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Mann, Richard
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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Mann, R. P., Herbert-Read, J. E., Ma, Q., Jordan, L. A., Sumpter, D. J. T. & Ward, A. J. (2014). A model comparison reveals dynamic social information drives the movements of humbug damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 11(90), 20130794.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model comparison reveals dynamic social information drives the movements of humbug damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus)
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2014 (English)In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 11, no 90, 20130794- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Animals make use a range of social information to inform their movement decisions. One common movement rule, found across many different species, is that the probability that an individual moves to an area increases with the number of conspecifics there. However, in many cases, it remains unclear what social cues produce this and other similar movement rules. Here, we investigate what cues are used by damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus) when repeatedly crossing back and forth between two coral patches in an experimental arena. We find that an individual's decision to move is best predicted by the recent movements of conspecifics either to or from that individual's current habitat. Rather than actively seeking attachment to a larger group, individuals are instead prioritizing highly local and dynamic information with very limited spatial and temporal ranges. By reanalysing data in which the same species crossed for the first time to a new coral patch, we show that the individuals use static cues in this case. This suggests that these fish alter their information usage according to the structure and familiarity of their environment by using stable information when moving to a novel area and localized dynamic information when moving between familiar areas.

Keyword
collective behaviour, collective decision-making, Bayesian model selection, social information
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221719 (URN)10.1098/rsif.2013.0794 (DOI)000332384400003 ()
Note

De två första författarna delar första författarskapet.

Available from: 2014-04-04 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ranganathan, S., Spaiser, V., Mann, R. P. & Sumpter, D. J. T. (2014). Bayesian Dynamical Systems Modelling in the Social Sciences. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e86468.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bayesian Dynamical Systems Modelling in the Social Sciences
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, e86468- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data arising from social systems is often highly complex, involving non-linear relationships between the macro-level variables that characterize these systems. We present a method for analyzing this type of longitudinal or panel data using differential equations. We identify the best non-linear functions that capture interactions between variables, employing Bayes factor to decide how many interaction terms should be included in the model. This method punishes overly complicated models and identifies models with the most explanatory power. We illustrate our approach on the classic example of relating democracy and economic growth, identifying non-linear relationships between these two variables. We show how multiple variables and variable lags can be accounted for and provide a toolbox in R to implement our approach.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-219971 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0086468 (DOI)000330240500135 ()
Available from: 2014-03-12 Created: 2014-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Farine, D. R., Aplin, L. M., Garroway, C. J., Mann, R. P. & Sheldon, B. C. (2014). Collective decision making and social interaction rules in mixed-species flocks of songbirds. Animal Behaviour, 95, 173-182.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collective decision making and social interaction rules in mixed-species flocks of songbirds
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2014 (English)In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 95, 173-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Associations in mixed-species foraging groups are common in animals, yet have rarely been explored in the context of collective behaviour. Despite many investigations into the social and ecological conditions under which individuals should form groups, we still know little about the specific behavioural rules that individuals adopt in these contexts, or whether these can be generalized to heterospecifics. Here, we studied collective behaviour in flocks in a community of five species of woodland passerine birds. We adopted an automated data collection protocol, involving visits by RFID-tagged birds to feeding stations equipped with antennae, over two winters, recording 91576 feeding events by 1904 individuals. We demonstrated highly synchronized feeding behaviour within patches, with birds moving towards areas of the patch with the largest proportion of the flock. Using a model of collective decision making, we then explored the underlying decision rule birds may be using when foraging in mixed-species flocks. The model tested whether birds used a different decision rule for conspecifics and heterospecifics, and whether the rules used by individuals of different species varied. We found that species differed in their response to the distribution of conspecifics and heterospecifics across foraging patches. However, simulating decisions using the different rules, which reproduced our data well, suggested that the outcome of using different decision rules by each species resulted in qualitatively similar overall patterns of movement. It is possible that the decision rules each species uses may be adjusted to variation in mean species abundance in order for individuals to maintain the same overall flock-level response. This is likely to be important for maintaining coordinated behaviour across species, and to result in quick and adaptive flock responses to food resources that are patchily distributed in space and time.  

