uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Bergh, Robin
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Obaidi, M., Bergh, R., Akrami, N. & Anjum, G. (2019). Group-Based Relative Deprivation Explains Endorsement of Extremism Among Western-Born Muslims. Psychological Science, 30(4), 596-605
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group-Based Relative Deprivation Explains Endorsement of Extremism Among Western-Born Muslims
2019 (English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 596-605Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although jihadist threats are regarded as foreign, most Islamist terror attacks in Europe and the United States have been orchestrated by Muslims born and raised in Western societies. In the present research, we explored a link between perceived deprivation of Western Muslims and endorsement of extremism. We suggest that Western-born Muslims are particularly vulnerable to the impact of perceived relative deprivation because comparisons with majority groups' peers are more salient for them than for individuals born elsewhere. Thus, we hypothesized that Western-born, compared with foreign-born, Muslims would score higher on four predictors of extremism (e.g., violent intentions), and group-based deprivation would explain these differences. Studies 1 to 6 (Ns = 59, 232, 259, 243, 104, and 366, respectively) confirmed that Western-born Muslims scored higher on all examined predictors of extremism. Mediation and meta-analysis showed that group-based relative deprivation accounted for these differences. Study 7 (N = 60) showed that these findings are not generalizable to non-Muslims.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2019
Keywords
group-based anger, perceived injustice, group identification, violent behavioral intentions, group-based relative deprivation, birthplace, Muslim extremism, diaspora, open data, open materials, preregistered
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-385572 (URN)10.1177/0956797619834879 (DOI)000466927400012 ()30875267 (PubMedID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P15-0603:1Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Bergh, R. & Lindskog, M. (2019). The group-motivated sampler. Journal of experimental psychology. General, 148(5), 845-862
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The group-motivated sampler
2019 (English)In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 148, no 5, p. 845-862Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Does ingroup favoritism reflect experience or some preset motivation? The latter possibility is well examined in social psychology, but models from cognitive psychology suggest that unrepresentative samples of experience can generate biases even in the absence of motivational concerns. It remains unclear, however, how motivation and initially sampled experiences interact when both influences are possible, and people encounter new groups. Extending classic arguments about motivated information gathering, we propose that people can be described as “group-motivated samplers”—marked by a tendency to primarily seek out information about one’s own group, and to attend more to information that portrays the ingroup in a positive light. Four experiments showed that information seeking almost always starts with the ingroup, and that people chose to gather more information from the ingroup compared to an outgroup. In subsequent group evaluations, people were excessively positive about ingroups giving a good initial impression. Participants were also fairly accurate, on average, about the direction and magnitude of group differences when the ingroup was de facto better, but downplayed those differences in the opposite situation. Further analyses indicated that first experiences led to biased evaluations because people failed to discount for nonrepresentative (positive) ingroup experiences, whereas interpretive biases seem responsible for evaluations based on belonging to a better/worse performing group. Taken together, while social psychologists know that people tend to portray ingroups in a flattering light, we show how people selectively incorporate early experiences to build those impressions. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association, 2019
Keywords
*Biased Sampling, *Cognitive Bias, *Ingroup Outgroup, *Motivation, *Social Psychology, Arguments, Cognitive Psychology, Test Construction
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383416 (URN)10.1037/xge0000601 (DOI)000467411000005 ()31070438 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Meeusen, C., Meuleman, B., Abts, K. & Bergh, R. (2018). Comparing a Variable-Centered and a Person-Centered Approach to the Structure of Prejudice. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 9(6), 645-655
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing a Variable-Centered and a Person-Centered Approach to the Structure of Prejudice
2018 (English)In: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 645-655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whereas research on generalized prejudice is dominated by variable-centered approaches, which focus on communalities between different types of prejudice, we propose a complementary person-centered approach, looking for subgroups of people characterized by similar patterns of prejudice. To this end, we compare the results of a variable-centered (using confirmatory factor analysis [CFA]) and a person-centered (using latent class analysis [LCA]) approach to generalized prejudice.While CFA points to a multidimensional solution with a strong overlap between prejudice dimensions, LCA distinguishes five prejudice patterns that cannot be organized along a linear continuum of more versus less prejudiced dispositions. Explanatory models for the two solutions are estimated. Results show that the two methods are largely complementary in conceptualizing generalized prejudice.

