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Renaud, Guillaume
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Lindqvist, J., Cheng, A. J., Renaud, G., Hardeman, E. C. & Ochala, J. (2013). Distinct Underlying Mechanisms of Limb and Respiratory Muscle Fiber Weaknesses in Nemaline Myopathy. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 72(6), 472-481
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distinct Underlying Mechanisms of Limb and Respiratory Muscle Fiber Weaknesses in Nemaline Myopathy
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, ISSN 0022-3069, E-ISSN 1554-6578, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 472-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nemaline myopathy is the most common congenital myopathy and is caused by mutations in various genes such as ACTA1 (encoding skeletal alpha-actin). It is associated with limb and respiratory muscle weakness. Despite increasing clinical and scientific interest, the molecular and cellular events leading to such weakness remain unknown, which prevents the development of specific therapeutic interventions. To unravel the potential mechanisms involved, we dissected lower limb and diaphragm muscles from a knock-in mouse model of severe nemaline myopathy expressing the ACTA1 His40Tyr actin mutation found in human patients. We then studied a broad range of structural and functional characteristics assessing single-myofiber contraction, protein expression, and electron microscopy. One of the major findings in the diaphragm was the presence of numerous noncontractile areas (including disrupted sarcomeric structures and nemaline bodies). This greatly reduced the number of functional sarcomeres, decreased the force generation capacity at the muscle fiber level, and likely would contribute to respiratory weakness. In limb muscle, by contrast, there were fewer noncontractile areas and they did not seem to have a major role in the pathogenesis of weakness. These divergent muscle-specific results provide new important insights into the pathophysiology of severe nemaline myopathy and crucial information for future development of therapeutic strategies.

Keywords
Actin, Contractile dysfunction, Limb muscle, Nemaline myopathy, Respiratory muscle, Weakness
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204291 (URN)10.1097/NEN.0b013e318293b1cc (DOI)000319454400003 ()
Available from: 2013-07-30 Created: 2013-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Qaisar, R., Renaud, G., Hedström, Y., Pollanen, E., Ronkainen, P., Kaprio, J., . . . Larsson, L. (2013). Hormone replacement therapy improves contractile function and myonuclear organization of single muscle fibres from postmenopausal monozygotic female twin pairs. Journal of Physiology, 591(9), 2333-2344
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hormone replacement therapy improves contractile function and myonuclear organization of single muscle fibres from postmenopausal monozygotic female twin pairs
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 591, no 9, p. 2333-2344Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ageing is associated with a decline in muscle mass and strength leading to increased physical dependency in old age. Postmenopausal women experience a greater decline than men of similar age in parallel with the decrease in female sex steroid hormone production. We recruited six monozygous female twin pairs (5559 years old) where only one twin pair was on hormone replacement therapy (HRT use = 7.8 +/- 4.3 years) to investigate the association of HRT with the cytoplasmic volume supported by individual myonuclei (myonuclear domain (MND) size,) together with specific force at the single fibre level. HRT use was associated with a significantly smaller (approximate to 27%; P < 0.05) mean MND size in muscle fibres expressing the type I but not the IIa myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform. In comparison to non-users, higher specific force was recorded in HRT users both in muscle fibres expressing type I (approximate to 27%; P < 0.05) and type IIa (approximate to 23%; P < 0.05) MyHC isoforms. These differences were fibre-type dependent, i.e. the higher specific force in fast-twitch muscle fibres was primarily caused by higher force per cross-bridge while slow-twitch fibres relied on both a higher number and force per cross-bridge. HRT use had no effect on fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), velocity of unloaded shortening (V0) and relative proportion of MyHC isoforms. In conclusion, HRT appears to have significant positive effects on both regulation of muscle contraction and myonuclei organization in postmenopausal women.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-200673 (URN)10.1113/jphysiol.2012.250092 (DOI)000318299200014 ()
Available from: 2013-06-03 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Renaud, G. (2013). Intensive care Muscle Wasting and Weakness: Underlying Mechanisms, Muscle Specific Differences and a Specific Intervention Strategy. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intensive care Muscle Wasting and Weakness: Underlying Mechanisms, Muscle Specific Differences and a Specific Intervention Strategy
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The intensive care unit (ICU) condition, i.e., immobilisation, sedation and mechanical ventilation, often results in severe muscle wasting and weakness as well as a specific acquired myopathy, i.e., Acute Quadriplegic Myopathy (AQM). The exact mechanisms underlying AQM remain incomplete, but this myopathy is characterised a preferential myosin loss and a decreased muscle membrane leading to a delayed recovery from the primary disease, increased mortality and morbidity and altered quality of life of survivors. This project aims at improving our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the muscle wasting and weakness associated with AQM and explore the effects of a specific intervention strategy. Time-resolved analyses have been undertaken using a unique experimental rodent ICU model and specifically studying the muscle wasting and weakness in limb and diaphragm muscles over a two week period. Further, we used passive mechanical loading in an attempt to alleviate the impaired muscle function and wasting associated with the ICU condition. Subsequently, the knowledge gained from the animal model was translated into a clinical study. Mechanical silencing (absence of external and internal strain) due to immobilisation, pharmacological neuromuscular blockade and sedation, was identified as a key factor triggering the muscle wasting and weakness associated with AQM in limb muscles. In addition, MuRF1, a member of the ubiquitin proteasome degradation pathway is playing a major role in the contractile protein degradation observed in both the diaphragm and limb muscles offering a potential candidate for future therapeutic approaches. Moreover, passive mechanical loading resulted in significant positive effects on muscle structure and function in the rodent ICU model, decreasing muscle atrophy and the loss of force generating capacity. In ICU patients passive mechanical loading improved the muscle fibre force generating capacity but did not affect muscle wasting. Nevertheless, this work strongly supports the importance of early physical therapy and mobilization in deeply sedated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients.

