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Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Kang, O. & Kao, P. (2019). Contextual Transfer Barriers, Social Interaction, and Innovation Transfer Performance. In: Agnieszka Chidlow; Pervez N.Ghauri; Thomas Buckley; Emma C. Gardner; Amir Qamar; Emily Pickering (Ed.), The Changing Strategies of International Business: (pp. 73-94). Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contextual Transfer Barriers, Social Interaction, and Innovation Transfer Performance
2019 (English)In: The Changing Strategies of International Business / [ed] Agnieszka Chidlow; Pervez N.Ghauri; Thomas Buckley; Emma C. Gardner; Amir Qamar; Emily Pickering, Palgrave Macmillan , 2019, p. 73-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter explores and explains the influence of social interaction on multinational corporations (MNCs) dealing with contextual transfer barriers. A sequential mixed-method research design is adopted to include both quantitative and qualitative studies on MNCs and their innovation transfer projects. The findings show that social interactions can improve transfer effectiveness when differences exist in market conditions, technology standard, and cultural and institutional settings in sender’s and receiver’s countries, as the social capital accumulated through individual connections can facilitate the quality of knowledge sharing. However, the transfer efficiency might be jeopardized because of the time and resource spent on the social interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2019
Series
The Academy of International Business book series (AIB)
Keywords
Innovation transfer, Knowledge sharing, Social interaction, Contextual transfer barrier, Mixed-method
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380165 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-03931-8_4 (DOI)978-3-030-03930-1 (ISBN)978-3-030-03931-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Johanson, M. & Kao, P. T. (2015). Emerging market entry and institutional change – three Swedish manufacturing firms in China between 1980 and 2010. Management & Organizational History
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emerging market entry and institutional change – three Swedish manufacturing firms in China between 1980 and 2010
2015 (English)In: Management & Organizational History, ISSN 1744-9359, E-ISSN 1744-9367, ISSN 1744-9359, 1744-9367Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Firms enter emerging markets to capture untapped opportunity and pursue high growth potential. Yet emerging markets are also characterized by unstable institutions that may affect firms’ market entry behavior. Although most existing studies have taken a rather short-term and static perspective to addressing foreign market entry, we specifically draw on the Uppsala internationalization process model and use a long-term approach to examine the China market entry of three Swedish firms in terms of their market knowledge and market commitment. We argue that the relation between institutional change in the host market and the market entry behavior of a particular firm evolves over time. The findings also show that the type of institutional change, as well as the accumulated market knowledge and commitments firms have made, can influence the relation between them. 

Keywords
economic transition; host market; institution; internationalization; law and regulation; longitudinal; Uppsala model
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252114 (URN)10.1080/17449359.2015.1029946 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-05-01 Created: 2015-05-01 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Blankenburg Holm, D., Johanson, M. & Kao, P. T. (2015). From outsider to insider: Opportunity development in foreign market networks. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 13(3), 337-359
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From outsider to insider: Opportunity development in foreign market networks
2015 (English)In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 337-359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By applying the network position concept, we untangle the firm’s recognition and exploitation of opportunities during the internationalisation process. We view the transition of network position from outsidership to insidership, in terms of the strength and number of relationships in the foreign market network. Departing from the revised Uppsala model, we argue that opportunity development in the business network consists of recognition and exploitation. Path dependence impacts how a firm exploits opportunity in the network as well as the next opportunity to be recognised, as they are contingent on the network position. Four opportunities are identified from a historical case study of Elekta, a Swedish medical device manufacturer that entered China between 1980 and 2010. We analyse the initial network position of the firm, its opportunity recognition and exploitation, and the network position of the firm in return. Based on the cases we demonstrate that outsidership tends to lead to discovery, while insidership results in creation. The insidership enables direct and indirect relationships, which are involved in the exploitation of the opportunity.

Keywords
Network position, Opportunity recognition, Opportunity exploitation, Internationalisation, Path dependence, Historical case study, China
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268306 (URN)10.1007/s10843-015-0154-8 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Kao, P.-T. (2013). Institutional Change and Foreign Market Entry Behaviour of the Firm: A Longitudinal Study of Three Swedish Firms in China. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Institutional Change and Foreign Market Entry Behaviour of the Firm: A Longitudinal Study of Three Swedish Firms in China
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

China’s status as the world’s top destination for foreign direct investment and the largest trading nation is likely to attract more international firms seeking market entrance, and increase the speed of expansion by those already present in the market. Its progress in reaching this point has been accompanied by significant changes in laws and regulations. This study sets out to understand the events of foreign market entry to emerging markets experiencing recurring changes in laws and regulations, and asks the research question: How may institutional change in the host market influence the market entry behaviour of the firm over time?