Keyword
collective behaviour, Cyanistes caeruleus, decision making, interspecific interaction, mixed-species flocking, Paridae, Parus major, social information use
National Category
Ecology Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-235077 (URN)10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.07.008 (DOI)000341355900020 ()
Available from: 2014-10-29 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Aplin, L. M., Farine, D. R., Mann, R. P. & Sheldon, B. C. (2014). Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 281(1789), 20141016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1789, 20141016- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is increasing evidence that animal groups can maintain coordinated behaviour and make collective decisions based on simple interaction rules. Effective collective action may be further facilitated by individual variation within groups, particularly through leader-follower polymorphisms. Recent studies have suggested that individual-level personality traits influence the degree to which individuals use social information, are attracted to conspecifics, or act as leaders/followers. However, evidence is equivocal and largely limited to laboratory studies. We use an automated data-collection system to conduct an experiment testing the relationship between personality and collective decision-making in the wild. First, we report that foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) show strikingly synchronous behaviour. A predictive model of collective decision-making replicates patterns well, suggesting simple interaction rules are sufficient to explain the observed social behaviour. Second, within groups, individuals with more reactive personalities behave more collectively, moving to within-flock areas of higher density. By contrast, proactive individuals tend to move to and feed at spatial periphery of flocks. Finally, comparing alternative simulations of flocking with empirical data, we demonstrate that variation in personality promotes within-patch movement while maintaining group cohesion. Our results illustrate the importance of incorporating individual variability in models of social behaviour.

Keyword
collective decision-making, leader-follower, social information, group foraging, behavioural type, Parus major
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230062 (URN)10.1098/rspb.2014.1016 (DOI)000339164400024 ()24990682 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-19 Created: 2014-08-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Mann, R. P., Armstrong, C., Meade, J., Freeman, R., Biro, D. & Guilford, T. (2014). Landscape complexity influences route-memory formation in navigating pigeons. Biology Letters, 10(1), 20130885.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landscape complexity influences route-memory formation in navigating pigeons
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2014 (English)In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 10, no 1, 20130885- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Observations of the flight paths of pigeons navigating from familiar locations have shown that these birds are able to learn and subsequently follow habitual routes home. It has been suggested that navigation along these routes is based on the recognition of memorized visual landmarks. Previous research has identified the effect of landmarks on flight path structure, and thus the locations of potentially salient sites. Pigeons have also been observed to be particularly attracted to strong linear features in the landscape, such as roads and rivers. However, a more general understanding of the specific characteristics of the landscape that facilitate route learning has remained out of reach. In this study, we identify landscape complexity as a key predictor of the fidelity to the habitual route, and thus conclude that pigeons form route memories most strongly in regions where the landscape complexity is neither too great nor too low. Our results imply that pigeons process their visual environment on a characteristic spatial scale while navigating and can explain the different degrees of success in reproducing route learning in different geographical locations.

Keyword
pigeon, navigation, homing, familiar area, landmark, vision
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221721 (URN)10.1098/rsbl.2013.0885 (DOI)000332377500006 ()
Available from: 2014-04-04 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Forsman, J., Mann, R. P., Linder, C. & Van den Bogaard, M. (2014). Sandbox University: Estimating Influence of Institutional Action. PLoS ONE, 9(7), e103261.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sandbox University: Estimating Influence of Institutional Action
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 7, e103261- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The approach presented in this article represents a generalizable and adaptable methodology for identifying complexinteractions in educational systems and for investigating how manipulation of these systems may affect educationaloutcomes of interest. Multilayer Minimum Spanning Tree and Monte-Carlo methods are used. A virtual Sandbox Universityis created in order to facilitate effective identification of successful and stable initiatives within higher education, which canaffect students’ credits and student retention – something that has been lacking up until now. The results highlight theimportance of teacher feedback and teacher-student rapport, which is congruent with current educational findings,illustrating the methodology’s potential to provide a new basis for further empirical studies of issues in higher educationfrom a complex systems perspective.

Keyword
Complex systems, Simulations, Higher Education, MCMC
National Category
Didactics Probability Theory and Statistics Information Systems Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230633 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0103261 (DOI)000339614100100 ()25054313 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-27 Created: 2014-08-27 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Strömbom, D., Mann, R. P., Wilson, A. M., Hailes, S., Morton, A. J., Sumpter, D. J. T. & King, A. J. (2014). Solving the shepherding problem: Heuristics for herding autonomous, interacting agents. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 11(100), 20140719.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solving the shepherding problem: Heuristics for herding autonomous, interacting agents
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2014 (English)In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 11, no 100, 20140719- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Herding of sheep by dogs is a powerful example of one individual causing many unwilling individuals to move in the same direction. Similar phenomena are central to crowd control, cleaning the environment and other engineering problems. Despite single dogs solving this 'shepherding problem' every day, it remains unknown which algorithm they employ or whether a general algorithm exists for shepherding. Here, we demonstrate such an algorithm, based on adaptive switching between collecting the agents when they are too dispersed and driving them once they are aggregated. Our algorithm reproduces key features of empirical data collected from sheep-dog interactions and suggests new ways in which robots can be designed to influence movements of living and artificial agents.