Furthermore, we observed significant differences in the phenotype and mechanism underlying the loss of force generating capacity between the diaphragm and limb muscles in response to controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) and immobilisation. This knowledge will have to be taken into account when designing intervention strategies to alleviate the muscle wasting and weakness that occurs in mechanically ventilated and immobilized ICU patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. p. 57
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 862
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-192531 (URN)978-91-554-8586-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-03-08, Hedstrandsalen, Ingång 70, bv, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-02-14 Created: 2013-01-22 Last updated: 2016-07-19
Renaud, G., Llano-Diez, M., Ravar, B., Gorza, L., Feng, H.-Z., Jin, J.-P., . . . Larsson, L. (2013). Sparing of muscle mass and function by passive loading in an experimental intensive care unit model. Journal of Physiology, 591(5), 1385-1402
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sparing of muscle mass and function by passive loading in an experimental intensive care unit model
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 591, no 5, p. 1385-1402Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The response to mechanical stimuli, i.e., tensegrity, plays an important role in regulating cell physiological and pathophysiological function and the mechanical silencing observed in intensive care unit (ICU) patients leads to a severe and specific muscle wasting condition. This study aims at unravelling the underlying mechanisms and the effects of passive mechanical loading on skeletal muscle mass and function at the gene, protein and cellular levels. A unique experimental rat ICU model has been used allowing long-term (weeks) time-resolved analyses of the effects of standardized unilateral passive mechanical loading on skeletal muscle size and function and underlying mechanisms. Results show that passive mechanical loading alleviated the muscle wasting and the loss of force-generation associated with the ICU intervention, resulting in a doubling of the functional capacity of the loaded vs. the unloaded muscles after a 2-week ICU intervention. We demonstrated that the improved maintenance of muscle mass and function is likely a consequence of a reduced oxidative stress revealed by lower levels of carbonylated proteins, and a reduced loss of the molecular motor protein myosin. A complex temporal gene expression pattern, delineated by microarray analysis, was observed with loading-induced changes in transcript levels of sarcomeric proteins, muscle developmental processes, stress response, ECM/cell adhesion proteins and metabolism. Thus, the results from this study show that passive mechanical loading alleviates the severe negative consequences on muscle size and function associated with the mechanical silencing in ICU patients, strongly supporting early and intense physical therapy in immobilized ICU patients.