Keywords
generalized prejudice, variable-centered, CFA, person-centered, LCA
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361515 (URN)10.1177/1948550617720273 (DOI)000444561200002 ()
Available from: 2018-09-25 Created: 2018-09-25 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Obaidi, M., Bergh, R., Sidanius, J. & Thomsen, L. (2018). The Mistreatment of My People: Victimization by Proxy and Behavioral Intentions to Commit Violence Among Muslims in Denmark. Political Psychology, 39(3), 577-593
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Mistreatment of My People: Victimization by Proxy and Behavioral Intentions to Commit Violence Among Muslims in Denmark
2018 (English)In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 577-593Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Islamist extremism is often explained by the suffering endured by Muslims in Islamic countries as a result of Western-led wars. However, many terrorist attacks have been carried out by European Muslims with no personal experiences of war. Across two studies among Danish Muslims, we tested if what we call victimization-by-proxy processes motivate behavioral intentions to commit acts of violence. We used Muslim identification, perceived injustice of Western foreign policies, and group-based anger to predict violent and nonviolent behavioral intentions. More importantly, we compared path models of Danish Muslims from conflict zones with those without direct personal experience of Western-led occupation. We found similar effects among the participants in each category, that is, vicarious psychological responses mimicked those of personally experienced adversity. In fact, participants born in Western Europe were, on average, more strongly identified with Muslims, more likely to perceive Western foreign policy as more unjust, reported greater group-based anger, and were more inclined to help Muslims both by nonviolent and violent means.

Keywords
extremism, victimization by proxy, social identity, group-based injustice and emotion, Western foreign policy
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357703 (URN)10.1111/pops.12435 (DOI)000434164000005 ()
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Obaidi, M., Thomsen, L. & Bergh, R. (2018). "They Think We Are a Threat to Their Culture": Meta-Cultural Threat Fuels Willingness and Endorsement of Extremist Violence against the Cultural Outgroup. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"They Think We Are a Threat to Their Culture": Meta-Cultural Threat Fuels Willingness and Endorsement of Extremist Violence against the Cultural Outgroup
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Far-right political parties in Europe regularly portray Muslims and Islam as backward and a symbolic threat to secular and/or Christian European culture. Similarly, Islamist groups regularly portray Westerners and Western culture as decadent and a symbolic threat to Islam. Here, we present experimental evidence that meta-cultural threat - information that members of an outgroup perceive one's own culture as a symbolic threat to their culture - increases intention and endorsement of political violence against that outgroup. We tested this in three experimental studies among Muslims and non-Muslims in Scandinavia. In Studies 1 and 2, we experimentally manipulated whether the dominant majority group was portrayed as seeing Muslim culture and lifestyle as backward and incompatible with their own culture. These portrayals increased the endorsement of extremist violence against the West and violent behavioural intentions among Muslims living in Denmark and Sweden. Study 3 used a similar paradigm among non-Muslim Danes and demonstrated that learning about Muslims portraying the non-Muslim Danish in-group as a threat increased endorsement of ethnic persecution of Muslims, conceptually replicating the general effect that meta-cultural threat fuels endorsement of extremist violence among both majority and minority groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
INST INTERDISCIPLINARY RES, 2018
Keywords
extremism, political violence, ethnic persecution, meta-cultural threat perception, right-wing and Islamist extremism
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380514 (URN)10.4119/UNIBI/ijcv.647 (DOI)000460934800001 ()
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P15-0603:1The Research Council of Norway, 231157/F10Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
Grina, J., Bergh, R., Akrami, N. & Sidanius, J. (2016). Political orientation and dominance: Are people on the political right more dominant?. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 113-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Political orientation and dominance: Are people on the political right more dominant?
2016 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 94, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social dominance orientation and political orientations are strongly correlated, leading to the notion that right-wing individuals possess a dominant personality disposition. Expressing some caveats toward such an assumption, in four studies we tested the link between political orientation and dominant personality. We assessed dominant personality partly by the use of a newly developed measure of domineering, without reference to intergroup relations or political ideals, and partly by the use of an existing clinical measure of domineering (CAT-PD). The results revealed that all measures of dominance including social dominance were significantly intercorrelated and, in line with previous research, related to both personality (agreeableness) and prejudice. Also, the correlation of political orientation with domineering was significantly lower than that with social dominance. More importantly, in all studies, social dominance fully mediated (or confounded) the relations between domineering and political orientation. Together these findings suggest that a dominant personality is reflected in political orientation only if social dominance (support for group based hierarchies) is also adopted by the individual.

