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Brooks, Samantha
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Publications (10 of 36) Show all publications
Burger, A., Brooks, S. J., Stein, D. J. & Howells, F. M. (2018). The impact of acute and short-term methamphetamine abstinence on brain metabolites: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy chemical shift imaging study. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 185, 226-237
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of acute and short-term methamphetamine abstinence on brain metabolites: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy chemical shift imaging study
2018 (English)In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 185, p. 226-237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Abuse of methamphetamine (MA) is a global health concern. Previous H-1-MRS studies have found that, with methamphetamine abstinence (MAA), there are changes in n-acetyl-aspartate (NAA/Cr), myo-inositol (mI/Cr), choline (Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA), and glutamate with glutamine (Glx) metabolites. Limited studies have investigated the effect of acute MAA, and acute-to-short-term MAA on brain metabolites.

Methods

Adults with chronic MA dependence (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 22) were recruited. Two-dimensional chemical shift H-1-MRS imaging (TR2000 ms, TE30 ms) slice was performed and included voxels in bilateral anterior-cingulate (ACC), frontal-white-matter (FWM), and dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortices (DLPFC). Control participants were scanned once. The MA group was scanned twice, with acute (1.5 +/- 0.6 weeks, n = 31) and short-term MAA (5.1 +/- 0.8 weeks, n = 22). The change in H-1-MRS metabolites over time (n = 19) was also investigated. Standard H-1-MRS metabolites are reported relative to Cr + PCr.

Results

Acute MAA showed lower n-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and n-acetyl-aspartate with n-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAA + NAAG) in left DLPFC, and glycerophosphocholine with phosphocholine (GPC + PCh) in left FWM. Short-term MAA showed lower NAA + NAAG and higher myo-inositol (mI) in right ACC, lower NAA and NAA + NAAG in the left DLPFC, and lower GPC + PCh in left FWM. Over time, MAA showed decreased NAA and NAA + NAAG and increased mI in right ACC, decreased NAA and NAA + NAAG in right FWM, and decreased in mI in left FWM.

Conclusion

In acute MAA, there was damage to the integrity of neuronal tissue, which was enhanced with short-term MAA. From acute to short-term MAA, activation of neuroinflammatory processes are suggested. This is the first H-1-MRS study to report the development of neuroinflammation with loss of neuronal integrity in MAA.

Keywords
Methamphetamine abstinence, H-1-MRS, Neuroinflammation, Neuroimaging
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354245 (URN)10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.11.029 (DOI)000430784100030 ()29471227 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Solstrand Dahlberg, L., Wiemerslage, L., Swenne, I., Larsen, A., Stark, J., Rask-Andersen, M., . . . Brooks, S. J. (2017). Adolescents newly diagnosed with eating disorders have structural differences in brain regions linked with eating disorder symptoms. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 71(3), 188-196
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescents newly diagnosed with eating disorders have structural differences in brain regions linked with eating disorder symptoms
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2017 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 188-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Adults with eating disorders (ED) show brain volume reductions in the frontal, insular, cingulate, and parietal cortices, as well as differences in subcortical regions associated with reward processing. However, little is known about the structural differences in adolescents with behavioural indications of early stage ED.

AIM: This is the first study to investigate structural brain changes in adolescents newly diagnosed with ED compared to healthy controls (HC), and to study whether ED cognitions correlate with structural changes in adolescents with ED of short duration.

METHODS: Fifteen adolescent females recently diagnosed with ED, and 28 age-matched HC individuals, were scanned with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses were conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). ED cognitions were measured with self-report questionnaires and working memory performance was measured with a neuropsychological computerized test.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The left superior temporal gyrus had a smaller volume in adolescents with ED than in HC, which correlated with ED cognitions (concerns about eating, weight, and shape). Working memory reaction time correlated positively with insula volumes in ED participants, but not HC. In ED, measurements of restraint and obsession was negatively correlated with temporal gyrus volumes, and positively correlated with cerebellar and striatal volumes. Thus, adolescents with a recent diagnosis of ED had volumetric variations in brain areas linked to ED cognitions, obsessions, and working memory. The findings emphasize the importance of early identification of illness, before potential long-term effects on structure and behaviour occur.

Keywords
Eating disorders, adolescents, MRI, eating disorders not otherwise specified, anorexia nervosa
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311299 (URN)10.1080/08039488.2016.1250948 (DOI)000399501200004 ()27844498 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Swedish Brain FoundationSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2017-05-30Bibliographically approved
Brooks, S. J., Wiemerslage, L., Burch, K. H., Maiorana, S. A., Cocolas, E., Schiöth, H. B., . . . Stein, D. J. (2017). The impact of cognitive training in substance use disorder: the effect of working memory training on impulse control in methamphetamine users. Psychopharmacology, 234(12), 1911-1921
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of cognitive training in substance use disorder: the effect of working memory training on impulse control in methamphetamine users
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2017 (English)In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 234, no 12, p. 1911-1921Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity is a vulnerability trait for poor self-regulation in substance use disorder (SUD). Working memory (WM) training improves impulsivity and self-regulation in psychiatric disorders. Here we test WM training in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD).