National Category
Clinical Laboratory Medicine
Research subject
Clinical Neurophysiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-189247 (URN)10.1113/jphysiol.2012.248724 (DOI)000315514300018 ()23266938 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-12-28 Created: 2012-12-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Qaisar, R., Renaud, G., Morine, K., Barton, E., Sweeney, L. & Larsson, L. (2012). Is functional hypertrophy and specific force coupled with the addition of myonuclei at the single muscle fiber level?. The FASEB Journal, 26(3), 1077-1085
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is functional hypertrophy and specific force coupled with the addition of myonuclei at the single muscle fiber level?
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2012 (English)In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1077-1085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Muscle force is typically proportional to muscle size, resulting in constant force normalized to muscle fiber cross-sectional area (specific force). Mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) exhibit a proportional gain in muscle force and size, but not the myostatin-deficient mice. In an attempt to explore the role of the cytoplasmic volume supported by individual myonuclei [myonuclear domain (MND) size] on functional capacity of skeletal muscle, we have investigated specific force in relation to MND and the content of the molecular motor protein, myosin, at the single muscle fiber level from myostatin-knockout (Mstn(-/-)) and IGF-1-overexpressing (mIgf1(+/+)) mice. We hypothesize that the addition of extra myonuclei is a prerequisite for maintenance of specific force during muscle hypertrophy. A novel algorithm was used to measure individual MNDs in 3 dimensions along the length of single muscle fibers from the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus and the slow-twitch soleus muscle. A significant effect of the size of individual MNDs in hypertrophic muscle fibers on both specific force and myosin content was observed. This effect was muscle cell type specific and suggested there is a critical volume individual myonuclei can support efficiently. The large MNDs found in fast muscles of Mstn(-/-) mice were correlated with the decrement in specific force and myosin content in Mstn(-/-) muscles. Thus, myostatin inhibition may not be able to maintain the appropriate MND for optimal function.-Qaisar, R., Renaud, G., Morine, K., Barton, E. R., Sweeney, H. L., Larsson, L. Is functional hypertrophy and specific force coupled with the addition of myonuclei at the single muscle fiber level?

National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-166951 (URN)10.1096/fj.11-192195 (DOI)000300949300012 ()22125316 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-01-17 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Alamdari, N., Toraldo, G., Aversa, Z., Smith, I. J., Castillero, E., Renaud, G., . . . Hasselgren, P.-O. (2012). Loss of muscle strength during sepsis is in part regulated by glucocorticoids and is associated with reduced muscle fiber stiffness. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 303(10), R1090-R1099
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Loss of muscle strength during sepsis is in part regulated by glucocorticoids and is associated with reduced muscle fiber stiffness
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2012 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, ISSN 0363-6119, E-ISSN 1522-1490, Vol. 303, no 10, p. R1090-R1099Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sepsis is associated with impaired muscle function but the role of glucocorticoids in sepsis-induced muscle weakness is not known. We tested the role of glucocorticoids in sepsis-induced muscle weakness by treating septic rats with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486. In addition, normal rats were treated with dexamethasone to further examine the role of glucocorticoids in the regulation of muscle strength. Sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture and muscle force generation (peak twitch and tetanic tension) was determined in lower extremity muscles. In other experiments, absolute and specific force as well as stiffness (reflecting the function of actomyosin cross-bridges) were determined in isolated skinned muscle fibers from control and septic rats. Sepsis and treatment with dexamethasone resulted in reduced maximal twitch and tetanic force in intact isolated extensor digitorum longus muscles. The absolute and specific maximal force in isolated muscle fibers was reduced during sepsis together with decreased fiber stiffness. These effects of sepsis were blunted (but not abolished) by RU38486. The results suggest that muscle weakness during sepsis is at least in part regulated by glucocorticoids and reflects loss of contractility at the cellular (individual muscle fiber) level. In addition, the results suggest that reduced function of the cross-bridges between actin and myosin (documented as reduced muscle fiber stiffness) may be involved in sepsis-induced muscle weakness. An increased understanding of mechanisms involved in loss of muscle strength will be important for the development of new treatment strategies in patients with this debilitating consequence of sepsis.