Keywords
Domineering, Social dominance orientation, Political orientation, Mediation
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-283751 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.015 (DOI)000371936800018 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-2319Swedish Research Council, 2011-1891
Available from: 2016-04-14 Created: 2016-04-14 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Bergh, R., Sidanius, J. & Sibley, C. G. (2015). Dimensions of Social Dominance: Their Personality and Socio-political Correlates within a New Zealand Probability Sample. NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 44(2), 25-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensions of Social Dominance: Their Personality and Socio-political Correlates within a New Zealand Probability Sample
2015 (English)In: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1179-7924, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) was introduced as a unidimensional construct predicting numerous socio-political attitudes. However, recent findings suggest that SDO is composed of two sub-dimensions: dominance (SDO-D) and anti-egalitarianism (SDO-E). Despite converging evidence concerning their empirical differentiability, there is little consensus on how to best define them. Thus, we examined the correlates of SDO-D and SDO-E using a broad array of personality, political, ethnic and gender issue variables within a New Zealand national probability sample (N = 5,741) with European and Maori participants. SDO-D primarily related to the personality trait of honesty-humility, hostile and benevolent sexism. SDO-E primarily related to political conservatism and pro-Maori policies. In many cases, the predictive power differed between SDO-D and SDO-E, and across ethnic groups.

Keywords
Social Dominance Orientation, sub-dimensions, predictive validity, HEXACO personality, group attitudes
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275491 (URN)000367347000003 ()
Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2016-02-04Bibliographically approved
Kteily, N., Cotterill, S., Sidanius, J., Sheehy-Skeffington, J. & Bergh, R. (2014). "Not One of Us": Predictors and Consequences of Denying Ingroup Characteristics to Ambiguous Targets. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(10), 1231-1247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Not One of Us": Predictors and Consequences of Denying Ingroup Characteristics to Ambiguous Targets
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, ISSN 0146-1672, E-ISSN 1552-7433, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1231-1247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated individual difference predictors of ascribing ingroup characteristics to negative and positive ambiguous targets. Studies 1 and 2 investigated events involving negative targets whose status as racial (Tsarnaev brothers) or national (Woolwich attackers) ingroup members remained ambiguous. Immediately following the attacks, we presented White Americans and British individuals with the suspects' images. Those higher in social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA)-concerned with enforcing status boundaries and adherence to ingroup norms, respectively-perceived these low status and low conformity suspects as looking less White and less British, thus denying them ingroup characteristics. Perceiving suspects in more exclusionary terms increased support for treating them harshly, and for militaristic counter-terrorism policies prioritizing ingroup safety over outgroup harm. Studies 3 and 4 experimentally manipulated a racially ambiguous target's status and conformity. Results suggested that target status and conformity critically influence SDO's (status) and RWA's (conformity) effects on inclusionary versus exclusionary perceptions.

Keywords
group categorization, ingroup overexclusion, hypodescent, social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, terrorism
National Category
Social Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-236563 (URN)10.1177/0146167214539708 (DOI)000343035500001 ()24986839 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Sibley, C. G., Duckitt, J., Bergh, R., Osborne, D., Perry, R., Asbrock, F., . . . Barlow, F. K. (2013). A Dual Process Model of Attitudes towards Immigration: Person x Residential Area Effects in a National Sample. Political Psychology, 34(4), 553-572
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Dual Process Model of Attitudes towards Immigration: Person x Residential Area Effects in a National Sample
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 553-572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research took a person x situation approach to predicting prejudice by looking at how social worldviews interact with real-world environmental factors to predict how people respond to immigrants within their local area. Taking a Dual Process Motivational approach, we hypothesized that a higher proportion of immigrants in the local community would be associated with negative attitudes toward immigration for respondents high in dangerous world beliefs. Conversely, we hypothesized that living in a highly affluent (as opposed to socioeconomically deprived) community would be associated with negative attitudes toward immigration for respondents high in competitive world beliefs. Both hypotheses were supported using regional information derived from national census data combined with representative survey data from a large telephone sample conducted in New Zealand (N = 6,489). These findings support the proposition that individual differences interact with specific features of the environment to predict people's levels of prejudice in distinct ways.