METHODS: There are 15 MUD patients receiving inpatient treatment as usual (TAU) and 20 who additionally completed WM cognitive training (CT) and 25 healthy controls (HC). MANCOVA repeated measures analyses examined changes in impulsivity and self-regulation at baseline and after 4 weeks.

RESULTS:  = 0.3523, p < 0.05). Compared to follow-up TAU, follow-up CT group had higher self-reported mood scores (t = 2.784, p = 0.01) and higher compared to CT baseline (t = 2.386, p = 0.036). Feelings of self-control were higher in CT than TAU at follow-up (t = 2.736, p = 0.012) and also compared to CT baseline (t = 3.390, p = 0.006), lack of planning significantly improved in CT between baseline and follow-up (t = 2.219, p = 0.048), as did total impulsivity scores (t = 2.085, p = 0.048). Measures of self-regulation were improved in the CT group compared to TAU at follow-up, in total score (t = 2.442, p = 0.038), receiving score (t = 2.314, p = 0.029) and searching score (t = 2.362, p = 0.027). Implementing self-regulation was higher in the CT group compared to TAU (t = 2.373, p = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS: WM training may improve control of impulsivity and self-regulation in people with MUD.

Keywords
Impulsivity, Methamphetamine, Self-regulation, Working memory
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342263 (URN)10.1007/s00213-017-4597-6 (DOI)000402460100011 ()28324119 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Brooks, S. J., Funk, S. G., Young, S. Y. & Schiöth, H. B. (2017). The Role of Working Memory for Cognitive Control in Anorexia Nervosa versus Substance Use Disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article ID 1651.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Working Memory for Cognitive Control in Anorexia Nervosa versus Substance Use Disorder
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1651Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prefrontal cortex executive functions, such as working memory (WM) interact with limbic processes to foster impulse control. Such an interaction is referred to in a growing body of publications by terms such as cognitive control, cognitive inhibition, affect regulation, self-regulation, top-down control, and cognitive–emotion interaction. The rising trend of research into cognitive control of impulsivity, using various related terms reflects the importance of research into impulse control, as failure to employ cognitions optimally may eventually result in mental disorder. Against this background, we take a novel approach using an impulse control spectrum model – where anorexia nervosa (AN) and substance use disorder (SUD) are at opposite extremes – to examine the role of WM for cognitive control. With this aim, we first summarize WM processes in the healthy brain in order to frame a systematic review of the neuropsychological, neural and genetic findings of AN and SUD. In our systematic review of WM/cognitive control, we found n = 15 studies of AN with a total of n = 582 AN and n = 365 HC participants; and n = 93 studies of SUD with n = 9106 SUD and n = 3028 HC participants. In particular, we consider how WM load/capacity may support the neural process of excessive epistemic foraging (cognitive sampling of the environment to test predictions about the world) in AN that reduces distraction from salient stimuli. We also consider the link between WM and cognitive control in people with SUD who are prone to ‘jumping to conclusions’ and reduced epistemic foraging. Finally, in light of our review, we consider WM training as a novel research tool and an adjunct to enhance treatment that improves cognitive control of impulsivity.

