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Gustavsson, Gina
Publications (10 of 39) Show all publications
Gustavsson, G. (2019). Kulturdebatt:: Såhär firar en liberal nationalist sjätte juni. Dagens Nyheter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kulturdebatt:: Såhär firar en liberal nationalist sjätte juni
2019 (Swedish)In: Dagens NyheterArticle in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390399 (URN)
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2020-02-18Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, G. (2019). Liberal national identity: thinner than conservative, thicker than civic?. Ethnicities, 19(4), 693-711
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liberal national identity: thinner than conservative, thicker than civic?
2019 (English)In: Ethnicities, ISSN 1468-7968, E-ISSN 1741-2706, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 693-711Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many of the political debates in Europe call for the strengthening of a national identity that is, somewhat paradoxically, described in universal liberal terms. Yet previous research has not been able to tell to which extent these conceptions of national identity are indeed liberal. This is because we lack an analytical tool that allows liberal conceptions of national identity to be separated from for example conservative ones. There is also a pervasive yet questionable assumption that the more liberal a national identity is the less it can per definition be truly national. This paper seeks to remedy this gap, by bridging the literature on these empirical trends of civic integration with the normative debates surrounding liberal nationalism The result is a tripartite typology for the conceptions of national identity in conservative nationalism, liberal nationalism, and constitutional patriotism, respectively. Each is specified along the following dimensions: (1) whether the sense of national belonging is defined by vertical or horizontal ties; (2) whether the national history is to be revered, taken as a starting point, or critically scrutinised; (3) whether the legitimate place for the shared activity by which the national identity is upheld excludes the private or even the public non-political sphere; (4) whether we are asked to cultivate feelings of piety or loyalty to the homeland; and (5) whether or not the shared public culture of the nation is considered changeable and enforceable. Policy implications for individual rights, immigration and cultural minorities are also discussed.

Keywords
liberal nationalism, constitutional patriotism, civic nationalism, ethnic nationalism, civic integration, public culture, religious establishment, national identity, conservative nationalism
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379191 (URN)10.1177/1468796819843542 (DOI)000482353300006 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 330-2014-6442
Available from: 2019-03-13 Created: 2019-03-13 Last updated: 2020-02-06Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, G. & Miller, D. (Eds.). (2019). Liberal Nationalism and Its Critics: Normative and Empirical Questions. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liberal Nationalism and Its Critics: Normative and Empirical Questions
2019 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The thesis of liberal nationalism is that national identities can serve as a source of unity in culturally diverse liberal societies, thereby lending support to democracy and social justice.  The chapters in this book examine that thesis from both normative and empirical perspectives, in the latter case using survey data or psychological experiments from the U.S., Canada, the Netherlands, Denmark, France and the UK.  They explore how people understand what it means to belong to their nation, and show that different aspects of national attachment – national identity, national pride and national chauvinism – have contrasting effects on support for redistribution and on attitudes towards immigrants.  The psychological mechanisms that may explain why people’s identity matters for their willingness to extend support to others are examined in depth.   Equally important is how the potential recipients of such support are perceived.  ‘Ethnic’ and ‘civic’ conceptions of national identity are often contrasted, but the empirical basis for such a distinction is shown to be weak.  In their place, a cultural conception of national identity is explored, and defended against the charge that it is ‘essentialist’ and therefore exclusive of minorities.  Particular attention is given to the role that religion can legitimately play within such identities.  Finally the book examines the challenges involved in integrating immigrants, dual nationals and other minorities into the national community.  It shows that although these groups mostly share the liberal values of the majority, their full inclusion depends on whether they are seen as committed and trustworthy members of the national ‘we’.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
chauvinism, culture, essentialism, immigrants, liberal nationalism, national identity, pride, religion, solidarity, trust
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379193 (URN)9780198842545 (ISBN)9780192580139 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-03-13 Created: 2019-03-13 Last updated: 2020-04-14Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, G. (2019). National Attachment – Cohesive Divisive, or Both?: A Reconsideration of the National Identity Argument through the Lens of Social Identity Theory. In: Gustavsson, Gina; Miller, David (Ed.), Liberal Nationalism and Its Critics: Normative and Empirical Questions (pp. 59-77). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>National Attachment – Cohesive Divisive, or Both?: A Reconsideration of the National Identity Argument through the Lens of Social Identity Theory
