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Ljungkvist, John, DocentORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3318-4574
Publications (10 of 43) Show all publications
Wärmländer, S. K. T., Ljungkvist, J., Jahrehorn, M. & Hennius, A. (2023). A 6th-8th c. wire-drawing iron plate with silver residue from a Vendel Period workshop in Old Uppsala, Sweden. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 51, Article ID 104193.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 6th-8th c. wire-drawing iron plate with silver residue from a Vendel Period workshop in Old Uppsala, Sweden
2023 (English)In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2352-4103, Vol. 51, article id 104193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Metal wire is in modern society manufactured by drawing metal rods through dies with conical holes of decreasing diameters, until the desired thickness is obtained. The history and origin of this technique remains unclear, although it was likely developed from earlier wire-making techniques such as strip-drawing and rolldrawing. Proper wire-drawing was an established technology in Europe during the High Middle Ages, and numerous draw-plates have been found at Scandinavian Viking Age trading centers. Here, we report the technical examination of an iron draw-plate found in Uppsala in central Sweden. The draw-plate was excavated in a Vendel Period fine metals workshop, located immediately next to the royal hall in Old Uppsala, the central building of the royal estate in the 6th -8th c. X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the draw-plate revealed silver particles in the plate's holes, indicating drawing of silver wire. The plate is dated to the 6th - 8th c., which makes it one of the oldest confirmed tools for wire-drawing so far encountered. The presence of this tool in the workshop indicates that some high-quality jewelry in this region was locally produced. Thus, the finding of this draw-plate increases our understanding of Vendel Period jewelry production, and of the social organization of this craft.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Archaeometallurgy, Wire drawing, SEM-EDS analysis, Scandinavian Archaeology, Early Medieval Period
National Category
Archaeology History of Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-515589 (URN)10.1016/j.jasrep.2023.104193 (DOI)001081817500001 ()
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, J. & Lindholm, K.-J. (2023). Bears and the Viking Age transition in Sweden. In: Oliver Grimm (Ed.), Bear and Human: Facets of a Multi-Layered Relationship from Past to Recent Times, with Emphasis on Northern Europe (pp. 387-404). Turnhout: Brepols
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bears and the Viking Age transition in Sweden
2023 (English)In: Bear and Human: Facets of a Multi-Layered Relationship from Past to Recent Times, with Emphasis on Northern Europe / [ed] Oliver Grimm, Turnhout: Brepols, 2023, p. 387-404Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The main objective of this paper is to generate a deeper understanding of bear and human relationships in the 1st millennium AD. This will primarily be achieved by the analysis of a detailed chronology of bear phalanges from Iron Age burials. The aim is to note changes in the deposition patterns of bear remains in burials in order to identify human impact - which we consider significant for hunting pressure - on the Scandinavian bear populations of the 1st millennium AD. The authors suggest that bear hunting can be considered as part of the larger processes of intensified exploitation of the boreal forest in the Iron Age that contributed to the formation of interregional trade networks. It is suggested that this exploitation affected the bear population to such an extent that overused animal resources can be understood as one of several contributing factors behind the Viking expansion outside Scandinavia. An understanding of bear and human relationships will contribute to a better knowledge of the cultural history of Scandinavia’s forested region and of interregional contacts with the central agricultural regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Turnhout: Brepols, 2023
Series
The Archaeology of Northern Europe ; 3
Keywords
Bear, Ursus arctos, archaeology, historical ecology, Viking Age, transition
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-513077 (URN)10.1484/M.TANE-EB.5.134342 (DOI)978-2-503-60613-2 (ISBN)
Projects
Viking PhenomenonUTMA
Available from: 2023-10-03 Created: 2023-10-03 Last updated: 2024-06-12Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, J. & Raffield, B. (2023). Cult Buildings and Ritual Sites: A view from Gamla Uppsala. In: Leszek Gardela, Sophie Bønding, and Peter Pentz (Ed.), The Norse Sorceress: Mind and Materiality in the Viking World (pp. 63-72). Oxford: Oxbow Books
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cult Buildings and Ritual Sites: A view from Gamla Uppsala
2023 (English)In: The Norse Sorceress: Mind and Materiality in the Viking World / [ed] Leszek Gardela, Sophie Bønding, and Peter Pentz, Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2023, p. 63-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the years around 1080, a German scholar and priest in Hamburg wrote a short description of a famous pagan temple in Uppsala, Sweden. It was a sanctuary entirely made of gold where the people worshipped the idols of three gods; Thor, Wodan, and Fricco, who are often presumed to represent the pre-Christian gods Þórr, Óðinn, Freyr. Þórr was the mightiest, sitting on a throne in the middle of a sal (‘hall or room’), flanked by Óðinn and Freyr.¹ The scholar who penned this account was named Adam of Bremen, and his writings are preserved today in the book Gesta...