Keywords
anorexia nervosa, cognitive control, genetic, neural, neuropsychology, substance use disorder, working memory, working memory training
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342252 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01651 (DOI)000411427000002 ()29018381 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Brooks, S., Lochner, C., Shoptaw, S. & Stein, D. J. (2017). Using the research domain criteria (RDoC) to conceptualize impulsivity and compulsivity in relation to addiction. In: Calvey, T Daniels, WMU (Ed.), Brain Research In Addiction: (pp. 177-218). ELSEVIER
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the research domain criteria (RDoC) to conceptualize impulsivity and compulsivity in relation to addiction
2017 (English)In: Brain Research In Addiction / [ed] Calvey, T Daniels, WMU, ELSEVIER , 2017, p. 177-218Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nomenclature for mental disorder was updated in 2013 with the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). In DSM-5, substance use disorders are framed as more dimensional. First, the distinction between abuse and dependence is replaced by substance use. Second, the addictions section now covers both substances and behavioral addictions. This contemporary move toward dimensionality and transdiagnosis in the addictions and other disorders embrace accumulating cognitive-affective neurobiological evidence that is reflected in the United States' National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (NIH RDoC). TheRDoCcalls for the further development of transdiagnostic approaches to psychopathy and includes five domains to improve research. Additionally, the RDoC suggests that these domains can be measured in terms of specific units of analysis. In line with these suggestions, recent publications have stimulated updated neurobiological conceptualizations of two transdiagnostic concepts, namely impulsivity and compulsivity and their interactions that are applicable to addictive disorders. However, there has not yet been a review to examine the constructs of impulsivity and compulsivity in relation to addiction in light of the research-oriented RDoC. By doing so it may become clearer as to whether impulsivity and compulsivity function antagonistically, complementarily or in some other way at the behavioral, cognitive, and neural level and how this relationship underpins addiction. Thus, here we consider research into impulsivity and compulsivity in light of the transdiagnostic RDoC to help better understand these concepts and their application to evidence-based clinical intervention for addiction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2017
Series
Progress in Brain Research, ISSN 0079-6123 ; 235
Keywords
RDoC, Impulsivity, Compulsivity, Addiction, ADHD, Obsessive-compulsive and related, disorders
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346636 (URN)10.1016/bs.pbr.2017.08.002 (DOI)000414554400009 ()29054288 (PubMedID)978-0-12-813501-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved
Heany, S. J., van Honk, J., Stein, D. J. & Brooks, S. J. (2016). A quantitative and qualitative review of the effects of testosterone on the function and structure of the human social-emotional brain. Metabolic brain disease, 31(1), 157-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A quantitative and qualitative review of the effects of testosterone on the function and structure of the human social-emotional brain
2016 (English)In: Metabolic brain disease, ISSN 0885-7490, E-ISSN 1573-7365, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 157-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social and affective research in humans is increasingly using functional and structural neuroimaging techniques to aid the understanding of how hormones, such as testosterone, modulate a wide range of psychological processes. We conducted a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of testosterone administration, and of fMRI studies that measured endogenous levels of the hormone, in relation to social and affective stimuli. Furthermore, we conducted a review of structural MRI i.e. voxel based morphometry (VBM) studies which considered brain volume in relation to testosterone levels in adults and in children. In the included testosterone administration fMRI studies, which consisted of female samples only, bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal regions as well as the right caudate were significantly activated by social-affective stimuli in the testosterone condition. In the studies considering endogenous levels of testosterone, stimuli-invoked activations relating to testosterone levels were noted in the bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal regions and the brainstem. When the endogenous testosterone studies were split by sex, the significant activation of the brain stem was seen in the female samples only. Significant stimuli-invoked deactivations relating to endogenous testosterone levels were also seen in the right and left amygdala/parahippocampal regions studies. The findings of the VBM studies were less consistent. In adults larger volumes in the limbic and temporal regions were associated with higher endogenous testosterone. In children, boys showed a positive correlation between testosterone and brain volume in many regions, including the amygdala, as well as global grey matter volume, while girls showed a neutral or negative association between testosterone levels and many brain volumes. In conclusion, amygdalar and parahippocampal regions appear to be key target regions for the acute actions of testosterone in response to social and affective stimuli, while neurodevelopmentally the volumes of a broader network of brain structures are associated with testosterone levels in a sexually dimorphic manner.

Keywords
Testosterone, ALE, VBM, fMRI, Amygdala, Hippocampus
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277997 (URN)10.1007/s11011-015-9692-y (DOI)000368730100015 ()26073231 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Gaudio, S., Wiemerslage, L., Brooks, S. J. & Schiöth, H. B. (2016). A systematic review of resting-state functional-MRI studies in anorexia nervosa: Evidence for functional connectivity impairment in cognitive control and visuospatial and body-signal integration. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 578-589
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systematic review of resting-state functional-MRI studies in anorexia nervosa: Evidence for functional connectivity impairment in cognitive control and visuospatial and body-signal integration
2016 (English)In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 71, p. 578-589Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper systematically reviews the literature pertaining to the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in anorexia nervosa (AN), classifying studies on the basis of different analysis approaches. We followed PRISMA guidelines. Fifteen papers were included, investigating a total of 294 participants with current or past AN and 285 controls. The studies used seed-based, whole-brain independent component analysis (ICA), network-of-interest ICA based and graph analysis approaches. The studies showed relatively consistent overlap in results, yet little overlap in their analytical approach and/or a-priori assumptions. Functional connectivity alterations were mainly found in the corticolimbic circuitry, involved in cognitive control and visual and homeostatic integration. Some overlapping findings were found in brain areas putatively important in AN, such as the insula. These results suggest altered functional connectivity in networks/areas linked to the main symptom domains of AN, such as impaired cognitive control and body image disturbances. These preliminary evidences suggest that more targeted treatments need to be developed that focus on these two symptom domains. Further studies with multi-approach analyses and longitudinal designs are needed to better understand the complexity of AN.

Keywords
Eating disorders, Anorexia nervosa, Neuroimaging, Resting-state, Default mode network, Insula, Cognitive control, Body image disturbances
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314809 (URN)10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.09.032 (DOI)000390502100038 ()27725172 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-06 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Brooks, S. J., Nilsson, E. K., Jacobsson, J. A., Stein, D. J., Fredriksson, R., Lind, L. & Schiöth, H. B. (2014). BDNF polymorphisms are linked to poorer working memory performance, reduced cerebellar and hippocampal volumes and differences in prefrontal cortex in a Swedish elderly population. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e82707
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BDNF polymorphisms are linked to poorer working memory performance, reduced cerebellar and hippocampal volumes and differences in prefrontal cortex in a Swedish elderly population
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, p. e82707-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) links learning, memory and cognitive decline in elderly, but evidence linking BDNF allele variation, cognition and brain structural differences is lacking.

METHODS: 367 elderly Swedish men (n = 181) and women (n = 186) from Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) were genotyped and the BDNF functional rs6265 SNP was further examined in subjects who completed the Trail Making Task (TMT), verbal fluency task, and had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) examined brain structure, cognition and links with BDNF.

RESULTS: The functional BDNF SNP (rs6265,) predicted better working memory performance on the TMT with positive association of the Met rs6265, and was linked with greater cerebellar, precuneus, left superior frontal gyrus and bilateral hippocampal volume, and reduced brainstem and bilateral posterior cingulate volumes.

CONCLUSIONS: The functional BDNF polymorphism influences brain volume in regions associated with memory and regulation of sensorimotor control, with the Met rs6265 allele potentially being more beneficial to these functions in the elderly.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-220152 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0082707 (DOI)000330288000002 ()24465375 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-03-11 Created: 2014-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Gaudio, S., Brooks, S. J. & Riva, G. (2014). Nonvisual Multisensory Impairment of Body Perception in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Studies. PLoS ONE, 9(10), e110087
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nonvisual Multisensory Impairment of Body Perception in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Studies
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e110087-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Body image distortion is a central symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Even if corporeal awareness is multisensory majority of AN studies mainly investigated visual misperception. We systematically reviewed AN studies that have investigated different nonvisual sensory inputs using an integrative multisensory approach to body perception. We also discussed the findings in the light of AN neuroimaging evidence. Methods: Pub Med and PsycINFO were searched until March, 2014. To be included in the review, studies were mainly required to: investigate a sample of patients with current or past AN and a control group and use tasks that directly elicited one or more nonvisual sensory domains. Results:Thirteen studies were included. They studied a total of 223 people with current or past AN and 273 control subjects. Overall, results show impairment in tactile and proprioceptive domains of body perception in AN patients. lnteroception and multisensory integration have been poorly explored directly in AN patients. A limitation of this review is the relatively small amount of literature available. Conclusions: Our results showed that AN patients had a multisensory impairment of body perception that goes beyond visual misperception and involves tactile and proprioceptive sensory components. Furthermore, impairment of tactile and proprioceptive components may be associated with parietal cortex alterations in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been weakly explored directly. Further research, using multisensory approaches as well as neuroimaging techniques, is needed to better define the complexity of body image distortion in AN. Key Findings: The review suggests an altered capacity of AN patients in processing and integration of bodily signals: body parts are experienced as dissociated from their holistic and perceptive dimensions. Specifically, it is likely that not only perception but memory, and in particular sensorimotor/proprioceptive memory, probably shapes bodily experience in patients with AN.

National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237926 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0110087 (DOI)000343730400109 ()
Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-08 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Brooks, S. J., Solstrand Dahlberg, L., Swenne, I., Aronsson, M., Zarei, S., Lundberg, L., . . . Schiöth, H. B. (2014). Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder. Psychiatry Research, 224(3), 246-253
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder
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2014 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 224, no 3, p. 246-253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The role of rumination at the beginning of eating disorder (ED) is not well understood. We hypothesised that impulsivity, rumination and restriction could be associated with neural activity in response to food stimuli in young individuals with eating disorders (ED). We measured neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tested working memory (WM) and administered the eating disorders examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) and obsessive-compulsive inventory (OCI-R) in 15 adolescent females with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (mean age 15 years) and 20 age-matched healthy control females. We found that EDNOS subjects had significantly higher scores on the BIS 11, EDE-Q and OCI-R scales. Significantly increased neural responses to food images in the EDNOS group were observed in the prefrontal circuitry. OCI-R scores in the EDNOS group also significantly correlated with activity in the prefrontal circuitry and the cerebellum. Significantly slower WM responses negatively correlated with bilateral superior frontal gyrus activity in the EDNOS group. We conclude that ruminations, linked to WM, are present in adolescent females newly diagnosed with EDNOS. These may be risk factors for the development of an eating disorder and may be detectable before disease onset.

National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238468 (URN)10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.10.001 (DOI)000345527900014 ()25456522 (PubMedID)
Funder
Formas, 2011-10552-21603-18
Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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