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Makaganiuk, Vitalii
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Kochukhov, O., Makaganiuk, V., Piskunov, N., Jeffers, S. V., Johns-Krull, C. M., Keller, C. U., . . . Valenti, J. A. (2013). Are there tangled magnetic fields on HgMn stars?. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 554, A61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are there tangled magnetic fields on HgMn stars?
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2013 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 554, p. A61-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. Several recent spectrophotometric studies failed to detect significant global magnetic fields in late-B HgMn chemically peculiar stars, but some investigations have suggested the presence of strong unstructured or tangled fields in these objects. Aims. We used detailed spectrum synthesis analysis to search for evidence of tangled magnetic fields in high-quality observed spectra of eight slowly rotating HgMn stars and one normal late-B star. We also evaluated recent sporadic detections of weak longitudinal magnetic fields in HgMn stars based on the moment technique. Methods. Our spectrum synthesis code calculated the Zeeman broadening of metal lines in HARPS spectra, assuming an unstructured, turbulent magnetic field. A simple line formation model with a homogeneous radial field distribution was applied to assess compatibility between previous longitudinal field measurements and the observed mean circular polarization signatures. Results. Our analysis of the Zeeman broadening of magnetically sensitive spectral lines reveals no evidence of tangled magnetic fields in any of the studied HgMn or normal stars. We infer upper limits of 200-700 G for the mean magnetic field modulus - much smaller than the field strengths implied by studies based on differential magnetic line intensification and quadratic field diagnostics. The new HARPSpol longitudinal field measurements for the extreme HgMn star HD65949 and the normal late-B star 21 Peg are consistent with zero at a precision of 3-6 G. Re-analysis of our Stokes V spectra of the spotted HgMn star HD11753 shows that the recent moment technique measurements retrieved from the same data are incompatible with the lack of circular polarization signatures in the spectrum of this star. Conclusions. We conclude that there is no evidence for substantial tangled magnetic fields on the surfaces of studied HgMn stars. We cannot independently confirm the presence of very strong quadratic or marginal longitudinal fields for these stars, so results from the moment technique are likely to be spurious.

Keyword
stars: atmospheres, stars: chemically peculiar, stars: general, stars: magnetic field, polarization
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-205377 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201321467 (DOI)000320444200060 ()
Available from: 2013-08-30 Created: 2013-08-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Johns-Krull, C. M., Chen, W., Valenti, J. A., Jeffers, S. V., Piskunov, N. E., Kochukhov, O., . . . Rodenhuis, M. (2013). Magnetically Controlled Accretion on the Classical T Tauri Stars GQ Lupi and TW Hydrae. Astrophysical Journal, 765(1), 11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetically Controlled Accretion on the Classical T Tauri Stars GQ Lupi and TW Hydrae
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2013 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 765, no 1, p. 11-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present high spectral resolution (R approximate to 108,000) Stokes V polarimetry of the classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) GQ Lup and TW Hya obtained with the polarimetric upgrade to the HARPS spectrometer on the ESO 3.6 m telescope. We present data on both photospheric lines and emission lines, concentrating our discussion on the polarization properties of the He I emission lines at 5876 angstrom and 6678 angstrom. The He I lines in these CTTSs contain both narrow emission cores, believed to come from near the accretion shock region on these stars, and broad emission components which may come from either a wind or the large-scale magnetospheric accretion flow. We detect strong polarization in the narrow component of the two He I emission lines in both stars. We observe a maximum implied field strength of 6.05 +/- 0.24 kG in the 5876 angstrom line of GQ Lup, making it the star with the highest field strength measured in this line for a CTTS. We find field strengths in the two He I lines that are consistent with each other, in contrast to what has been reported in the literature on at least one star. We do not detect any polarization in the broad component of the He I lines on these stars, strengthening the conclusion that they form over a substantially different volume relative to the formation region of the narrow component of the He I lines.