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2023
Keywords
Norse religion, temple, cult house, Viking Age, Gamla Uppsala
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-510408 (URN)10.2307/jj.5699282.11 (DOI)978-1-78925-953-7 (ISBN)978-1-78925-954-4 (ISBN)
Projects
Viking phenomenon
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015–00466
Available from: 2023-08-29 Created: 2023-08-29 Last updated: 2024-06-25Bibliographically approved
Hedenstierna-Jonson, C. & Ljungkvist, J. (2023). Elite Burials with Bohemian Garnets in Vendel Period Sweden. In: Jaroslav Jiřík; Kateřina Blažková; Jana Bezáková; Barry Ager et al. (Ed.), Royal Insignia of Late Antiquity from Mšec and Řevničov: Magnificent Finds from the Migration Period from Central Bohemia (pp. 194-199). Rakovník: Museum in Rakovník
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elite Burials with Bohemian Garnets in Vendel Period Sweden
2023 (English)In: Royal Insignia of Late Antiquity from Mšec and Řevničov: Magnificent Finds from the Migration Period from Central Bohemia / [ed] Jaroslav Jiřík; Kateřina Blažková; Jana Bezáková; Barry Ager et al., Rakovník: Museum in Rakovník , 2023, p. 194-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper is a short note on two elite burilas from present day Sweden. Dated to the Vendel period, i.e. the equivalent of the Merovingian period in Swedish historical writing, these two burials contain the only known examples of Bohemian garnets in the Swedish archaeological material. In the text, the two burials will be presented and the garnets contexualised and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rakovník: Museum in Rakovník, 2023
Keywords
Garnets, Bohemian garnets, Vendel Period, Merovingian Period, elite burials
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-505589 (URN)978-80-85081-46-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2023-06-21Bibliographically approved
Hennius, A., Ljungkvist, J., Ashby, S., Christensen, T., Presslee, S., Peets, J., . . . Hagan, R. (2023). Late Iron Age Whaling in Scandinavia. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 18(1), 1-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Late Iron Age Whaling in Scandinavia
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2023 (English)In: International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, ISSN 1057-2414, E-ISSN 1095-9270, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of marine mammal bone as a raw material in the manufacturing of gaming pieces in the Scandinavian late Iron Age has been observed and discussed in recent years. New empirical studies have created a chronology as well as a typology showing how the design of the gaming pieces is tightly connected to different choices of raw material; from antler in the Roman and Migration periods, to whale bone in the sixth century, and walrus in the tenth century. Macroscopic examination can, however, rarely go beyond determining that the material is ‘cetacean bone’. The following article presents the taxonomic identifications of 68 samples of whale bone gaming pieces, determined using Zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry analysis. The results demonstrate the consistent use of bones from Balaenidae sp. most probably the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). This paper presents strong evidence for active, large-scale hunting of whales in Scandinavia, starting in the sixth century. The manufacture of gaming pieces was probably not the driver for the hunt, but merely a by-product that has survived in the archaeological record. Of greater importance were probably baleen, meat, and blubber that could be rendered into oil. This oil might have been an additional trading product in the far-reaching trade networks that were developing during the period. This study supports previous studies suggesting that Iron Age and medieval trade and resource exploitation had a much more severe influence on ecosystems than previously expected. It adds additional insights into anthropogenic impact on mammal populations in prehistory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Whales, gaming pieces, whaling, viking age
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-491226 (URN)10.1007/s11457-022-09349-w (DOI)000900801500001 ()
Projects
Viking phenomenon project
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00466
Available from: 2022-12-19 Created: 2022-12-19 Last updated: 2023-05-31Bibliographically approved
