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Edberg, Niklas J. T.ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1261-7580
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Publications (10 of 61) Show all publications
Cui, J., Cao, Y.-T., Wu, X.-S., Xu, S.-S., Yelle, R. ,., Stone, S., . . . Wei, Y. (2019). Evaluating Local Ionization Balance in the Nightside Martian Upper Atmosphere during MAVEN Deep Dip Campaigns. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 876(1), Article ID L12.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Local Ionization Balance in the Nightside Martian Upper Atmosphere during MAVEN Deep Dip Campaigns
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2019 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 876, no 1, article id L12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Combining the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion densities, electron temperature, and energetic electron intensity, we perform the first quantitative evaluation of local ionization balance in the nightside Martian upper atmosphere, a condition with the electron impact ionization (EI) of CO2 exactly balanced by the dissociative recombination (DR) of ambient ions. The data accumulated during two MAVEN Deep Dip (DD) campaigns are included: DD6 on the deep nightside with a periapsis solar zenith angle (SZA) of 165 degrees, and DD3 close to the dawn terminator with a periapsis SZA of 110 degrees. With the electron temperatures at low altitudes corrected for an instrumental effect pertaining to the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves, a statistical agreement between the EI and DR rates is suggested by the data below 140 km during DD6 and below 180 km during DD3, implying that electron precipitation is responsible for the nightside Martian ionosphere under these circumstances and extra sources are not required. In contrast, a substantial enhancement in EI over DR is observed at higher altitudes during both campaigns, which we interpret as a signature of plasma escape down the tail.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
planets and satellites: atmospheres, planets and satellites: individual (Mars)
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383845 (URN)10.3847/2041-8213/ab1b34 (DOI)000466902900002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191Swedish National Space Board, 135/13Swedish National Space Board, 166/14
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Morooka, M., Wahlund, J.-E., Hadid, L. Z., Eriksson, A. I., Edberg, N. J. T., Vigren, E., . . . Perry, M. (2019). Saturn's Dusty Ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 124(3), 1679-1697
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Saturn's Dusty Ionosphere
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, no 3, p. 1679-1697Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurements of electrons and ions in Saturn's ionosphere down to 1,500-km altitudes as well as the ring crossing region above the ionosphere obtained by the Langmuir probe onboard the Cassini spacecraft are presented. Five nearly identical deep ionosphere flybys during the Grand Finale orbits and the Final plunge orbit revealed a rapid increase in the plasma densities and discrepancies between the electrons and ions densities (N-e and N-i) near the closest approach. The small N-e/N-i ratio indicates the presence of a dusty plasma, a plasma which charge carrier is dominated by negatively charged heavy particles. Comparison of the Langmuir probe obtained density with the light ion density obtained by the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer confirmed the presence of heavy ions. An unexpected positive floating potential of the probe was also observed when N-e/N-i << 1. This suggests that Saturn's ionosphere near the density peak is in a dusty plasma state consisting of negatively and positively charged heavy cluster ions. The electron temperature (T-e) characteristics in the ionosphere are also investigated and unexpectedly high electron temperature value, up to 5000 K, has been observed below 2,500-km altitude in a region where electron-neutral collisions should be prominent. A well-defined relationship between T-e and N-e/N-i ratio was found, implying that the electron heating at low altitudes is related to the dusty plasma state of the ionosphere.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019
Keywords
Saturn's ionosphere, dusty plasma, Langmuir probe, plasma density, electron temperature
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387566 (URN)10.1029/2018JA026154 (DOI)000466087900016 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191Swedish Research Council, 2.2.1-312/16Swedish National Space Board, Dnr 174/15 135/13 162/14
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Edberg, N. J. T., Eriksson, A., Vigren, E., Johansson, F., Goetz, C., Nilsson, H., . . . Henri, P. (2019). The Convective Electric Field Influence on the Cold Plasma and Diamagnetic Cavity of Comet 67P. Astronomical Journal, 158(2), Article ID 71.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Convective Electric Field Influence on the Cold Plasma and Diamagnetic Cavity of Comet 67P
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2019 (English)In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 158, no 2, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied the distribution of cold electrons (<1 eV) around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with respect to the solar wind convective electric field direction. The cold plasma was measured by the Langmuir Probe instrument and the direction of the convective electric field E-conv = -nu x B was determined from magnetic field (B) measurements inside the coma combined with an assumption of a purely radial solar wind velocity nu. We found that the cold plasma is twice as likely to be observed when the convective electric field at Rosetta's position is directed toward the nucleus (in the -E(conv )hemisphere) compared to when it is away from the nucleus (in the +E-conv hemisphere). Similarly, the diamagnetic cavity, in which previous studies have shown that cold plasma is always present, was also found to be observed twice as often when in the -E-conv hemisphere, linking its existence circumstantially to the presence of cold electrons. The results are consistent with hybrid and Hall magnetohydrodynamic simulations as well as measurements of the ion distribution around the diamagnetic cavity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
comets: individual (67P), magnetic fields, plasmas, space vehicles: instruments
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-391291 (URN)10.3847/1538-3881/ab2d28 (DOI)000476604700001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-5526Swedish National Space Board, 109/12Swedish National Space Board, 135/13
Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
Vigren, E., Edberg, N. J. T., Eriksson, A., Galand, M., Henri, P., Johansson, F., . . . Vallieres, X. (2019). The Evolution of the Electron Number Density in the Coma of Comet 67P at the Location of Rosetta from 2015 November through 2016 March. Astrophysical Journal, 881(1), Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Evolution of the Electron Number Density in the Coma of Comet 67P at the Location of Rosetta from 2015 November through 2016 March
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2019 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 881, no 1, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A comet ionospheric model assuming the plasma moves radially outward with the same bulk speed as the neutral gas and not being subject to severe reduction through dissociative recombination has previously been tested in a series of case studies associated with the Rosetta mission at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It has been found that at low activity and within several tens of kilometers from the nucleus such models (which originally were developed for such conditions) generally work well in reproducing observed electron number densities, in particular when plasma production through both photoionization and electron-impact ionization is taken into account. Near perihelion, case studies have, on the contrary, shown that applying similar assumptions overestimates the observed electron number densities at the location of Rosetta. Here we compare Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis/Comet Pressure sensor-driven model results with Rosetta Plasma Consortium/Mutual Impedance Probe-derived electron number densities for an extended time period (2015 November through 2016 March) during the postperihelion phase with southern summer/spring. We observe a gradual transition from a state when the model grossly overestimates (by more than a factor of 10) the observations to being in reasonable agreement during 2016 March.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
comets: individual (67P), molecular processes
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393332 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/ab29f7 (DOI)000479099500006 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-5526Swedish National Space Board, 109/02Swedish National Space Board, 114/13Swedish National Space Board, 135/13Swedish National Space Board, 166/14
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
Wu, X.-S. -., Cui, J., Xu, S. S., Lillis, R. J., Yelle, R. V., Edberg, N. J. T., . . . Mitchell, D. L. (2019). The Morphology of the Topside Martian Ionosphere: Implications on Bulk Ion Flow. Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, 124(3), 734-751
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Morphology of the Topside Martian Ionosphere: Implications on Bulk Ion Flow
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 3, p. 734-751Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Prior to the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission, the only information on the composition of the Martian ionosphere came from the Viking Retarding Potential Analyzer data, revealing the presence of substantial ion outflow on the dayside of Mars. Extensive measurements made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer allow us to examine the morphology of the Martian ionosphere not only in unprecedented detail but also on both the dayside and the nightside of the planet. Above 300 km, various ionospheric species present a roughly constant density scale height around 100 km on the dayside and 180 km on the nightside. An evaluation of the ion force balance, appropriate for regions with near‐horizontal magnetic field lines, suggests the presence of supersonic ion outflow predominantly driven by the ambient magnetic pressure, with characteristic dayside and nightside flow velocities of 4 and 20 km/s, respectively, both referred to an altitude of 500 km. The corresponding total ion outflow rates are estimated to be 5 × 1025 s−1 on the dayside and 1 × 1025 s−1 on the nightside. The data also indicate a prominent variation with magnetic field orientation in that the ion distribution over regions with near‐vertical field lines tends to be more extended on the dayside but more concentrated on the nightside, as compared to regions with near‐horizontal field lines. These observations should have important implications on the pattern of ion dynamics in the vicinity of Mars.

