature. Ecology Letters, 18(4), 357-364
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate-dependent costs of reproduction: Survival and fecundity costs decline with length of the growing season and summer temperature
2015 (English)In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Costs of reproduction are expected to vary with environmental conditions thus influencing selection on life-history traits. Yet, the effects of habitat conditions and climate on trade-offs among fitness components remain poorly understood. For 2-5years, we quantified costs of experimentally increased reproduction in two populations (coastal long-season vs. inland short-season) of two long-lived orchids that differ in natural reproductive effort (RE; 30 vs. 75% fruit set). In both species, survival costs were found only at the short-season site, whereas growth and fecundity costs were evident at both sites, and both survival and fecundity costs declined with increasing growing season length and/or summer temperature. The results suggest that the expression of costs of reproduction depend on the local climate, and that climate warming could result in selection favouring increased RE in both study species.

Keywords
climate change, context-dependent trade-off, Dactylorhiza lapponica, fitness component, Gymnadenia conopsea, life-history evolution, reproductive effort
National Category
Ecology Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258824 (URN)10.1111/ele.12417 (DOI)000351619500005 ()25711515 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-07-23 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
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