Keyword
accretion, accretion disks, line: profiles, stars: atmospheres, stars: formation, stars: magnetic field, stars: pre-main sequence
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197040 (URN)10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/11 (DOI)000314957900011 ()
Available from: 2013-03-19 Created: 2013-03-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Makaganiuk, V., Kochukhov, O., Piskunov, N., Jeffers, S., Johns-Krull, C., Keller, C., . . . Valenti, J. (2012). Magnetism, chemical spots, and stratification in the HgMn star ϕ Phoenicis. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 539, A142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetism, chemical spots, and stratification in the HgMn star ϕ Phoenicis
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2012 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 539, p. A142-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. Mercury-manganese (HgMn) stars have been considered as non-magnetic and non-variable chemically peculiar (CP) starsfor a long time. However, recent discoveries of the variability in spectral line profiles have suggested an inhomogeneous surfacedistribution of chemical elements in some HgMn stars. From the studies of other CP stars it is known that magnetic field plays a keyrole in the formation of surface spots. All attempts to find magnetic fields in HgMn stars have yielded negative results.Aims. In this study, we investigate the possible presence of a magnetic field in ϕ Phe (HD 11753) and reconstruct surface distributionof chemical elements that show variability in spectral lines.We also test a hypothesis that a magnetic field is concentrated in chemicalspots and look into the possibility that some chemical elements are stratified with depth in the stellar atmosphere.Methods. Our analysis is based on high-quality spectropolarimetric time-series observations, covering a full rotational period ofthe star. Spectra were obtained with the HARPSpol at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. To increase the sensitivity of the magnetic fieldsearch, we employed the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique. Using Doppler imaging code INVERS10, we reconstructedsurface chemical distributions by utilising information from multiple spectral lines. The vertical stratification of chemical elementswas calculated with the DDAFit program.Results. Combining information from all suitable spectral lines, we set an upper limit of 4 G on the mean longitudinal magnetic field.For chemical spots, an upper limit on the longitudinal field varies between 8 and 15 G. We confirmed the variability of Y, Sr, and Tiand detected variability in Cr lines. Stratification analysis showed that Y and Ti are not concentrated in the uppermost atmosphericlayers.Conclusions. Our spectropolarimetric observations rule out the presence of a strong, globally-organised magnetic field in ϕ Phe.This implies an alternative mechanism of spot formation, which could be related to a non-equilibrium atomic diffusion. However, thetypical time scales of the variation in stratification predicted by the recent time-dependent diffusion models exceed significantly thespot evolution time-scale reported for ϕ Phe.

Keyword
stars: chemically peculiar, stars: individual: Phi Phe, stars: variables: general
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy with specialization in Astrophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160291 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201118167 (DOI)000303262000149 ()
Available from: 2011-10-20 Created: 2011-10-20 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Makaganiuk, V., Kochukhov, O., Piskunov, N., Jeffers, S. V., Johns-Krull, C. M., Keller, C. U., . . . Valenti, J. A. (2011). Chemical spots in the absence of magnetic field in the binary HgMn star 66 Eridani. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 529, A160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical spots in the absence of magnetic field in the binary HgMn star 66 Eridani
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2011 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 529, p. A160-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. According to our current understanding, a subclass of the upper main-sequence chemically peculiar stars, called mercury-manganese (HgMn), is non-magnetic. Nevertheless, chemical inhomogeneities were recently discovered on their surfaces. At the same time, no global magnetic fields stronger than 1-100 G are detected by systematic studies. Aims. The goals of our study are to search for a magnetic field in the HgMn binary system 66 Eri and to investigate chemical spots on the stellar surfaces of both components.

Methods. Our analysis is based on high-quality spectropolarimetric time-series observations obtained during 10 consecutive nights with the HARPSpol instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. To increase the sensitivity of the magnetic field search we employed a least-squares deconvolution (LSD). We used spectral disentangling to measure radial velocities and study the line profile variability. Chemical spot geometry was reconstructed using multi-line Doppler imaging.

Results. We report a non-detection of magnetic field in 66 Eri, with error bars 10-24 G for the longitudinal field. Circular polarization profiles also do not indicate any signatures of complex surface magnetic fields. For a simple dipolar field configuration we estimated an upper limit of the polar field strength to be 60-70 G. For the HgMn component we found variability in spectral lines of Ti, Ba, Y, and Sr with the rotational period equal to the orbital one. The surface maps of these elements reconstructed with the Doppler imaging technique show a relative underabundance on the hemisphere facing the secondary component. The contrast of chemical inhomogeneities ranges from 0.4 for Ti to 0.8 for Ba.

Keyword
stars: chemically peculiar, stars: individual: HD 32964, stars: variables: general, binaries: spectroscopic
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158189 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201016302 (DOI)000293688600003 ()
Available from: 2011-09-01 Created: 2011-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Kochukhov, O., Makaganiuk, V., Piskunov, N., Snik, F., Jeffers, S. V., Johns-Krull, C. M., . . . Valenti, J. A. (2011). First detection of linear polarization in the line profiles of active cool stars. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 732(2), L19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First detection of linear polarization in the line profiles of active cool stars
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2011 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 732, no 2, p. L19-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The application of high-resolution spectropolarimetry has led to major progress in understanding the magnetism and activity of late-type stars. During the last decade, magnetic fields have been discovered and mapped for many types of active cool stars using spectropolarimetric data. However, these observations and modeling attempts are fundamentally incomplete since they are based on the interpretation of the circular polarization alone. Taking advantage of the newly built HARPS polarimeter, we have obtained the first systematic observations of several cool active stars in all four Stokes parameters. Here we report the detection of magnetically induced linear polarization for the primary component of the very active RS CVn binary HR 1099 and for the moderately active K dwarf epsilon Eri. For both stars the amplitude of linear polarization signatures is measured to be similar to 10(-4) of the unpolarized continuum, which is approximately a factor of 10 lower than for circular polarization. This is the first detection of the linear polarization in line profiles of cool active stars. Our observations of the inactive solar-like star alpha Cen A show neither circular nor linear polarization above the level of similar to 10(-5), indicating the absence of a net longitudinal magnetic field stronger than 0.2 G.