National Category
Clinical Laboratory Medicine
Research subject
Clinical Neurophysiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183314 (URN)10.1152/ajpregu.00636.2011 (DOI)000311225000012 ()23019215 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-10-24 Created: 2012-10-24 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Llano-Diez, M., Renaud, G., Andersson, M., Gonzales Marrero, H., Cacciani, N., Engquist, H., . . . Larsson, L. (2012). Mechanisms underlying intensive care unit muscle wasting and effects of passive mechanical loading. Critical Care, 16(5), R209
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms underlying intensive care unit muscle wasting and effects of passive mechanical loading
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2012 (English)In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. R209-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Critical ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients commonly develop severe muscle wasting and impaired muscle function, leading to delayed recovery, with subsequent increased morbidity and financial costs, and decreased quality of life of survivors. Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is a frequently observed neuromuscular disorder in ICU patients. Sepsis, systemic corticosteroid hormone treatment and post-synaptic neuromuscular blockade have been forwarded as the dominating triggering factors. Recent experimental results from our group using a unique experimental rat ICU model have shown that the "mechanical silencing" associated with the ICU condition is the primary triggering factor. This study aims at (1) unraveling the mechanisms underlying CIM, and (2) evaluating the effects of a specific intervention aiming at reducing the mechanical silencing in sedated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients. METHODS: Muscle gene/protein expression, post-translational modifications (PTMs), muscle membrane excitability, muscle mass measurements, and contractile properties at the single muscle fiber level were explored in seven deeply sedated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients (not exposed to systemic corticosteroid hormone treatment, post-synaptic neuromuscular blockade or sepsis) subjected to unilateral passive mechanical loading 10 hours per day (2.5 hours, 4 times) for 9 +/- 1 days. RESULTS: These patients developed a phenotype considered pathognomonic of CIM, i.e., severe muscle wasting and a preferential myosin loss (P<0.001). In addition, myosin PTMs specific to the ICU condition were observed in parallel with an increased sarcolemmal expression and cytoplasmic translocation of nNOS. Passive mechanical loading for 9 +/- 1 resulted in a 35% higher specific force (P<0.001) compared with the unloaded leg, although it was not sufficient to prevent the loss of muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical silencing is suggested to be a primary mechanism underlying CIM, i.e., triggering the myosin loss, muscle wasting and myosin PTMs. The higher nNOS expression found in the ICU patients and its cytoplasmic translocation are forwarded as a probable mechanism underlying these modifications. The positive effect of passive loading on muscle fiber function strongly supports the importance of early physical therapy and mobilization in deeply sedated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients.

National Category
Clinical Laboratory Medicine
Research subject
Clinical Neurophysiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183734 (URN)10.1186/cc11841 (DOI)000317499900046 ()23098317 (PubMedID)
Note