National Category
Ecology Other Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-205889 (URN)10.1098/rsif.2014.0719 (DOI)000341383000016 ()
Available from: 2013-09-03 Created: 2013-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Spaiser, V., Ranganathan, S., Mann, R. P. & Sumpter, D. J. T. (2014). The Dynamics of Democracy, Development and Cultural Values. PLoS ONE, 9(6), e97856.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Dynamics of Democracy, Development and Cultural Values
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, e97856- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the past decades many countries have experienced rapid changes in their economies, their democratic institutions and the values of their citizens. Comprehensive data measuring these changes across very different countries has recently become openly available. Between country similarities suggest common underlying dynamics in how countries develop in terms of economy, democracy and cultural values. We apply a novel Bayesian dynamical systems approach to identify the model which best captures the complex, mainly non-linear dynamics that underlie these changes. We show that the level of Human Development Index (HDI) in a country drives first democracy and then higher emancipation of citizens. This change occurs once the countries pass a certain threshold in HDI. The data also suggests that there is a limit to the growth of wealth, set by higher emancipation. Having reached a high level of democracy and emancipation, societies tend towards equilibrium that does not support further economic growth. Our findings give strong empirical evidence against a popular political science theory, known as the Human Development Sequence. Contrary to this theory, we find that implementation of human-rights and democratisation precede increases in emancipative values.

National Category
Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234216 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0097856 (DOI)000341869000014 ()
Available from: 2014-10-15 Created: 2014-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Sasaki, T., Granovskiy, B., Mann, R. P., Sumpter, D. J. T. & Pratt, S. C. (2013). Ant colonies outperform individuals when a sensory discrimination task is difficult but not when it is easy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(34), 13769-13773.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ant colonies outperform individuals when a sensory discrimination task is difficult but not when it is easy
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2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 34, 13769-13773 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

"Collective intelligence" and "wisdom of crowds" refer to situations in which groups achieve more accurate perception and better decisions than solitary agents. Whether groups outperform individuals should depend on the kind of task and its difficulty, but the nature of this relationship remains unknown. Here we show that colonies of Temnothorax ants outperform individuals for a difficult perception task but that individuals do better than groups when the task is easy. Subjects were required to choose the better of two nest sites as the quality difference was varied. For small differences, colonies were more likely than isolated ants to choose the better site, but this relationship was reversed for large differences. We explain these results using a mathematical model, which shows that positive feedback between group members effectively integrates information and sharpens the discrimination of fine differences. When the task is easier the same positive feedback can lock the colony into a suboptimal choice. These results suggest the conditions under which crowds do or do not become wise.

Keyword
group cognition, psychophysics, social insects, biological complexity
National Category
Natural Sciences Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-208082 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1304917110 (DOI)000323271400032 ()
Available from: 2013-09-24 Created: 2013-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Mann, R. P., Faria, J., Sumpter, D. J. T. & Krause, J. (2013). The dynamics of audience applause. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 10(85), 20130466.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The dynamics of audience applause
2013 (English)In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 10, no 85, 20130466- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study of social identity and crowd psychology looks at how and why individual people change their behaviour in response to others. Within a group, a new behaviour can emerge first in a few individuals before it spreads rapidly to all other members. A number of mathematical models have been hypothesized to describe these social contagion phenomena, but these models remain largely untested against empirical data. We used Bayesian model selection to test between various hypotheses about the spread of a simple social behaviour, applause after an academic presentation. Individuals' probability of starting clapping increased in proportion to the number of other audience members already 'infected' by this social contagion, regardless of their spatial proximity. The cessation of applause is similarly socially mediated, but is to a lesser degree controlled by the reluctance of individuals to clap too many times. We also found consistent differences between individuals in their willingness to start and stop clapping. The social contagion model arising from our analysis predicts that the time the audience spends clapping can vary considerably, even in the absence of any differences in the quality of the presentations they have heard.

Keyword
social contagion, SIR model, applause, clapping, Bayesian model selection
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204824 (URN)10.1098/rsif.2013.0466 (DOI)000320610700026 ()
Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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