Keywords
social worldviews, person x situation, immigrant density, regional deprivation, immigration
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207032 (URN)10.1111/pops.12009 (DOI)000322157400005 ()
Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-09 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Bergh, R. (2013). Prejudiced Personalities Revisited: On the Nature of (Generalized) Prejudice. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prejudiced Personalities Revisited: On the Nature of (Generalized) Prejudice
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the media, one type of prejudice is often discussed as isolated from other types of prejudice. For example, after Breivik’s massacre, intolerance toward Muslims was intensely debated (for good reasons). However, his manifesto also disclosed extreme attitudes towards women and gays, a fact which passed without much notice. Still, in understanding why some individuals are so extremely intolerant compared to others, the psychological unity underlying different kinds of prejudice (e.g., racism, sexism) needs to be considered. This psychological unity, referred to as generalized prejudice, provided the starting point for personality theories on prejudice because it suggests that some people are simply more biased than other people in principle. Today it is well known that two basic personality characteristics, agreeableness and openness to new experiences, are powerful predictors of prejudice. However, more precisely what these variables can, versus cannot, explain has received little attention. Consequently, the aim of this thesis was to provide a more fine-grained analysis of generalized prejudice and its personality roots. Paper I demonstrated that personality mainly accounts for variance shared by several prejudice targets (generalized prejudice) whereas group membership mainly predicts unique variance in prejudice towards a particular target group. Thus, personality and group membership factors explain prejudice for different reason, and do not contradict each other. Paper II demonstrated, across three studies, that agreeableness and openness to experience are related to self-reported (explicit) prejudice, but not automatically expressed (implicit) biases. Personality seems informative about who chooses to express devaluing sentiments, but not who harbors spontaneous biases. Finally, Paper III examined the assumption that personality explains (explicit) generalized prejudice because some people simply favor their own group over all other groups (ethnocentrism). Providing the first direct test of this assumption, the results from three studies suggest that while agreeableness and openness to experience explain generalized prejudice, they do not account for purely ethnocentric attitudes. This indicates a fundamental difference between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice. All in all, self-reported personality seems to have little to do with spontaneous group negativity or simple ingroup favoritism. However, personality strongly predicts deliberate and verbalized devaluation of disadvantaged groups.

Abstract [sv]

I media diskuteras ofta fördomar mot en viss grupp som helt skilda från fördomar mot andra grupper. Efter Breivik’s massaker debatterades till exempel intolerans mot muslimer i stor utsträckning, men det diskuterades inte mycket kring att han även uttryckt extrema åsikter om kvinnor och homosexuella. Likväl är den gemensamma nämnaren i sådana attityder av yttersta vikt för att förstå varför vissa individer är mer intoleranta än andra. Tidigare forskning visar att personer som är mer rasistiska än andra också tenderar att vara mer sexistiska, samt nedvärdera till exempel, handikappade människor. Den gemensamma nämnare i sådana attityder kallas generaliserad fördomsfullhet och utgör grundbulten i personlighetsteorier om fördomar då det pekar på att somliga alltid tycks ogilla/nedvärdera utsatta grupper. Idag är det även välkänt att två personlighetsvariabler, vänlighet och öppenhet för nya erfarenheter, beskriver vem som uttrycker mer fördomar än andra. Däremot har det inte ägnats mycket kraft åt frågan vad exakt det är som dessa variabler förklarar, respektive inte förklarar. Syftet med avhandlingen var därmed att erbjuda en mer detaljerad analys av kopplingen mellan personlighet och generaliserad fördomsfullhet. Artikel I visade att personlighet förklarar den gemensamma nämnaren i olika typer av fördomar, medan grupptillhörighet (exempelvis kön) förklarar skillnader som är unika för fördomar mot en viss grupp (kvinnor). Personlighet och grupptillhörighet kompletterar alltså varandra som förklaringar snarare än att vara motsägelsefulla, såsom vissa forskare menat. Tre studier från Artikel II visade att vänlighet och öppenhet till nya erfarenheter hänger samman med viljekontrollerade fördomar, men inte spontana negativa associationer. Målet med Artikel III var att undersöka om personlighet förklarar fördomar av anledningen att vissa alltid favoriserar sin egen grupp över andra grupper (så kallad etnocentrism). Denna tanke har tagits för givet inom forskning om fördomsfullhet, men antagandet har inte testats empiriskt. Resultaten från tre studier pekar på att, till skillnad från generaliserad fördomsfullhet, så visar etnocentrism i sig inte på några starka samband med personlighet. Sammanfattningsvis så hänger varken vänlighet eller öppenhet ihop med spontan gruppnegativitet eller att ogilla ”de andra”. Däremot så pekar personlighetsfaktorer i stor utsträckning på vem som väljer att uttryckligen nedvärdera utsatta grupper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. p. 118
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 91
Keywords
Prejudice, Personality, Explicit attitudes, Implicit attitudes, Ethnocentrism, Big Five, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, Fördomar, Personlighet, Attityder, Ingruppsfavoritism, Femfaktormodellen, Vänlighet, Öppenhet för nya erfarenheter
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210292 (URN)978-91-554-8810-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-12-20, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, 753 10 Uppsala, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-11-29 Created: 2013-11-04 Last updated: 2014-02-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications