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Brooks, Samantha
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Publications (10 of 32) Show all publications
Solstrand Dahlberg, L., Wiemerslage, L., Swenne, I., Larsen, A., Stark, J., Rask-Andersen, M., . . . Brooks, S. J. (2017). Adolescents newly diagnosed with eating disorders have structural differences in brain regions linked with eating disorder symptoms. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 71(3), 188-196.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescents newly diagnosed with eating disorders have structural differences in brain regions linked with eating disorder symptoms
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2017 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 71, no 3, 188-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Adults with eating disorders (ED) show brain volume reductions in the frontal, insular, cingulate, and parietal cortices, as well as differences in subcortical regions associated with reward processing. However, little is known about the structural differences in adolescents with behavioural indications of early stage ED.

AIM: This is the first study to investigate structural brain changes in adolescents newly diagnosed with ED compared to healthy controls (HC), and to study whether ED cognitions correlate with structural changes in adolescents with ED of short duration.

METHODS: Fifteen adolescent females recently diagnosed with ED, and 28 age-matched HC individuals, were scanned with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses were conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). ED cognitions were measured with self-report questionnaires and working memory performance was measured with a neuropsychological computerized test.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The left superior temporal gyrus had a smaller volume in adolescents with ED than in HC, which correlated with ED cognitions (concerns about eating, weight, and shape). Working memory reaction time correlated positively with insula volumes in ED participants, but not HC. In ED, measurements of restraint and obsession was negatively correlated with temporal gyrus volumes, and positively correlated with cerebellar and striatal volumes. Thus, adolescents with a recent diagnosis of ED had volumetric variations in brain areas linked to ED cognitions, obsessions, and working memory. The findings emphasize the importance of early identification of illness, before potential long-term effects on structure and behaviour occur.

Keyword
Eating disorders, adolescents, MRI, eating disorders not otherwise specified, anorexia nervosa
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311299 (URN)10.1080/08039488.2016.1250948 (DOI)000399501200004 ()27844498 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Swedish Brain FoundationSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2017-05-30Bibliographically approved
Heany, S. J., van Honk, J., Stein, D. J. & Brooks, S. J. (2016). A quantitative and qualitative review of the effects of testosterone on the function and structure of the human social-emotional brain. Metabolic brain disease, 31(1), 157-167.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A quantitative and qualitative review of the effects of testosterone on the function and structure of the human social-emotional brain
2016 (English)In: Metabolic brain disease, ISSN 0885-7490, E-ISSN 1573-7365, Vol. 31, no 1, 157-167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social and affective research in humans is increasingly using functional and structural neuroimaging techniques to aid the understanding of how hormones, such as testosterone, modulate a wide range of psychological processes. We conducted a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of testosterone administration, and of fMRI studies that measured endogenous levels of the hormone, in relation to social and affective stimuli. Furthermore, we conducted a review of structural MRI i.e. voxel based morphometry (VBM) studies which considered brain volume in relation to testosterone levels in adults and in children. In the included testosterone administration fMRI studies, which consisted of female samples only, bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal regions as well as the right caudate were significantly activated by social-affective stimuli in the testosterone condition. In the studies considering endogenous levels of testosterone, stimuli-invoked activations relating to testosterone levels were noted in the bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal regions and the brainstem. When the endogenous testosterone studies were split by sex, the significant activation of the brain stem was seen in the female samples only. Significant stimuli-invoked deactivations relating to endogenous testosterone levels were also seen in the right and left amygdala/parahippocampal regions studies. The findings of the VBM studies were less consistent. In adults larger volumes in the limbic and temporal regions were associated with higher endogenous testosterone. In children, boys showed a positive correlation between testosterone and brain volume in many regions, including the amygdala, as well as global grey matter volume, while girls showed a neutral or negative association between testosterone levels and many brain volumes. In conclusion, amygdalar and parahippocampal regions appear to be key target regions for the acute actions of testosterone in response to social and affective stimuli, while neurodevelopmentally the volumes of a broader network of brain structures are associated with testosterone levels in a sexually dimorphic manner.

Keyword
Testosterone, ALE, VBM, fMRI, Amygdala, Hippocampus
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277997 (URN)10.1007/s11011-015-9692-y (DOI)000368730100015 ()26073231 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Gaudio, S., Wiemerslage, L., Brooks, S. J. & Schiöth, H. B. (2016). A systematic review of resting-state functional-MRI studies in anorexia nervosa: Evidence for functional connectivity impairment in cognitive control and visuospatial and body-signal integration. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 578-589.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systematic review of resting-state functional-MRI studies in anorexia nervosa: Evidence for functional connectivity impairment in cognitive control and visuospatial and body-signal integration
2016 (English)In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 71, 578-589 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper systematically reviews the literature pertaining to the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in anorexia nervosa (AN), classifying studies on the basis of different analysis approaches. We followed PRISMA guidelines. Fifteen papers were included, investigating a total of 294 participants with current or past AN and 285 controls. The studies used seed-based, whole-brain independent component analysis (ICA), network-of-interest ICA based and graph analysis approaches. The studies showed relatively consistent overlap in results, yet little overlap in their analytical approach and/or a-priori assumptions. Functional connectivity alterations were mainly found in the corticolimbic circuitry, involved in cognitive control and visual and homeostatic integration. Some overlapping findings were found in brain areas putatively important in AN, such as the insula. These results suggest altered functional connectivity in networks/areas linked to the main symptom domains of AN, such as impaired cognitive control and body image disturbances. These preliminary evidences suggest that more targeted treatments need to be developed that focus on these two symptom domains. Further studies with multi-approach analyses and longitudinal designs are needed to better understand the complexity of AN.

Keyword
Eating disorders, Anorexia nervosa, Neuroimaging, Resting-state, Default mode network, Insula, Cognitive control, Body image disturbances
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314809 (URN)10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.09.032 (DOI)000390502100038 ()27725172 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-06 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Brooks, S. J., Nilsson, E. K., Jacobsson, J. A., Stein, D. J., Fredriksson, R., Lind, L. & Schiöth, H. B. (2014). BDNF polymorphisms are linked to poorer working memory performance, reduced cerebellar and hippocampal volumes and differences in prefrontal cortex in a Swedish elderly population. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e82707.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BDNF polymorphisms are linked to poorer working memory performance, reduced cerebellar and hippocampal volumes and differences in prefrontal cortex in a Swedish elderly population
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, e82707- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) links learning, memory and cognitive decline in elderly, but evidence linking BDNF allele variation, cognition and brain structural differences is lacking.

METHODS: 367 elderly Swedish men (n = 181) and women (n = 186) from Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) were genotyped and the BDNF functional rs6265 SNP was further examined in subjects who completed the Trail Making Task (TMT), verbal fluency task, and had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) examined brain structure, cognition and links with BDNF.

RESULTS: The functional BDNF SNP (rs6265,) predicted better working memory performance on the TMT with positive association of the Met rs6265, and was linked with greater cerebellar, precuneus, left superior frontal gyrus and bilateral hippocampal volume, and reduced brainstem and bilateral posterior cingulate volumes.

CONCLUSIONS: The functional BDNF polymorphism influences brain volume in regions associated with memory and regulation of sensorimotor control, with the Met rs6265 allele potentially being more beneficial to these functions in the elderly.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-220152 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0082707 (DOI)000330288000002 ()24465375 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-03-11 Created: 2014-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Gaudio, S., Brooks, S. J. & Riva, G. (2014). Nonvisual Multisensory Impairment of Body Perception in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Studies. PLoS ONE, 9(10), e110087.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nonvisual Multisensory Impairment of Body Perception in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Studies
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, e110087- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Body image distortion is a central symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Even if corporeal awareness is multisensory majority of AN studies mainly investigated visual misperception. We systematically reviewed AN studies that have investigated different nonvisual sensory inputs using an integrative multisensory approach to body perception. We also discussed the findings in the light of AN neuroimaging evidence. Methods: Pub Med and PsycINFO were searched until March, 2014. To be included in the review, studies were mainly required to: investigate a sample of patients with current or past AN and a control group and use tasks that directly elicited one or more nonvisual sensory domains. Results:Thirteen studies were included. They studied a total of 223 people with current or past AN and 273 control subjects. Overall, results show impairment in tactile and proprioceptive domains of body perception in AN patients. lnteroception and multisensory integration have been poorly explored directly in AN patients. A limitation of this review is the relatively small amount of literature available. Conclusions: Our results showed that AN patients had a multisensory impairment of body perception that goes beyond visual misperception and involves tactile and proprioceptive sensory components. Furthermore, impairment of tactile and proprioceptive components may be associated with parietal cortex alterations in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been weakly explored directly. Further research, using multisensory approaches as well as neuroimaging techniques, is needed to better define the complexity of body image distortion in AN. Key Findings: The review suggests an altered capacity of AN patients in processing and integration of bodily signals: body parts are experienced as dissociated from their holistic and perceptive dimensions. Specifically, it is likely that not only perception but memory, and in particular sensorimotor/proprioceptive memory, probably shapes bodily experience in patients with AN.

