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Oka, K., Strietzel, C., Emanuelsson, R., Nishide, H., Oyaizu, K., Strömme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2019). Characterization of PEDOT-Quinone conducting redox polymers in water-in-salt electrolytes for safe and high-energy Li-ion batteries. Electrochemistry communications, 105, Article ID 106489.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of PEDOT-Quinone conducting redox polymers in water-in-salt electrolytes for safe and high-energy Li-ion batteries
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2019 (English)In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 105, article id 106489Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Li-ion batteries (LIBs) raise safety and environmental concerns, which mostly arise from their toxic and flammable electrolytes and the extraction of limited material resources by mining. Recently, water-in-salt electrolytes (WiSEs), in which a large amount of lithium salt is dissolved in water, have been proposed to allow for assembling safe and high-voltage (>3.0 V) aqueous LIBs. In addition, organic materials derived from abundant building blocks and their tunable properties could provide safe and sustainable replacements for inorganic cathode materials. In the current work, the electrochemical properties of a conducting redox polymer based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with hydroquinone (HQ) pendant groups have been characterized in WiSEs. The quinone redox reaction occurs within the potential region where the polymer is conducting, and fast redox conversion that involves lithium cycling during pendant group redox conversion was observed. These properties make conducting redox polymers promising candidates as cathode-active materials for safe and high-energy aqueous LIBs. An organic-based aqueous LIB, with a HQ-PEDOT as a cathode, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) as an anode, and ca. 15 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide water/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as electrolyte, yielded an output voltage of 1.35 V and high rate capabilities up to 500C.

Keywords
Conducting redox polymer, Organic electronics, Renewable energy storage, Lithium ion battery, Water-in-salt electrolyte, Quinone
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389513 (URN)
Available from: 2019-07-16 Created: 2019-07-16 Last updated: 2019-07-16
Sjödin, M. (2019). ConductingRedox polymer Batteries. In: Waseda University (Ed.), Waseda conference on Future Battery Materials 2019: . Paper presented at Waseda conference on Future Battery Materials. 5-7/3 2019 Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo: Waseda University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ConductingRedox polymer Batteries
2019 (English)In: Waseda conference on Future Battery Materials 2019 / [ed] Waseda University, Tokyo: Waseda University , 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo: Waseda University, 2019
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378953 (URN)
Conference
Waseda conference on Future Battery Materials. 5-7/3 2019 Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-05-09
Sterby, M., Emanuelsson, R., Mamedov, F., Strömme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2019). Investigating electron transport in a PEDOT/Quinone conducting redox polymer with in situ methods. Electrochimica Acta, 308, 277-284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating electron transport in a PEDOT/Quinone conducting redox polymer with in situ methods
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2019 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 308, p. 277-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A conducting redox polymer is investigated in acidic electrolyte using various in situ methods, including electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV–vis spectroscopy, and conductance measurements. The quinone redox active pendant group has a formal potential of 0.67 V (vs. standard hydrogen electrode) where a 2e2H process occurs. By analyzing the rate constant at different temperatures, the rate-limiting step in the redox reaction was found to be a thermally activated process with an activation energy of 0.3 eV. The electron transport through the conducting polymerwas found to be non-thermally activated and, hence, not redox rate-limiting. This is also the first time a negative temperature dependence has been reported for a conducting redox polymer in the same potential region where the redox active pendant group has its formal potential. EPR and conductance data indicated that the conductivity is governed by both polarons and bipolarons but their ratio is shifting during oxidation and reduction of the polymer.