Abstract [en]

Plain Language Summary

Prior to the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission, the only information on the composition of the Martian ionosphere came from the Viking Retarding Potential Analyzer data acquired on the dayside of Mars. Recently, extensive measurements made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer allow us to examine the Martian ionosphere not only in unprecedented detail but also on both the dayside and the nightside of the planet. By analyzing these data, we find that on each side, many of the detected ion species share a common density structure at altitudes above 300 km. Meanwhile, such a structure is clearly influenced by the ambient magnetic fields, which are well known to be inhomogeneous on Mars and cluster over the Southern Hemisphere. Near strong magnetic fields, the Martian ionosphere tends to be more extended on the dayside but more concentrated on the nightside. These findings reveal the presence of supersonic ion outflow on Mars. Such an ion outflow makes a significant contribution to plasma escape, which influences the long‐term evolution of the planet.

Keywords
Martian ionosphere, ion outflow, magnetic pressure, crustal magnetic anomalies
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382661 (URN)10.1029/2018JE005895 (DOI)000463994500005 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191Swedish National Space Board, 135/13; 166/14
Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-05-07 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Hajra, R., Henri, P., Myllys, M., Heritier, K. L., Galand, M., Wedlund, C. S., . . . Wattieauxu, G. (2018). Cometary plasma response to interplanetary corotating interaction regions during 2016 June-September: a quantitative study by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 480(4), 4544-4556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cometary plasma response to interplanetary corotating interaction regions during 2016 June-September: a quantitative study by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium
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2018 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 480, no 4, p. 4544-4556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Four interplanetary corotating interaction regions (CIRs) were identified during 2016 June-September by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) monitoring in situ the plasma environment of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) at heliocentric distances of similar to 3-3.8 au. The CIRs, formed in the interface region between low- and high-speed solar wind streams with speeds of similar to 320-400 km s(-1) and similar to 580-640 km s(-1), respectively, are characterized by relative increases in solar wind proton density by factors of similar to 13-29, in proton temperature by similar to 7-29, and in magnetic field by similar to 1-4 with respect to the pre-CIR values. The CIR boundaries are well defined with interplanetary discontinuities. Out of 10 discontinuities, four are determined to be forward waves and five are reverse waves, propagating at similar to 5-92 per cent of the magnetosonic speed at angles of similar to 20 degrees-87 degrees relative to ambient magnetic field. Only one is identified to be a quasi-parallel forward shock with magnetosonic Mach number of similar to 1.48 and shock normal angle of similar to 41 degrees. The cometary ionosphere response was monitored by Rosetta from cometocentric distances of similar to 4-30 km. A quiet time plasma density map was developed by considering dependences on cometary latitude, longitude, and cometocentric distance of Rosetta observations before and after each of the CIR intervals. The CIRs lead to plasma density enhancements of similar to 500-1000 per cent with respect to the quiet time reference level. Ionospheric modelling shows that increased ionization rate due to enhanced ionizing (>12-200 eV) electron impact is the prime cause of the large cometary plasma density enhancements during the CIRs. Plausible origin mechanisms of the cometary ionizing electron enhancements are discussed.

Keywords
methods: data analysis, methods: observational, Sun: rotation, solar wind, comets: general, comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371053 (URN)10.1093/mnras/sty2166 (DOI)000449617100022 ()
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Wahlund, J.-E., Morooka, M. W., Hadid, L. Z., Persoon, A. M., Farrell, W. M., Gurnett, D. A., . . . Vigren, E. (2018). In situ measurements of Saturn's ionosphere show that it is dynamic and interacts with the rings. Science, 359(6371), 66-68
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ measurements of Saturn's ionosphere show that it is dynamic and interacts with the rings
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2018 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6371, p. 66-68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ionized upper layer of Saturn's atmosphere, its ionosphere, provides a closure of currents mediated by the magnetic field to other electrically charged regions (for example, rings) and hosts ion-molecule chemistry. In 2017, the Cassini spacecraft passed inside the planet's rings, allowing in situ measurements of the ionosphere. The Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument detected a cold, dense, and dynamic ionosphere at Saturn that interacts with the rings. Plasma densities reached up to 1000 cubic centimeters, and electron temperatures were below 1160 kelvin near closest approach. The density varied between orbits by up to two orders of magnitude. Saturn's A- and B-rings cast a shadow on the planet that reduced ionization in the upper atmosphere, causing a north-south asymmetry.

National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341494 (URN)10.1126/science.aao4134 (DOI)000419324700067 ()29229651 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-21 Created: 2018-02-21 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Andrews, D. J., Opgenoorth, H. J., Leyser, T. B., Buchert, S., Edberg, N. J. T., Morgan, D. D., . . . Withers, P. (2018). MARSIS Observations of Field-Aligned Irregularities and Ducted Radio Propagation in the Martian Ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 123(8), 6251-6263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MARSIS Observations of Field-Aligned Irregularities and Ducted Radio Propagation in the Martian Ionosphere
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, no 8, p. 6251-6263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of Mars's ionosphere has been significantly advanced in recent years by observations from Mars Express and lately Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN. A topic of particular interest are the interactions between the planet's ionospheric plasma and its highly structured crustal magnetic fields and how these lead to the redistribution of plasma and affect the propagation of radio waves in the system. In this paper, we elucidate a possible relationship between two anomalous radar signatures previously reported in observations from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument on Mars Express. Relatively uncommon observations of localized, extreme increases in the ionospheric peak density in regions of radial (cusp-like) magnetic fields and spread echo radar signatures are shown to be coincident with ducting of the same radar pulses at higher altitudes on the same field lines. We suggest that these two observations are both caused by a high electric field (perpendicular to B) having distinctly different effects in two altitude regimes. At lower altitudes, where ions are demagnetized and electrons magnetized, and recombination dominantes, a high electric field causes irregularities, plasma turbulence, electron heating, slower recombination, and ultimately enhanced plasma densities. However, at higher altitudes, where both ions and electrons are magnetized and atomic oxygen ions cannot recombine directly, the high electric field instead causes frictional heating, a faster production of molecular ions by charge exchange, and so a density decrease. The latter enables ducting of radar pulses on closed field lines, in an analogous fashion to interhemispheric ducting in the Earth's ionosphere.