De två (2) första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

Available from: 2012-11-01 Created: 2012-11-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Ochala, J., Renaud, G., Llano Diez, M., Banduseela, V. C., Aare, S., Ahlbeck, K., . . . Larsson, L. (2011). Diaphragm muscle weakness in an experimental porcine intensive care unit model. PLoS ONE, 6(6), Article ID e20558.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diaphragm muscle weakness in an experimental porcine intensive care unit model
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2011 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 6, article id e20558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In critically ill patients, mechanisms underlying diaphragm muscle remodeling and resultant dysfunction contributing to weaning failure remain unclear. Ventilator-induced modifications as well as sepsis and administration of pharmacological agents such as corticosteroids and neuromuscular blocking agents may be involved. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine how sepsis, systemic corticosteroid treatment (CS) and neuromuscular blocking agent administration (NMBA) aggravate ventilator-related diaphragm cell and molecular dysfunction in the intensive care unit. Piglets were exposed to different combinations of mechanical ventilation and sedation, endotoxin-induced sepsis, CS and NMBA for five days and compared with sham-operated control animals. On day 5, diaphragm muscle fibre structure (myosin heavy chain isoform proportion, cross-sectional area and contractile protein content) did not differ from controls in any of the mechanically ventilated animals. However, a decrease in single fibre maximal force normalized to cross-sectional area (specific force) was observed in all experimental piglets. Therefore, exposure to mechanical ventilation and sedation for five days has a key negative impact on diaphragm contractile function despite a preservation of muscle structure. Post-translational modifications of contractile proteins are forwarded as one probable underlying mechanism. Unexpectedly, sepsis, CS or NMBA have no significant additive effects, suggesting that mechanical ventilation and sedation are the triggering factors leading to diaphragm weakness in the intensive care unit.

National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Clinical Neurophysiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-155622 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0020558 (DOI)000291730000014 ()21698290 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-06-27 Created: 2011-06-27 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Ochala, J., Gustafson, A.-M., Diez, M. L., Renaud, G., Li, M., Aare, S., . . . Larsson, L. (2011). Preferential skeletal muscle myosin loss in response to mechanical silencing in a novel rat intensive care unit model: underlying mechanisms. Journal of Physiology, 589(8), 2007-2026
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preferential skeletal muscle myosin loss in response to mechanical silencing in a novel rat intensive care unit model: underlying mechanisms
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 589, no 8, p. 2007-2026Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Non-technical summary Wasting and severely impaired function of skeletal muscle is frequently observed in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients, with negative consequences for recovery and quality of life. An experimental rat ICU model has been used to study the mechanisms underlying this unique wasting condition in neuromuscularly blocked and mechanically ventilated animals at durations varying between 6 h and 2 weeks. The complete 'mechanical silencing' of skeletal muscle (removal of both weight bearing and activation) resulted in a specific myopathy frequently observed in ICU patients and characterized by a preferential loss of the motor protein myosin. A highly complex and coordinated protein synthesis and degradation system was observed in the time-resolved analyses. It is suggested the 'mechanical silencing' of skeletal muscle is a dominating factor triggering the specific myopathy associated with the ICU intervention, and strongly supporting the importance of interventions counteracting the complete unloading in ICU patients.The muscle wasting and impaired muscle function in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients delay recovery from the primary disease, and have debilitating consequences that can persist for years after hospital discharge. It is likely that, in addition to pernicious effects of the primary disease, the basic life support procedures of long-term ICU treatment contribute directly to the progressive impairment of muscle function. This study aims at improving our understanding of the mechanisms underlying muscle wasting in ICU patients by using a unique experimental rat ICU model where animals are mechanically ventilated, sedated and pharmacologically paralysed for duration varying between 6 h and 14 days. Results show that the ICU intervention induces a phenotype resembling the severe muscle wasting and paralysis associated with the acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM) observed in ICU patients, i.e. a preferential loss of myosin, transcriptional down-regulation of myosin synthesis, muscle atrophy and a dramatic decrease in muscle fibre force generation capacity. Detailed analyses of protein degradation pathways show that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway is highly involved in this process. A sequential change in localisation of muscle-specific RING finger proteins 1/2 (MuRF1/2) observed during the experimental period is suggested to play an instrumental role in both transcriptional regulation and protein degradation. We propose that, for those critically ill patients who develop AQM, complete mechanical silencing, due to pharmacological paralysis or sedation, is a critical factor underlying the preferential loss of the molecular motor protein myosin that leads to impaired muscle function or persisting paralysis.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-152844 (URN)10.1113/jphysiol.2010.202044 (DOI)000289527200018 ()
Available from: 2011-05-03 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
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