Ögren, A., Hedenstierna-Jonson, C., Ljungkvist, J., Raffield, B. & Price, N. (2022). New institutional economics in Viking studies: Visualising immaterial culture. Archaeological Dialogues, 29(2), 172-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New institutional economics in Viking studies: Visualising immaterial culture
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2022 (English)In: Archaeological Dialogues, ISSN 1380-2038, E-ISSN 1478-2294, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 172-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we argue that closer engagement with the field of new institutional economics (NIE) has the potential to provide researchers with a new theoretical toolbox that can be used to study economic and social practices that are not readily traceable in material culture. NIE assumes that individual actions are based on bounded rationality and that the existence of rules (institutions) and their enforcement – the institutional framework – influences agents’ actions by providing different incentives and probabilities for different choices. Within this theoretical framework, we identify a number of concepts, such as collective identity and mobile jurisdictions, that seem to fit what we know of Viking age economic systems. In applying these models to the available archaeological and textual data, we outline the ways in which further research could provide a new understanding of economic interaction within a rapidly evolving context of diaspora and change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2022
Keywords
Collectives, Economic theory, Oaths, Jurisdictions, Trade and Taxation
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-485572 (URN)10.1017/s138020382200023x (DOI)000860806200001 ()
Projects
Viking Phenomenon
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00466
Available from: 2022-09-26 Created: 2022-09-26 Last updated: 2023-08-22Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, J. (2022). The birth of a kingdom: Warrior graves and royal residences in a changeable world (1ed.). In: Kristjan Jensen (Ed.), Out of chaos: Between the Roman Eagle and Odin's ravens (pp. 125-135). Jysk Arkæologisk Selskab
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The birth of a kingdom: Warrior graves and royal residences in a changeable world
2022 (English)In: Out of chaos: Between the Roman Eagle and Odin's ravens / [ed] Kristjan Jensen, Jysk Arkæologisk Selskab, 2022, 1, p. 125-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jysk Arkæologisk Selskab, 2022 Edition: 1
Keywords
Vendel Period, Gamla Uppsala, Valsgärde, royal, centres
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-511824 (URN)978-87-93251-55-7 (ISBN)
Projects
Viking phenomenon
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00466
Available from: 2023-09-15 Created: 2023-09-15 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, J. (2022). Vikingabrallor med knäband. Populär arkeologi (5), 50-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vikingabrallor med knäband
2022 (Swedish)In: Populär arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014X, no 5, p. 50-50Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Keywords
Vikingatiden, kläder
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-491225 (URN)
Available from: 2022-12-19 Created: 2022-12-19 Last updated: 2023-06-28Bibliographically approved
Hedenstierna-Jonson, C. & Ljungkvist, J. (2021). Horses and Burials in Late Iron-Age Central Sweden: The Examples of Valsgärde and Birka. In: Anne Pedersen & Merethe Schifter Bagge (Ed.), Anne Pedersen & Merethe Schifter Bagge (Ed.), Horse and Rider in the late Viking Age: Equestrian burial in perspective. Paper presented at Horse and Rider in the late Viking Age, Skanderborg, 27-28 June 2019 (pp. 223-243). Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Horses and Burials in Late Iron-Age Central Sweden: The Examples of Valsgärde and Birka