National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237926 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0110087 (DOI)000343730400109 ()
Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-08 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Brooks, S. J., Solstrand Dahlberg, L., Swenne, I., Aronsson, M., Zarei, S., Lundberg, L., . . . Schiöth, H. B. (2014). Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder. Psychiatry Research, 224(3), 246-253.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder
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2014 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 224, no 3, 246-253 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The role of rumination at the beginning of eating disorder (ED) is not well understood. We hypothesised that impulsivity, rumination and restriction could be associated with neural activity in response to food stimuli in young individuals with eating disorders (ED). We measured neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tested working memory (WM) and administered the eating disorders examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) and obsessive-compulsive inventory (OCI-R) in 15 adolescent females with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (mean age 15 years) and 20 age-matched healthy control females. We found that EDNOS subjects had significantly higher scores on the BIS 11, EDE-Q and OCI-R scales. Significantly increased neural responses to food images in the EDNOS group were observed in the prefrontal circuitry. OCI-R scores in the EDNOS group also significantly correlated with activity in the prefrontal circuitry and the cerebellum. Significantly slower WM responses negatively correlated with bilateral superior frontal gyrus activity in the EDNOS group. We conclude that ruminations, linked to WM, are present in adolescent females newly diagnosed with EDNOS. These may be risk factors for the development of an eating disorder and may be detectable before disease onset.

National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238468 (URN)10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.10.001 (DOI)000345527900014 ()25456522 (PubMedID)
Funder
Formas, 2011-10552-21603-18
Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Suda, M., Brooks, S., Giampietro, V., Uher, R., Mataix-Cols, D., Brammer, M. J., . . . Campbell, I. C. (2014). Provocation of Symmetry/Ordering Symptoms in Anorexia nervosa: A Functional Neuroimaging Study. PLoS ONE, 9(5), Article ID e97998.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Provocation of Symmetry/Ordering Symptoms in Anorexia nervosa: A Functional Neuroimaging Study
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, e97998Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anorexia nervosa (AN), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) are often co-morbid; however, the aetiology of such co-morbidity has not been well investigated. This study examined brain activation in women with AN and in healthy control (HC) women during the provocation of symmetry/ordering-related anxiety. During provocation, patients with AN showed more anxiety compared to HCs, which was correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. Activation in the right parietal lobe and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) in response to provocation was reduced in the AN group compared with the HC group. The reduced right parietal activation observed in the AN group is consistent with parietal lobe involvement in visuospatial cognition and with studies of OCD reporting an association between structural abnormalities in this region and the severity of 'ordering' symptoms. Reduced rPFC activation in response to symmetry/ordering provocation has similarities with some, but not all, data collected from patients with AN who were exposed to images of food and bodies. Furthermore, the combination of data from the AN and HC groups showed that rPFC activation during symptom provocation was inversely correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. These data suggest that individuals with AN have a diminished ability to cognitively deal with illness-associated symptoms of provocation. Furthermore, our data also suggest that symptom provocation can progressively overload attempts by the rPFC to exert cognitive control. These findings are discussed in the context of the current neurobiological models of AN.

National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-306355 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0097998 (DOI)000339563400078 ()24844926 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-10-27 Created: 2016-10-27 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Meneguzzo, P., Tsakiris, M., Schiöth, H. B., Stein, D. J. & Brooks, S. (2014). Subliminal versus supraliminal stimuli activate neural responses in anterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus and insula: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies. BMC Psychology, 2(1), Article ID 52.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subliminal versus supraliminal stimuli activate neural responses in anterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus and insula: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies
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2014 (English)In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 2, no 1, 52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND

Non-conscious neural activation may underlie various psychological functions in health and disorder. However, the neural substrates of non-conscious processing have not been entirely elucidated. Examining the differential effects of arousing stimuli that are consciously, versus unconsciously perceived will improve our knowledge of neural circuitry involved in non-conscious perception. Here we conduct preliminary analyses of neural activation in studies that have used both subliminal and supraliminal presentation of the same stimulus.