Keywords
Conducting Redox Polymer, PEDOT, Quinone, Temperature dependence
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383025 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2019.03.207 (DOI)000466713100030 ()
Funder
Carl Tryggers foundation Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research CouncilStiftelsen Olle Engkvist ByggmästareSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-05-07 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Strietzel, C., Emanuelsson, R., Strömme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2018). Conducting Redox Polymer Batteries. In: : . Paper presented at Electronic Processes in Organic Materials (GRC).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Redox Polymer Batteries
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364962 (URN)
Conference
Electronic Processes in Organic Materials (GRC)
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2018-11-07
Sjödin, M., Emanuelsson, R., Sterby, M., Huang, H., Wang, H. & Strömme, M. (2018). Conducting Redox Polymer Batteries. In: : . Paper presented at Americas International Meeting on Electrochemistry and Solid State Science,September 30 – October 4, Cancun, Mexico, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Redox Polymer Batteries
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-365693 (URN)
Conference
Americas International Meeting on Electrochemistry and Solid State Science,September 30 – October 4, Cancun, Mexico, 2018
Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Wang, H., Emanuelsson, R., Sjödin, M. & Strömme, M. (2018). Electrochemical Performance of Electron Withdrawing Group Substituted Benzoquinone and Benzoquinone-Functionalized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Conducting Redox Polymer. In: MRS (Ed.), MRS Fall meeting 2018: In Situ/Operando Analysis of Electrochemical Materials and Interfaces. Paper presented at MRS Fall meeting 2018. Boston November 2018. Boston, Article ID CM03.09.03.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical Performance of Electron Withdrawing Group Substituted Benzoquinone and Benzoquinone-Functionalized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Conducting Redox Polymer
2018 (English)In: MRS Fall meeting 2018: In Situ/Operando Analysis of Electrochemical Materials and Interfaces / [ed] MRS, Boston, 2018, article id CM03.09.03Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Conducting redox polymers have been investigate massively as an efficient cathode material. Herein we synthesis a series of quinone substituted PEDOT conducting redox polymers and investigate the effect of electron withdrawing substitutions on the redox potential of quinone in the PEDOT backbone in two electrolyte 0.1M LiClO4/MeCN a. Elelctron withdrawing substitutions leads to an increase of the redox potential of quinone in LiClO4/MeCN . The conductivity of PEDOT backbone is hindered by the lithiated reduced quinone. In-situ uv-vis and EQCM is used to probe the exact PEDOT doping onset potential, confirming that conductivity of quinone is hindered by lithiated reduced quinone. In situ EQCM proves that mass change in the PEDOT doping region involves cation repulsion and dopants anion uptaken.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boston: , 2018
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366561 (URN)
Conference
MRS Fall meeting 2018. Boston November 2018
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Sterby, M., Emanuelsson, R., Strömme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2018). Electronic properties of a PEDOT/Quinone Conducting Redox Polymer. In: : . Paper presented at Gordon Research Conference and Seminar: Electronic Processes in Organic Materials.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic properties of a PEDOT/Quinone Conducting Redox Polymer
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organic materials can be used to ensure sustainable electrical energy storage, thus avoiding the use of inorganic materials that are inherently non-renewable and associated with large energy consumptions in their mining and refining. To ensure sufficient conductivity, most organic batteries researched on today use conducting additives since organic molecules, in general, are insulating. A different approach is to use conducting redox polymers (CRPs). CRPs consist of a redox active pendant group attached to a conducting polymer backbone.

 

The present work focuses on characterizing a cathode material for water based batteries. The material consists of the well-studied conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with a quinone pendant group, a combination that we have proven can work in an all-organic proton battery.1 Quinones constitute an attractive class of molecules as they possess a high charge storage capacity, show reversible redox chemistry, and are naturally occurring, e.g., in the electron transport chains in photosynthesis and in respiration.

 

Redox matching (i.e. the redox reaction of the pendant group occurring at a potential where the polymer is conducting) between the conducting polymer and the pendant group is crucial for CRPs since the electrons stored in the pendant groups have to travel through the polymer to the current collector. From in situ conductance measurements we have previously shown that redox matching exists in the studied CRP.2 In this work we present studies of the redox matched CRP showing a non-activated electron transport through the polymer backbone, an activated process for the quinone redox conversion, and indication of polarons being the dominant charge carrier. The reorganization energy of the quinone as well as ion mobility through the polymer will also be discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

1. Emanuelsson, R.; Sterby, M.; Strømme, M.; Sjödin, M., An All-Organic Proton Battery. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139 (13), 4828-4834.

2. Sterby, M.; Emanuelsson, R.; Huang, X.; Gogoll, A.; Strømme, M.; Sjödin, M., Characterization of PEDOT-Quinone Conducting Redox Polymers for Water Based Secondary Batteries. Electrochim. Acta 2017, 235, 356–364.

Keywords
PEDOT, Conducting Redox Polymer, Gordon Research, Battery, Electronic
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363671 (URN)
Conference
Gordon Research Conference and Seminar: Electronic Processes in Organic Materials
Available from: 2018-10-19 Created: 2018-10-19 Last updated: 2018-10-23
Strietzel, C., Emanuelsson, R., Strömme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2018). Flexible All Organic Batteries Based on Conducting Redox Polymers. In: MRS (Ed.), MRS Fall meeting 2018: Flexible/Wearable Energy Storage I. Paper presented at MRS Fall meeting 2018. Boston November, USA. Boston, Article ID BM08.11.02.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible All Organic Batteries Based on Conducting Redox Polymers
2018 (English)In: MRS Fall meeting 2018: Flexible/Wearable Energy Storage I / [ed] MRS, Boston, 2018, article id BM08.11.02Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Batteries consisting of naturally occurring organic materials can be envisioned as sustainable alternatives to conventional metal-based batteries, thus

avoiding the negative environmental impact associated with the production and recycling of the latter. In this way the negative environmental impact of the

constantly increasing demand for secondary batteries can be decreased. Apart from being fully organic, such batteries also open up for flexible battery

designs as they can be produced in a roll-to-roll process and they are anticipated to be viable in a broad range of applications as energy supplies in

innovative flexible electronics designs. In the current work, fully organic batteries are realized utilizing conducting redox polymers (CRPs) as electrode

materials. CRPs combine the high charge storage capacity of a redox active pendant group (PG) with the conduction properties of a conducting polymer

(CP) backbone, both to reduce the need for addition of conductive carbon black and increasing the stability of the PG redox conversion in a battery setup.