2019 (English)In: Liberal Nationalism and Its Critics: Normative and Empirical Questions / [ed] Gustavsson, Gina; Miller, David, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019, p. 59-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

What are the implications of the psychological research on social identities for the national identity argument? A large number of empirical studies of in-group sympathy and helpfulness, this chapter argues, suggest that the sheer strength of a person’s national attachment should increase her solidarity with her co-nationals. Contrary to what has recently been argued, this relationship is likely to be independent of how a) she conceives of the content of that identity, and b) the extent to which she believes that her co-nationals in turn share this commitment. Viewing nationhood as a social identity further implies that we should distinguish between three dimensions of national attachment: national identity, national pride, and national chauvinism. Having thus theoretically nuanced the expectations that underpin the national identity argument, the chapter proceeds to test them empirically. It uses survey data from the Netherlands (LISS), a more relevant context for liberal nationalists, it is argued, than the more typically studied cases of the U.S. and Canada. While the three-dimensional structure of national attachment is similar to the one previously found in the US, in the Dutch case there are also significant relationships between national attachment and support for egalitarianism, even when controlling for ideology. In line with the theoretical expectations, national identity turns out to be consistently related to more willingness to share resources with our co-nationals. National pride on the contrary shows a negative link to redistributive solidarity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
national attachment, national identity, national pride, national chauvinism, national identity argument, egalitarianism, redistributive solidarity, LISS, liberal nationalism, social identity theory
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379195 (URN)9780198842545 (ISBN)9780192580139 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-03-13 Created: 2019-03-13 Last updated: 2020-03-31Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, G., Van der Noll, J. & Sundberg, R. (2016). Opposing the Veil in the Name of Liberalism: Popular Attitudes to Liberalism and Muslim Veiling in the Netherlands. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(10), 1719-1737
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opposing the Veil in the Name of Liberalism: Popular Attitudes to Liberalism and Muslim Veiling in the Netherlands
2016 (English)In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1719-1737Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Is popular antagonism towards Muslim veils in Europe rooted in an exclusionary ‘enlightenment liberalism’? By examining different conceptions of liberalism and readings of veiling in a Dutch survey from 2014, we present the first study that investigates this question empirically. We thus bring together two hitherto largely unconnected literatures. The first is the work on immigration and ethnicity, which has shown the centrality of enlightenment liberalism in anti-Muslim media and policy discourses. The second is the literature on anti-Muslim attitudes in public opinion, which explains support for veil bans as the result of perceiving veils as threatening the respondent's own, supposedly liberal, values – but has failed to distinguish between different conceptions of liberalism and thus reached inconclusive results. This, we show, can be remedied by distinguishing between ‘enlightenment liberals’, who hold negative attitudes, and ‘reformation liberals’, who hold positive attitudes towards Muslim veils.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265991 (URN)10.1080/01419870.2015.1124126 (DOI)000380368000001 ()
External cooperation:
Available from: 2015-11-04 Created: 2015-11-04 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, G. (2015). A Romantic Reading of the French ‘Burqa Ban’: Liberty as Self-Expression and the Symbolism of Uncovered Faces in the French Debate on Full Veils. Confluence: online journal of world philosophies, 2, 88-106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Romantic Reading of the French ‘Burqa Ban’: Liberty as Self-Expression and the Symbolism of Uncovered Faces in the French Debate on Full Veils
2015 (English)In: Confluence: online journal of world philosophies, ISSN 2199-0360, Vol. 2, p. 88-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper suggests that in order to understand the recent ban in France against covering one’s face in public, we need to move beyondthe theoretical frameworks typically applied to the more researched 'headscarf ban' of 2004. Previous research tends to interpret the 'burqa ban' as yet another attempt to impose republican unity and order over what was taken to be the excessive and divisive self-expression manifested by the Muslim veil. It has recently been suggested, however,that it might be more fruitful to approach the debate through a rather different theoretical lens: the Romantic ideal of liberty as self-expression, the original target of Isaiah Berlin’s warnings that positive liberty invites tyranny under the very banner of liberation. The paper follows up on this suggestion by revisiting the report that recommended the 2010 ban on full veils to the National Assembly. More specifically, it analyzes the section of the report in which it is argued that there is something special about faces, which requires usto keep them uncovered. This reasoning, it is argued, does indeed seem to be rooted in a Romantic understanding of liberty and human dignity, and in the fear that full veils suppress rather than express each individual’s unique self. The ban on full veils must thus also be understood as an attempt, whether misguided or not, to promote the self-expression of veiled women – not curb it, as previous research has nevertheless often assumed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Freiburg: Verlag Karl Alber, 2015