Based on retrospective longitudinal case studies of DeLaval, Elekta and Höganäs from 1980 to 2010, the findings show that institutional change taking place in the host market plays a signal role that enables firms to recognise the availability and accessibility of market opportunity. Firms also make market commitment accordingly to capture the market opportunity recognised. Additionally, institutional change comes in different forms (transitional change and turbulent change), and plays out differently in various industries and at various points in time. They also have varying influences on market opportunity in terms of the source through which it is recognised (structural opportunity and relational opportunity), and the direction in which market commitment is made (commitment toward the host market, relationships, and organisational integration).

Furthermore, depending on the point in time, the relations among institutional change, market opportunity, and market commitment may change. While a consistent level of institutional change encourages firms to recognise structural opportunity, the escalation of institutional change over time seems to influence firms to form stronger relationship commitment with local actors and leads to stronger recognition of relational opportunity.

This study’s findings imply that recurring institutional changes in emerging markets have an overarching impact on foreign market entry of the firm, and needs to be understood from a long-term perspective. Foreign firms that have acquired experience in emerging markets over time face less of a threat from ongoing institutional changes. Actively engaging in the host market and remaining alert to information from various sources will enable firms to recognise market opportunity in emerging markets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2013. p. xii+247
Series
Doctoral thesis / Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 1103-8454 ; 165
Keywords
Internationalisation, regulative institutions, institutional change, market opportunity, market commitment, emerging market, China, case study, longitudinal study
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210147 (URN)
Public defence
2013-12-18, Hörsal 2, Ekonomikum, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-02 Last updated: 2014-01-08
Kao, P. T., Redekop, W. & Mark-Herbert, C. (2012). Sustainable supply chain management: The influence of local stakeholder expectations in China's agri-food industry. Journal on Chain and Network Science, 3(12), 273-289
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable supply chain management: The influence of local stakeholder expectations in China's agri-food industry
2012 (English)In: Journal on Chain and Network Science, ISSN 1569-1829, E-ISSN 1875-0931, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 273-289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multinational food processing corporations are facing rapid growth in emerging markets like China and a concurrent need for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). These firms attempt to address supply risk and threat to the triple bottom line through managing suppliers and inputs, and at the same time need to overcome the uncertainty raised by the unfamiliar host environment. An exploratory qualitative case study of two multinational food processing corporations in China finds their SSCM practices are impacted by the nature of the raw material inputs as well as local stakeholder expectations. In particular, government policy and media attention seems to influence the direction and choice of SSCM activities engaged in by the focal firms. Furthermore, the discussion also suggests a possible permanent effect may occur as stakeholder expectations and host country institutions evolve. The implication of this study is that food processors preparing to enter emerging markets should be aware that local stakeholder expectations may affect operations significantly more than previously expected. As such, these firms need to carefully evaluate their operations in the host market and seek balance between SSCM practices and local stakeholder expectations. This study extends existing research on SSCM, exploring practices among the agri-food industry in a developing economy, and points out a theoretical extension to the existing sustainable purchasing portfolio matrix.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2012
Keywords
Management and Economics, Supply Chain Management, Business Strategy, Sustainability, Innovation Management and Logistics
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-189667 (URN)10.3920/JCNS2012.x216 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Johanson, M. & Kao, P. (2010). Networks in internationalisation. In: Pla-Barber, José and Alegre, Joaquín (Ed.), Reshaping the Boundaries of the Firm in an Era of Global Interdependence: (pp. 119-142). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Networks in internationalisation
2010 (English)In: Reshaping the Boundaries of the Firm in an Era of Global Interdependence / [ed] Pla-Barber, José and Alegre, Joaquín, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010, p. 119-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to provide a review of literaturethat analyses the internationalisation of the firm, through the function androle of networks.

Design/methodology/approach – A total of 23 papers (published between1988 and 2008) explicitly using network as a research framework to studythe internationalisation process of the firm were selected. They have beenanalysed according to a range of factors, including the author, journal,time frame in which they were published, type of focal firm, country oforigin of focal firms, market entered, methods applied in the studies,theories adopted and research topic.

Findings – Networks have emerged as one of the dominant frameworksused to explain the phenomenon of internationalisation. Having originallybeen applied in studies of firms from developed countries entering similarmarkets, network theories are now as popular in studies of firms bothoriginating in and entering emerging markets. This review also finds thatboth qualitative and quantitative methods have been adopted in thestudies; however, few papers have tried to combine the two. Furthermore,the network approach has been used for comparative analysis withfindings from FDI theory, as well as to supplement international newventure (INV) and born global theories. Lastly, this review highlightstopics that have been explored in previous studies and suggests areas forfurther research.

Originality/value – This is the first review paper on this subject and assuch it contributes to the growing body of knowledge on the networkapproach and assists in understanding the internationalisation phenomenonof the firm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010
Series
Progress In International Business Research, ISSN 1745-8862 ; 5
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-136544 (URN)10.1108/S1745-8862(2010)0000005010 (DOI)978-0-85724-087-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1669-3580.

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