Keywords
Mars, ionosphere, irregularities, MARSIS, crustal fields, plasma
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368054 (URN)10.1029/2018JA025663 (DOI)000445731300011 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-5526Swedish National Space Board, 162/14
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Hadid, L. Z., Morooka, M. W., Wahlund, J.-E., Moore, L., Cravens, T. E., Hedman, M. M., . . . Eriksson, A. I. (2018). Ring Shadowing Effects on Saturn's Ionosphere: Implications for Ring Opacity and Plasma Transport. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(19), 10084-10092
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ring Shadowing Effects on Saturn's Ionosphere: Implications for Ring Opacity and Plasma Transport
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2018 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 19, p. 10084-10092Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present new results obtained by the Radio and Plasma Wave Science Langmuir probe on board Cassini during the Grand Finale. The total direct current sampled by the Langmuir probe at negative bias voltage is used to study the effect of the ring shadows on the structure of the Kronian topside ionosphere. The D and C rings and the Cassini Division are confirmed to be optically thin to extreme ultraviolet solar radiation. However, different responses from the opaque A and B rings are observed. The edges of the A ring shadow are shown to match the A ring boundaries, unlike the B ring, which indicates variable responses to the B ring shadow. We show that the variable responses are due to the ionospheric plasma, more precisely to the longer chemical lifetime of H+ compared to H-2(+) and H-3(+), suggesting that the plasma is transported from the sunlit region to the shadowed one in the ionosphere. Plain Language Summary As Saturn's northern hemisphere experienced summer during the Grand Finale, the planet's northern dayside hemisphere and its rings were fully illuminated by the Sun. However, the southern hemisphere was partly obscured because of the shadows cast by the A and B rings. Using the in situ measurements of the Langmuir probe part of the Radio and Plasma Wave Science investigation on board the Cassini spacecraft, we study for the first time the effect of the ring shadows on Saturn's ionosphere. From the ring shadows signatures on the total ion current collected by the Langmuir probe, we show that the A and B rings are optically thicker (to the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) than the inner C and D rings and the Cassini Division to the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. Moreover, we reproduce the boundaries of the A ring and the outer edge of the B ring. Furthermore, observed variations with respect to the inner edge of the B ring imply a delayed response of the ionospheric H+ because of its long lifetime and suggest that the ionospheric plasma is transported from an unshadowed region to a shadowed one in the ionosphere.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387257 (URN)10.1029/2018GL079150 (DOI)000448656800007 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-05364Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191
Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Edberg, N. J. T., Vigren, E., Snowden, D., Regoli, L. H., Shebanits, O., Wahlund, J.-E., . . . Cui, J. (2018). Titan's Variable Ionosphere During the T118 and T119 Cassini Flybys. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(17), 8721-8728
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Titan's Variable Ionosphere During the T118 and T119 Cassini Flybys
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2018 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 17, p. 8721-8728Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on unusual dynamics in Titan's ionosphere as a significant difference in ionospheric electron density is observed between the T118 and T119 Cassini nightside flybys. Two distinct nightside electron density peaks were present during T118, at 1,150 and 1,200km, and the lowest density ever observed in Titan's ionosphere at altitudes 1,000-1,350km was during T118. These flybys were quite similar in geometry, Saturn local time, neutral density, extreme ultraviolet flux, and ambient magnetic field conditions. Despite this, the Radio and Plasma Waves/Langmuir Probe measured a density difference up to a factor of 6 between the passes. The overall difference was present and similar during both inbound and outbound legs. By ruling out other factors, we suggest that an exceptionally low rate of particle impact ionization in combination with dynamics in the ionosphere is the explanation for the observations. Plain Language Summary Using the Cassini satellite in orbit around Saturn, we make measurements during two close passes of the moon Titan. We observe how the electron density in the uppermost part of the moon's atmosphere-the ionosphere-changes drastically from one pass to the next. We also observe unexpectedly high peaks of electron density in a specific altitude range during the first pass. The findings are attributed to low influx of charged particles from Saturn's magnetosphere as well as to increased dynamics of the plasma in the ionosphere. The study emphasizes the complexity of the physical process at play at the moon and aims at gaining further understanding of this environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2018
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363432 (URN)10.1029/2018GL078436 (DOI)000445727500003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191Swedish National Space Board, 135/13
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1261-7580

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