Keywords
veil, Romanticism, Isaiah Berlin, republicanism, liberty, self-expression
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240251 (URN)
Projects
The Impact of Religion
Note

ISBN: 978-3-451-10350-6

Available from: 2015-01-06 Created: 2015-01-06 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Van der Noll, J. & Gustavsson, G. (2015). Anti-religiosity and Islamophobia in the name of enlightenment values. In: The International Society for Political Psychology Annual Meeting, San Diego, July 3-6, 2015: . Paper presented at The International Society for Political Psychology Annual Meeting, San Diego, July 3-6, 2015. San Diego
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-religiosity and Islamophobia in the name of enlightenment values
2015 (English)In: The International Society for Political Psychology Annual Meeting, San Diego, July 3-6, 2015, San Diego, 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Diego: , 2015
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255667 (URN)
Conference
The International Society for Political Psychology Annual Meeting, San Diego, July 3-6, 2015
Available from: 2015-06-17 Created: 2015-06-17 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, G. (2015). Liberal national identity: thinner than conservative, thicker than civic – but in terms of what?. In: ECPR Joint Sessions, Warsaw, April 2015. Workshop: The Civic Turn in European Immigrant Integration Policies: . Paper presented at ECPR Joint Sessions, Warsaw, March 30th-April 2nd 2015. Colchester: European Consortium for Political Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liberal national identity: thinner than conservative, thicker than civic – but in terms of what?
2015 (English)In: ECPR Joint Sessions, Warsaw, April 2015. Workshop: The Civic Turn in European Immigrant Integration Policies, Colchester: European Consortium for Political Research , 2015, p. -16Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Contemporary European policies and discourses regarding immigration and citizenship seem to be increasingly oriented towards strengthening the national identity. The typologies and analytical frameworks typically used to make sense of these trends, however, are in dire need of further elaboration. The goal of this paper is to help in this endeavour. The pre-dominant analytical approach for a long time has been to separate between ‘civic’ and ’ethnic’ national identities, and to assume that the more liberal and universalistic their content, the less nationalistic they are per definition, and vice versa. A great deal of recent research has suggested we need to go beyond these dichotomies, however – both because they are theoretically too crude, and because they hamper rather than help us in understanding the trend of purportedly universal liberal values being invoked as the very basis for exclusive, particularistic national identities after all (cf. Mouritsen & Olsen 2013). The most recent solution suggested by previous research is to leave the content of national identities aside altogether, and instead focus entirely on whether the boundaries of a given national identity are constructed in a voluntaristic or a deterministic way (Kriegbaum Jensen, 2014; Laegaard, 2007; Zimmer, 2003). In contrast, while this paper agrees with the need to go beyond the civic-ethnic and liberal-nationalist dichotomies, it offers an alternative solution to the problem. Instead of discarding ideal types like civic or ethnic nationalism as analytical categories altogether, I propose they can be further nuanced, by bringing in the literature in political theory that differentiates between ‘conservative nationalism’, ‘liberal nationalism’ and ‘civic patriotism’. These ideal types, I argue, can be spelled out along five different dimensions – and a number of additional policy dimensions – that the theoretical literature has failed to specify. Doing so allows us to create an analytical tool that is likely to help future research analyze and assess contemporary national identity trends in a way that connects the discussion to normative theory, especially regarding the recent empirical cases where liberal values are presented in a nationalistic way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Colchester: European Consortium for Political Research, 2015
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248707 (URN)
Conference
ECPR Joint Sessions, Warsaw, March 30th-April 2nd 2015
Projects
Liberal Nationalism in the Welfare State: Bridging the Gap Between Political Theory and Political Psychology on National Identity and Economic Solidarity
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, G. (2015). Reply to Crowder. Review of Politics, 77(2), 279-284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reply to Crowder
2015 (English)In: Review of Politics, ISSN 0034-6705, E-ISSN 1748-6858, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 279-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238245 (URN)10.1017/S0034670515000078 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, G. (2014). Banning the Muslim Veil in the Name of Liberty – But Liberty of What Kind?. In: ECPR General Conference, Glasgow, September 2014: . Paper presented at ECPR General Conference, Glasgow, September 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Banning the Muslim Veil in the Name of Liberty – But Liberty of What Kind?
2014 (English)In: ECPR General Conference, Glasgow, September 2014, 2014Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248708 (URN)
Conference
ECPR General Conference, Glasgow, September 2014
Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-11
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