Keyword
polarization, stars, activity, HR 1099, epsilon Eri, alpha Cen A, late-type, magnetic field
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-157271 (URN)10.1088/2041-8205/732/2/L19 (DOI)000293133200001 ()
Available from: 2011-08-22 Created: 2011-08-22 Last updated: 2012-10-16Bibliographically approved
Piskunov, N., Snik, F., Dolgopolov, A., Kochukhov, O., Rodenhuis, M., Valenti, J., . . . Keller, C. (2011). HARPSpol - The New Polarimetric Mode for HARPS. The Messenger, 143, 7-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>HARPSpol - The New Polarimetric Mode for HARPS
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2011 (English)In: The Messenger, Vol. 143, p. 7-10Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The HARPS spectrograph can now perform a full polarisation analysis of spectra. It has been equipped with a polarimetric unit, HARPSpol, which was jointly designed and produced by Uppsala, Utrecht and Rice Universities and by the STScI. Here we present the new instrument, demonstrate its polarisation capabilities and show the first scientific results.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169081 (URN)
Available from: 2012-02-22 Created: 2012-02-22 Last updated: 2012-10-18Bibliographically approved
Makaganiuk, V. (2011). Magnetic Fields and Chemical Spots in HgMn Stars. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetic Fields and Chemical Spots in HgMn Stars
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mercury-manganese (HgMn) stars belong to the class of chemically peculiar (CP) stars. It was recently discovered that some HgMn stars have spots of chemical elements on their surfaces. According to conventional picture of CP stars, magnetic field facilitates the formation and long term stability of chemical spots by controlling stratification of elements in stellar atmosphere. However, previous attempts to find magnetic field in HgMn stars set an upper limit on its strength at the level of about 20-100 Gauss. Observational evidence suggested that even weaker magnetic fields can be responsible for the formation of chemical spots. The main goal of our work was to verify this possibility.

The search for weak magnetic fields requires the use of least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique.  This method combines information from many spectral lines providing a mean line profile with increased signal-to-noise ratio. Up to now there was no extensive comparison of the LSD profile with real spectral lines. We showed that the LSD profile of the intensity spectrum does not behave like a real spectral line as a function of chemical composition. However, for circular polarization, LSD profile resembles the profile of a spectral line with mean atomic parameters.

We performed a comprehensive search for magnetic field in 47 HgMn stars and their companions, based on high-quality spectropolarimetric data obtained with the HARPSpol polarimeter at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. With the help of LSD technique, an upper limit on the mean longitudinal magnetic field was brought down to 2-10 G for most stars. We concluded that magnetic field is not responsible for the spot formation in HgMn stars.

We obtained full rotational phase coverage for the HgMn stars φ Phe and 66 Eri. This enabled us to investigate line profile variability, reconstruct surface maps of chemical elements, and perform a search for magnetic field with very high sensitivity. For φ Phe we derived surface maps of Y, Sr, Ti, Cr, and obtained an upper limit of 4 G on the field strength. We also found marginal indication of vertical stratification of Y and Ti. No magnetic field was detected in both components of 66 Eri, with an upper limit of 10-24 G. We discovered chemical spots of Y, Sr, Ba, and Ti, in the primary star. We demonstrated a relation between the binary orbit and the morphology of these spots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. p. 46
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 873
Keyword
Chemically peculiar stars; magnetic fields; spectropolarimetry; Doppler imaging
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy with specialization in Astrophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160308 (URN)978-91-554-8199-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-08, Häggsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-09 Created: 2011-10-20 Last updated: 2012-10-16
Kochukhov, O., Makaganiuk, V., Piskunov, N., Jeffers, S. V., Johns-Krull, C. M., Keller, C. U., . . . Valenti, J. A. (2011). No magnetic field in the spotted HgMn star mu Leporis [Letter to the editor]. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 534, L13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No magnetic field in the spotted HgMn star mu Leporis
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2011 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 534, p. L13-Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. Chemically peculiar stars of the mercury-manganese (HgMn) type represent a new class of spotted late-B stars, in which evolving surface chemical inhomogeneities are apparently unrelated to the presence of strong magnetic fields but are produced by some hitherto unknown astrophysical mechanism.