METHODS

We use Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) to examine functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies that uniquely present the same stimuli subliminally and supraliminally to healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We included a total of 193 foci from 9 studies representing subliminal stimulation and 315 foci from 10 studies representing supraliminal stimulation.

RESULTS

The anterior cingulate cortex is significantly activated during both subliminal and supraliminal stimulus presentation. Subliminal stimuli are linked to significantly increased activation in the right fusiform gyrus and right insula. Supraliminal stimuli show significantly increased activation in the left rostral anterior cingulate.

CONCLUSIONS

Non-conscious processing of arousing stimuli may involve primary visual areas and may also recruit the insula, a brain area involved in eventual interoceptive awareness. The anterior cingulate is perhaps a key brain region for the integration of conscious and non-conscious processing. These preliminary data provide candidate brain regions for further study in to the neural correlates of conscious experience.

National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275295 (URN)10.1186/s40359-014-0052-1 (DOI)25593703 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Dalvie, S., Stein, D. J., Koenen, K., Cardenas, V., Cuzen, N. L., Ramesar, R., . . . Brooks, S. J. (2014). The BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, childhood trauma, and brain volumes in adolescents with alcohol abuse. BMC Psychiatry, 14, Article ID 328.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, childhood trauma, and brain volumes in adolescents with alcohol abuse
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2014 (English)In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 14, 328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that early life adversity, genetic factors and alcohol dependence are associated with reduced brain volume in adolescents. However, data on the interactive effects of early life adversity, genetic factors (e.g. p.Met66 allele of BDNF), and alcohol dependence, on brain structure in adolescents is limited. We examined whether the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism interacts with childhood trauma to predict alterations in brain volume in adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUDs).

METHODS: We examined 160 participants (80 adolescents with DSM-IV AUD and 80 age- and gender-matched controls) who were assessed for trauma using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Magnetic resonance images were acquired for a subset of the cohort (58 AUD and 58 controls) and volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Samples were genotyped for the p.Val66Met polymorphism using the TaqMan® Assay. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and post-hoc t-tests were conducted using SPM8 VBM.

RESULTS: No significant associations, corrected for multiple comparisons, were found between the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, brain volumes and AUD in adolescents with childhood trauma.

CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest that the BDNF p.Met66 allele and childhood trauma may not be associated with reduced structural volumes in AUD. Other genetic contributors should be investigated in future studies.

National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275305 (URN)10.1186/s12888-014-0328-2 (DOI)25510982 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Titova, O. E., Hjorth, O. C., Schiöth, H. B. & Brooks, S. J. (2013). Anorexia nervosa is linked to reduced brain structure in reward and somatosensory regions: a meta-analysis of VBM studies. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 110.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anorexia nervosa is linked to reduced brain structure in reward and somatosensory regions: a meta-analysis of VBM studies
2013 (English)In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 13, no 1, 110- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND

Structural imaging studies demonstrate brain tissue abnormalities in eating disorders, yet a quantitative analysis has not been done.

METHODS

In global and regional meta-analyses of 9 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies, with a total of 228 eating disorder participants (currently ill with anorexia nervosa), and 240 age-matched healthy controls, we compare brain volumes using global and regional analyses.

RESULTS

Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have global reductions in gray (effect size = -0.66) and white matter (effect size = -0.74) and increased cerebrospinal fluid (effect size = 0.98) and have regional decreases in left hypothalamus, left inferior parietal lobe, right lentiform nucleus and right caudate, and no significant increases. No significant difference in hemispheric lateralization was found.

CONCLUSIONS

Global and regional meta-analyses suggest that excessive restrained eating as found in those with anorexia nervosa coincides with structural brain changes analogous to clinical symptoms.

Keyword
VBM, ALE, Anorexia nervosa, Gray matter, White matter, Cerebrospinal fluid
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199758 (URN)10.1186/1471-244X-13-110 (DOI)000319396400001 ()23570420 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-05-13 Created: 2013-05-13 Last updated: 2018-01-08Bibliographically approved
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