2021 (English)In: Horse and Rider in the late Viking Age: Equestrian burial in perspective / [ed] Anne Pedersen & Merethe Schifter Bagge, Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2021, p. 223-243Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The inclusion of horses in burials is a well-known aspect of Scandinavian funerary prac­tices. Among so-called warrior burials of the late Scandinavian Iron Age in central Sweden, i.e. the Vendel and Viking periods (c. AD 556/70–1100), horses and horse equipment constitute some of the most prominent objects in the graves. In com­bination with full weapon sets, horse equipment is a key indicator of high-status warriors, and has been found buried in boats, chambers and various kinds of cremation burials (Pedersen 2014; Sun­dkvist 2001). In some regions, horse burials are mainly an elite phenomenon, while in others they occur more frequently. There are also differences in how they are furnished. Riding equipment can be relatively common, while buried horses them­selves are few (Pedersen 2014, 176–222). In the Lake Mälaren Region of central Swe­den, horses in burials are not unusual, and the practice can be identified in most burial grounds, particularly those dated to the Vendel Period (AD 560/70–750/800) (Petré 1984; 1999; 2000; 2011; Seiler 2001; Magnell et al. 2017, fig. 90). In rich graves from the Viking Age, such as the cham­ber burials from Birka and the boat graves from Vendel and Valsgärde, horses appear to have been a necessary component of the funerary assem­blage. While Vendel and Valsgärde could be seen as particular expressions of a regional society and rooted in tradition, Birka represents a new form of social structure and setting, i.e. an urban milieu on a small island in Lake Mälaren (Fig. 1). This contribution is a product of the Swedish Research Council-funded ‘Viking Phenomenon’ project, part of which is a detailed study of all boat burials from the Valsgärde cemetery. This has presented us with an opportunity to identify larger patterns in the deposition of horses and/ or horse equipment in Valsgärde and other rural sites north of Lake Mälaren (Valsgärde, Vendel, Tuna in Alsike and Gamla Uppsala). These graves represent places that have unique characteristics, but also have enough in common to be considered a group of elite rural burials that can be compared with those from Birka – particularly the chamber graves. Though well-known and often referred to, the horses and horse equipment in the elaborate burials in Birka have not yet been examined in depth. In fact, a comprehensive study of horses in all of Birka’s contexts has yet to be made. The Valsgärde and Vendel horse equipment has been partially discussed in several cases (see for exam­ple Arwidssson 1942; 1954; 1977; Sundkvist 2001), but we still lack comprehensive studies of horse equipment, particularly with regards to how dif­ferent kinds of equipment are related to individ­ual horses. A study that combines genetic and osteological analyses with careful examination of the equipment could reveal more about the prac­tical and funerary role of a horse, and also create biographies of individual horses. The aim of this chapter is twofold. First, we will present and compare depositional patterns of horse-related equipment from the Valsgärde and Vendel boat graves. We will then discuss these in comparison to the use of horses and horse equip­ment in burials at Birka, and in doing so pose a number of questions for future consideration concerning the way in which horse-related items reflect the roles played by horses in funerary set­tings. It is necessary to state at the outset that we will focus primarily on the evidence from various forms of inhumation burials. Although cremation was the predominate burial rite in Scandinavia for much of the late Iron Age, the inevitable destruc­tion of burial goods during the cremation process itself prevents us from exploring this material within the context of this initial study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2021
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-466104 (URN)9788771849981 (ISBN)
Conference
Horse and Rider in the late Viking Age, Skanderborg, 27-28 June 2019
Projects
The Viking Phenomenon
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00466
Available from: 2022-01-24 Created: 2022-01-24 Last updated: 2022-04-11Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, J. (2021). Reflections on Residences from one Scandinavian Experience. Norwegian Archaeological Review, 54(1-2), 72-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflections on Residences from one Scandinavian Experience
2021 (English)In: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 54, no 1-2, p. 72-74Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RoutledgeRoutledge, 2021
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-469995 (URN)10.1080/00293652.2021.1955410 (DOI)000701192100001 ()
Available from: 2022-03-18 Created: 2022-03-18 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3318-4574

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