Aims. The goal of this study is to perform a detailed line profile variability analysis and carry out a sensitive magnetic field search for one of the brightest HgMn stars -mu Lep.

Methods. We acquired a set of very high-quality intensity and polarization spectra of mu Lep with the HARPSpol polarimeter. These data were analyzed with the multiline technique of least-squares deconvolution in order to extract information on the magnetic field and line profile variability.

Results. Our spectra show very weak but definite variability in the lines of Sc, all Fe-peak elements represented in the spectrum of mu Lep, as well as Y, Sr, and Hg. Variability might also be present in the lines of Si and Mg. Anomalous profile shapes of Ti II and YII lines suggest a dominant axisymmetric distribution of these elements. At the same time, we found no evidence of the magnetic field in mu Lep, with the 3 sigma upper limit of only 3 G for the mean longitudinal magnetic field. This is the most stringent upper limit on the possible magnetic field derived for a spotted HgMn star.

Conclusions. The very weak variability detected for many elements in the spectrum mu Lep suggests that low-contrast chemical inhomogeneities may be common in HgMn stars and that they have not been recognized until now due to the limited precision of previous spectroscopic observations and a lack of time-series data. The null result of the magnetic field search reinforces the conclusion that formation of chemical spots in HgMn stars is not magnetically driven.

Keyword
stars: chemically peculiar, stars: individual: HD33904, stars: magnetic field, starspots, polarization
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-162375 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201117970 (DOI)000296554800158 ()
Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Snik, F., Kochukhov, O., Piskunov, N., Rodenhuis, M., Jeffers, S., Keller, C., . . . Johns-Krull, C. (2011). The HARPS Polarimeter. In: Solar Polarization 6. Paper presented at Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 437. , 437
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The HARPS Polarimeter
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2011 (English)In: Solar Polarization 6, 2011, Vol. 437Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We recently commissioned the polarimetric upgrade of the HARPS spectrograph at ESO’s 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, Chile. The HARPS polarimeter is capable of full Stokes spectropolarimetry with large sensitivity and accuracy, taking advantage of the large spectral resolution and stability of HARPS. In this paper we present the instrument design and its polarimetric performance. The first HARPSpol observations show that it can attain a polarimetric sensitivity of \tilde10$^-5$ (after addition of many lines) and that no significant instrumental polarization effects are present.

Series
Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-170201 (URN)
Conference
Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 437
Available from: 2012-03-09 Created: 2012-03-09 Last updated: 2012-10-18
Makaganiuk, V., Kochukhov, O., Piskunov, N., Jeffers, S. V., Johns-Krull, C. M., Keller, C. U., . . . Valenti, J. A. (2011). The search for magnetic fields in mercury-manganese stars. In: Neiner, C. et al. (Ed.), Active OB stars: Structure, evolution, mass-loss, and critical limits. Paper presented at 272nd Symposium of the International-Astronomical-Union on Active OB Stars: Structure, Evolution, Mass-Loss, and Critical Limits, 19-23 July 2010, Paris, France (pp. 202-203). , 272
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The search for magnetic fields in mercury-manganese stars
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2011 (English)In: Active OB stars: Structure, evolution, mass-loss, and critical limits / [ed] Neiner, C. et al., 2011, Vol. 272, p. 202-203Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mercury-manganese (HgMn) stars were considered to be non-magnetic, showing no evidence of surface spots. However, recent investigations revealed that some stars in this class possess an inhomogeneous distribution of chemical elements on their surfaces. According to our current understanding, the most probable mechanism of spot formation involves magnetic fields. Taking the advantage of a newly-built polarimeter attached to the HARPS spectrometer at the ESO 3.6m-telescope, we performed a high-precision spectropolarimetric survey of a large group of HgMn stars. The main purpose of this study was to find out how typical it is for HgMn stars to have weak magnetic fields. We report no magnetic field detection for any of the studied objects, with a typical precision of the longitudinal field measurements of 10 G and down to 1 Gauss for some of the stars. We conclude that HgMn stars lack large-scale magnetic fields typical of spotted magnetic Ap stars and probably lack any fields capable of creating and sustaining chemical spots. Our study confirms that alongside the magnetically altered atomic diffusion, there must be other structure formation mechanism operating in the atmospheres of late-B main sequence stars.

Series
IAU Symposium Proceedings Series, ISSN 1743-9213 ; 272
Keyword
instrumentation: polarimeters, stars: magnetic fields, stars: chemically peculiar
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159323 (URN)10.1017/S1743921311010349 (DOI)000294438200044 ()978-0-52119-840-0 (ISBN)
Conference
272nd Symposium of the International-Astronomical-Union on Active OB Stars: Structure, Evolution, Mass-Loss, and Critical Limits, 19-23 July 2010, Paris, France
Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-09-28 Last updated: 2012-10-16Bibliographically approved
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