The first results from a fully organic, aqueous battery based on CRP electrode material are presented. Challenges and possibilities of this type of battery in flexible battery designs are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boston: , 2018
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366559 (URN)
Conference
MRS Fall meeting 2018. Boston November, USA
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Banerjee, A., Araujo, R. B., Sjödin, M. & Ahuja, R. (2018). Identifying the tuning key of disproportionation redox reaction in terephthalate: A Li-based anode for sustainable organic batteries. Nano Energy, 47, 301-308
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying the tuning key of disproportionation redox reaction in terephthalate: A Li-based anode for sustainable organic batteries
2018 (English)In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 47, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ever-increasing consumption of energy storage devices has pushed the scientific community to realize strategies toward organic electrodes with superior properties. This is owed to advantages such as economic viability and eco-friendliness. In this context, the family of conjugated dicarboxylates has emerged as an interesting candidate for the application as negative electrodes in advanced Li-ion batteries due to the revealed thermal stability, rate capability, high capacity and high cyclability. This work aims to rationalize the effects of small molecular modifications on the electrochemical properties of the terephthalate anode by means of first principles calculations. The crystal structure prediction of the investigated host compounds dilithium terephthalate (Li2TP) and diethyl terephthalate (Et2Li0TP) together with their crystal modification upon battery cycling enable us to calculate the potential profile of these materials. Distinct underlying mechanisms of the redox reactions were obtained where Li2TP comes with a disproportionation reaction while Et2Li0TP displays sequential redox reactions. This effect proved to be strongly correlated to the Li coordination number evolution upon the Li insertion into the host structures. Finally, the calculations of sublimation enthalpy inferred that polymerization techniques could easily be employed in Et2Li0TP as compared to Li2TP. Similar results are observed with methyl, propyl, and vinyl capped groups. That could be a strategy to enhance the properties of this compound placing it into the gallery of the new anode materials for state of art Li-batteries.

Keywords
Li-ion organic battery, Lithium terephthalate, Disproportionation, Redox potential
National Category
Physical Chemistry Materials Chemistry Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354095 (URN)10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.02.038 (DOI)000430057000031 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-06014
Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Sterby, M., Emanuelsson, R., Strömme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2018). In Situ Methods for Understanding Charge Transport in a Conducting Redox Polymer. In: MRS (Ed.), Materials Research Society. Fall meeting 2018. Boston: Excitons, Electrons and Ions in Organic Materials. Paper presented at MRS Fall meeting. Boston 2018. Boston, Article ID EP05.01.07.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Situ Methods for Understanding Charge Transport in a Conducting Redox Polymer
2018 (English)In: Materials Research Society. Fall meeting 2018. Boston: Excitons, Electrons and Ions in Organic Materials / [ed] MRS, Boston, 2018, article id EP05.01.07Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Organic materials can be used to ensure sustainable electrical energy storage, but since organic molecules are generally insulating conducting additives are commonly used to ensure electrical conductivity throughout the material. A different approach is to use conducting redox polymers (CRPs). CRPs consist of a redox active pendant group, used for its high capacity, attached to a conducting polymer backbone. The CRP presented here is aimed to be used as the positive electrode in a water-based organic battery. In this work we employ the well-studied conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with a quinone pendant group, a combination that we have proven can work in an all-organic proton battery.

1 Quinones constitute an attractive class of molecules as they possess a high charge storage capacity, show reversible redox chemistry, and are naturally occurring, e.g., in the electron transport chains in respiration and in photosynthesis. The aim of the study is to understand the charge transport properties of the CRP. The CRP studied is characterized by various in-situ electrochemical methods including conductance, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), UV-vis and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Based on the results the electron and ion transport during electrochemical redox conversion will be discussed. 1. Emanuelsson, R.; Sterby, M.; Strømme, M.; Sjödin, M., An All-Organic Proton Battery. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139 (13), 4828-4834.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boston: , 2018
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366558 (URN)
Conference
MRS Fall meeting. Boston 2018
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-05-07
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4126-4347

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